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The Cambridge History of the First World War
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    Edmond, Jennifer Bulatovic, Natasa and O'Connor, Alexander 2015. The Taste of “Data Soup” and the Creation of a Pipeline for Transnational Historical Research. Journal of the Japanese Association for Digital Humanities, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 107.

  • Volume 1: Global War
  • Edited by Jay Winter, Yale University, Connecticut

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This first volume of The Cambridge History of the First World War provides a comprehensive account of the war's military history. An international team of leading historians charts how a war made possible by globalization and imperial expansion unfolded into catastrophe, growing year by year in scale and destructive power far beyond that which anyone had anticipated in 1914. Adopting a global perspective, the volume analyses the spatial impact of the war and the subsequent ripple effects that occurred both regionally and across the world. It explores how imperial powers devoted vast reserves of manpower and material to their war efforts and how, by doing so, they changed the political landscape of the world order. It also charts the moral, political and legal implications of the changing character of war and, in particular, the collapse of the distinction between civilian and military targets.


'… both scholarly and deftly drafted, a joy to read. It provides broad as well as deep analysis of just about every conceivable facet of this global catastrophe. It deserves close reading and contemplation.'

Len Shurtleff - World War One Historical Association

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Page 1 of 2

  • Part I - A Narrative History
    pp 13-15
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    The First World War has long been considered a non-event in the history of contemporary Latin America, far from the main theatres of military operations. To the first level of analysis of Latin American neutrality in 1914 were added economic considerations of prime importance for the profitable investing nations, mostly exporters of raw materials and importers of manufactured products, structurally dependent on the outside world. More evident in the southern cone of South America and Brazil than in the rest of Latin America, and fundamentally urban, the mobilisation of the communities of European origin during the Great War remained constant from the end of 1914 to the Armistice in November 1918, even, in some cases, into the 1920s, and played a decisive role in the gradual involvement of the Latin American societies in the conflict.
  • 8 - The Western Front
    pp 204-233
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    This chapter examines the long-term and deeper causes of what is called the primordial catastrophe of the twentieth century. It is also concerned with the moods and mentalities and the bearing that these had on the outbreak of war in 1914. The chapter commences with the origins of the First World War. To grasp the highly dynamic developments that the societies of Europe underwent in the three or four decades before 1914, the impact of industrialisation, demography and urbanisation is considered as major background factors. The chapter also discusses social imperialism, electoral politics, cultural optimism, cultural pessimism and the preventive war in 1914. There are two key documents that date from the spring of 1914 after the international and domestic situation in Germany and Austria-Hungary had deteriorated further in 1913. Finally, the chapter talks about the key to understanding what happened in Europe in July and August 1914.
  • 9 - The Eastern Front
    pp 234-265
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    On 28 July 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. The Serb government declared that the political strategy was not concerned by an event that was internal to Austria-Hungary because the authors of the attack were all Bosniacs and thus Austro-Hungarian subjects. Austria was increasingly weakened by pressures from north and south, and would be incapable of following Germany into a war. The German rulers were convinced that rapid action would prevent the other powers from intervening in the conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. If Russia did not fall in with the wish for localisation and acted militarily in support of Serbia, it would show proof of its war-mongering and pan-Slavist aims. In the end, if a climate of risk of war had developed, it was indeed the army leaders who provoked the outbreak of the war, applying pressure on hesitant or paralysed civilian powers.
  • 10 - The Italian Front
    pp 266-296
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    The year 1915 saw the gradual invention of a new kind of war activity which permanently transformed the actual image of the war. During 1915, the war cultures became enduringly crystallised around a body of mobilising themes, words and images which confirmed the meaning initially attributed to the war itself. The question of control of the seas was of central importance during the course of 1915. The blockade imposed on the Central Powers, and the submarine war designed in response to unlock its grip, were thus determining elements in totalisation of the conflict. The consequences of the blockade, in terms of food supply and the economy on the one hand and of military and diplomatic matters on the other, and, finally, of morale, were indeed considerable. They were to be an enduring burden throughout the rest of the war.
  • 11 - The Ottoman Front
    pp 297-320
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    The French, with some British assistance, tried to blast their way through the Western Front by enormous offensives in the spring and autumn. In 1916 the major powers sought to increase their production of armaments, before they made additional attempts to break this stalemate. Germany was the most successful in this endeavour. Britain entered the war with a munitions-industry designed almost exclusively for the use of the navy. The transformation of Britain into a major military, as against naval, power, was looked on with consternation by the decision-makers in Berlin. This especially troubled the German Commander-in-Chief, Falkenhayn. Falkenhayn always intended to capture Verdun but wrote a post-war justification for the nature of the battle into his paper. The battles in 1916 were some of the largest seen in the melancholy tale of men at war. The British alone at the River Somme threw some 15 million shells at the Germans.
  • 12 - The war at sea
    pp 321-348
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    The year 1917 began an important transition on the battlefield. The battles of Cambrai, Riga and Caporetto represented the start of a shift from the infantry-based age of mass assaults to the mechanical, combined-arms approach that featured infantry working with aviation, artillery and armour in various combinations. This transition showed the fulfilment of the Industrial Revolution and its impacts on war. Nivelle's optimism was infectious among politicians who wanted desperately to believe that he had unlocked the secret to modern warfare. Douglas Haig, the British commander, had received discouraging reports about the French army, including some that suggested that French soldiers were demanding peace and refusing to salute their officers. Haig concluded that his long-desired offensive in Flanders offered the best way to draw the Germans away from the French and give his ally the time it desperately needed.
  • 13 - The air war
    pp 349-375
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    A peace treaty with Soviet Russia was signed in the Belorussian town of Brest-Litovsk on 918, but the treaty only confirmed what everybody had known since autumn 1917: that the central powers had won the war on the Eastern Front. After Germany and Austria-Hungary had lost the war they placed their hopes on the programme outlined by American President Woodrow Wilson. German general Erich Ludendorff shared the imperialist dreams of some of the military, political and economic elite, and wanted to exploit the collapse of the Russian-Empire and the power vacuum it created by expanding borders, promoting colonisation and securing German dominance in Eastern-Europe for the foreseeable future. Bulgaria was the first of the central powers to accept defeat. Ludendorff hoped that a democratic Germany would get better terms but he also wanted the democrats, especially the Social Democrats, to take the responsibility for the defeat.
  • 14 - Strategic command
    pp 376-400
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    The signing of the Treaty of Versailles, on 28 June 1919, in the Hall of Mirrors, represented a kind of apotheosis. It was followed by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye with Austria, the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine with Bulgaria, then the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary and the Treaty of Sèvres with Turkey, itself revised in the Treaty of Lausanne of 1923. The emissaries were Hermann Muller and Johannes Bell sign the Treaty of Versailles that would bring the First World War to an end. Several factors explain the violence of the post-war period, namely, the repercussions of the Russian Revolution in 1917 in Russia and other countries, and the frustrations born of defeat. The forced transfer of populations between Greece and Turkey, undertaken under the auspices of the League of Nations in 1923, was the most dramatic consequence of the ethnic violence that broke out inthe immediate post-war period.
  • Part III - World War
    pp 401-404
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    The First World War is a good example of the dialectic of norm, conflict and revision and of the passions and polemics that accompany it. During the war, the habitual charge that the enemy-committed atrocities was translated into charges that could be tried under international law. The norms of warfare in the pre-war period served to judge the escalating violence of the war but also to blame the enemy for the worst transgressions, which occurred in various contexts, war on land, invasions and occupations, the home front, war at sea and war in the air. Land warfare immediately revealed that the protected status of the legitimate combatant, the soldier or sailor who was wounded or taken prisoner, was far from secure. The French accused the Germans of using the Red Cross flag as a ruse in battle and of executing an immense number of wounded soldiers.
  • 15 - The imperial framework
    pp 405-432
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    The Western Front became one of the defining images of the Great War. The problem of Western Front was that to make ground men had to leave the security of their trenches and attack an entrenched enemy across a strip of ground that soon became known with some accuracy as no-man's-land. What makes the Battle of Neuve Chapelle even more exceptional is that it was one of the first trench warfare encounters to take place on the Western Front. Two of the largest battles ever fought, Verdun and the Somme, were fought during 1916. Germany commander General von Falkenhay was the first to undertake an offensive in 1916. The Allied armies had now developed methods that could overcome the Germans whether they lurked behind strong defences or were in the open. The main factor in wearing down the German army was the Ludendorff offensives of 1918.
  • 16 - Africa
    pp 433-458
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    This chapter focuses on three events to demonstrate some larger military developments on the Eastern Front. It also explains why they were turning points of First World-War and how they influenced its duration and outcome. The encounters presented in the chapter are the Battle of Tannenberg, the fall of Przemyśl and the Battle of Gorlice-Tarnów, and the Brusilov offensive. The victory of Tannenberg gave Germany time to organise its defence in the East, and indeed during the rest of the war Russian-forces were unable to defeat German-troops in a major battle. The surrender of Przemyśl could easily have been a Stalingrad of the First World War. The logic of Gorlice-Tarnów offensive was closely connected with the Austrian defeat at Przemyśl. The prominent feature of Brusilov attack hit the Austrian lines on a large-sector of the front, and quickly became a major success.

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

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Elizabeth Greenhalgh sees the Switzerland assignment in more positive terms. She covers the dismissal of Joffre and Foch in Foch in Command: The Forging of a First World War General (Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 200–7

Robert Doughty , Pyrrhic Victory: French Strategy and Operations in the Great War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), p. 324

Leonard V. Smith , Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker , France and the Great War, 1914–1918 (Cambridge University Press, 2003)

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David Stevenson , With our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918 (London: Allen Lane, 2011), p. 36

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Michael Geyer , ‘Insurrectionary warfare: the German debate about a levée en masse in October 1918’, Journal of Modern History, 73 (2001), pp. 459–527

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Erez Manela , ‘Imagining Woodrow Wilson in Asia: dreams of East-West harmony and the revolt against empire in 1919’, American Historical Review, 111:5 (2006), pp. 1327–51

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Naoko Shimazu , Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919 (London and New York: Routledge, 1998)

Roger Chickering and Stig Förster (eds.), The Shadows of Total War: Europe, East Asia and the United States, 1919–1939 (Cambridge University Press, 2003)

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Derek Sayer , ‘British reaction to the Amritsar Massacre, 1919–1920’, Past and Present, 131:1 (1991), pp. 130–64

Jon Lawrence , ‘Forging a peaceable kingdom: war, violence and fear of brutalization in post First World War Britain’, Journal of Modern History, 75 (2003), pp. 557–89

Susan Kingsley Kent , Aftershocks: Politics and Trauma in Britain, 1918–1931 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 64–90

Timothy Wilson , Frontiers of Violence: Conflict and Identity in Ulster and Upper Silesia, 1918–1922 (Oxford University Press, 2010)

Laird Boswell , ‘From liberation to purge trials in the “mythic provinces”: recasting French identities in Alsace and Lorraine, 1918–1920’, French Historical Studies, 23:1 (2000), pp. 129–62

Adrian Lyttelton , ‘Fascism and violence in post-war Italy: political strategy and social conflict’, in Wolfgang Mommsen and Gerhard Hirschfeld (eds.), Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Europe (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1982), pp. 257–74

Peter Gatrell , ‘War after the war: conflicts, 1919–23’, in John Horne (ed.), A Companion to World War I (Oxford: Blackwell, 2010), p. 568

Joshua Sanborn , ‘The genesis of Russian warlordism: violence and governance during the First World War and the civil war’, Contemporary European History, 19:3 (2010), pp. 195–213

Julia Eichenberg , ‘The dark side of independence: paramilitary violence in Ireland and Poland after the First World War’, Contemporary European History, 19:3 (2010), pp. 221–48

Terence Zuber , Inventing the Schlieffen Plan: German War Planning, 1871–1914 (Oxford University Press, 2002)

T. Holmes , ‘All present and correct: the verifiable army of the Schlieffen Plan’, War in History, 16:1 (2009), pp. 98–115

T. Zuber , ‘There never was a “Schlieffen Plan”: a reply to Gerhard Gross’, War in History, 17:2 (2010), pp. 231–49

T. Zuber , ‘The Schlieffen Plan’s “ghost divisions” march again: a reply to Terence Holmes’, War in History, 17:4 (2010), pp. 512–21

Anna von der Goltz , Hindenburg: Power, Myth, and the Rise of the Nazis (Oxford University Press, 2009)

Andreas Hillgruber , ‘Deutsche Russland-Politik 1871–1918: Grundlagen – Grundmuster – Grundprobleme’, Saeculum, 27 (1976), pp. 94–108, 103

Dennis Showalter , ‘By the book? Commanders surrendering in World War I’, in Holger Afflerbach and Hew Strachan (eds.), How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender (Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 279–97

Tony Ashworth , Trench Warfare 1914–1918: The Live and Let Live System (London: Macmillan, 1980)

John Gooch , Army, State, and Society in Italy, 1870–1915 (Houndmills: Macmillan, 1989)

Holger Afflerbach , Der Dreibund: europäische Grossmacht- und Allianzpolitik vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg (Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 2002)

Mark Cornwall , The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: The Battle for Hearts and Minds (New York: St Martin’s Press, 2000)

Mark Cornwall , ‘Morale and patriotism in the Austro-Hungarian army, 1914–1918’, in John Horne (ed.), State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 175

Reinhard Nachtigal , ‘The repatriation and reception of returning prisoners of war 1918–22’, Immigrants & Minorities, 26:1–2 (2008), pp. 157–84

Jeter A. Isley and Philip Crowl , The U.S. Marines and Amphibious Warfare (Princeton University Press, 1951)

Michael Howard , ‘The forgotten dimensions of strategy’, Foreign Affairs, 57:5 (1979), pp. 975–8

Antulio J. Echevarria , ‘Clausewitz: toward a theory of applied strategy’, Defense Analysis, 11:3 (1995), pp. 229–40

Claus Telp , The Evolution of Operational Art 1740–1813 (London: Frank Cass & Co., 2005), pp. 1–2

Brian N. Hall , ‘The British Army and wireless communication 1896–1918’, War in History, 19:3 (2012), p. 290

Dennis E. Showalter , ‘Mass warfare and the impact of technology’, in Roger Chickering and Stig Förster (eds.), Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front 1914–18 (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 73–4

Edward J. Erickson , Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A Comparative Study (London: Routledge, 2007), p. 86

Elizabeth Greenhalgh , Victory Through Coalition: Britain and France during the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 23–41

Manfred Boemeke , Roger Chickering and Stig Förster (eds.), Anticipating Total War: The German and American Experiences, 1871–1914 (Washington: German Historical Institute, and Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 246, 392.

Philippa Levine , ‘Battle colors: race, sex, and colonial soldiery in World War I’, Journal of Women’s History, 9:4 (1998), p. 110.

Tyler Stovall , ‘The color line behind the lines: racial violence in France during the Great War’, American Historical Review, 103:3 (1998), p. 746.

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius , War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 1–125.

Chris Wrigley (ed.), The First World War and the International Economy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2000), p. 115.

Manfred F. Boemeke et al. (eds.), The Treaty of Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 572, 578, 584.

B. Freund , The Making of Contemporary Africa: The Development of African Society since 1800 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998), p. 112.

J. Iliffe , Africans: The History of a Continent, 2nd edn (Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 215.

B. Vandervort , ‘New light on the East African theater of the Great War: a review essay of English-language sources’, in S. M. Miller (ed.), Soldiers and Settlers in Africa, 1850–1918 (Amsterdam: Brill, 2009), pp. 287–305.

R. Gerwarth and S. Malinowski , ‘Hannah Arendt’s ghosts: reflections on the disputed path from Windhoek to Auschwitz’, Central European History, 42:2 (2009), pp. 279–300.

J. Hyslop , ‘The invention of the concentration camp: Cuba, southern Africa and the Philippines, 1896–1907’, South African Historical Journal, 63:2 (2011), p. 263.

N. P. Johnson and J. Mueller , ‘Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918–1920 Spanish influenza epidemic’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 76:1 (2002), p. 110.

R. Marjomaa , ‘The martial spirit: Yao soldiers in British Service in Nyasaland (Malawi), 1895–1939’, Journal of African History, 44:3 (2003), pp. 413–32

J. Slight , ‘British perceptions and responses to Sultan Ali Dinar of Darfur, 1915–16’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 38:2 (2010), p. 241.

M. E. Page , Africa and the First World War (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1987)

M. Lake and H. Reynolds , Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men’s Countries and the International Challenge of Racial Equality (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 282–3.

Donald Bloxham , The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians (Oxford University Press, 2005)

American Historical Review, 107:4 (2002), p. 1328.

James Renton , ‘Changing languages of empire and the Orient: Britain and the invention of the Middle East, 1917–1918’, Historical Journal, 50 (2007), p. 649.

Mark Levene , ‘Creating a modern “zone of genocide”: the impact of nation- and state-formation on eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 12 (1998), pp. 393–33.

Eric D. Weitz , ‘From the Vienna to the Paris system: international politics and the entangled histories of human rights, forced deportations, and civilizing missions’, American Historical Review, 113:5 (2008), p. 1316

Donald Bloxham , ‘The First World War and the development of the Armenian genocide’, in Ronald Grigor Suny , Fatma Müge Göçek and Norman M. Naimark (eds.), A Question of Genocide (Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 260–84.

Mehmet Beşikçi , The Ottoman Mobilization of Manpower in the First World War: between Voluntarism and Resistance (Leiden: Brill, 2012), pp. 247–309.

David Omissi , Indian Voices of the Great War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999), p. 342.

Kimloan Hill , ‘Sacrifice, sex, race: Vietnamese experiences in the First World War’, in Santanu Das (ed.), Race, Empire and First World War Writing (Cambridge University Press, 2011), p. 58.

John Horne , ‘Immigrant workers in France during World War I’, French Historical Studies, 14:1 (1985), pp. 57–88.

Timothy C. Winegard , Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2011), p. 11.

Kenneth D. Brown , ‘The impact of the First World War on Japan’, in Chris Wrigley (ed.), The First World War and the International Economy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2000), pp. 102–7.

Rosemary Thorp , ‘Latin America and the international economy from the First World War to the world depression’, in Leslie Bethell (ed.), The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. vi: 1870–1930 (Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 66.

Christopher Capazzola , Uncle Sam Wants You: World War I and the Making of the Modern American Citizen (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 41.

Leslie Bethell (ed.), The Cambridge History of Latin America, vols. iv and v:c.1870–1930 (Cambridge University Press, 1986)

Christian Geinitz , ‘The first German air war against noncombatants: strategic bombing of German cities in World War I’, in Roger Chickering and Stig Förster (eds.), Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front, 1914–1918 (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 207–25

William Schabas ’s Genocide in International Law: The Crime of Crimes, 2nd edn (Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Mark Levene ’s review of another of Lewy’s works – in this case arguing that the Nazi murder of Europe’s Roma and Sinti did not constitute genocide, in Journal of Contemporary History 37:2 (2002), pp. 275–92

Uğur Ümit Üngör , The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950 (Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 107–22

Peter Holquist , ‘The politics and practice of the Russian occupation of Armenia, 1915–February 1917’, in Ronald Grigor Suny, Fatma Müge Göçek and Norman M. Naimark (eds.), A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 151–74

Jelle Verheij , ‘Diyarbekir and the Armenian crisis of 1895’, in Joost Jongerden and Jelle Verheij , Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir 1870–1915 (Leiden: Brill, 2012), pp. 85–145

Mustafa Aksakal , The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 93–118

Hans-Lukas Kieser , ‘World war and world revolution: Alexander Helphand-Parvus in Germany and Turkey’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 12:2 (2011), pp. 387–410

Jay Winter , ‘Under the cover of war: the Armenian genocide in the context of total war’, in Jay Winter (ed.), America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915 (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 37–51

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu , ‘The Second Constitutional Period, 1908–1918’, in Reşat Kasaba (ed.), The Cambridge History of Turkey, vol. iv: Turkey in the Modern World (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 62–111

Paul M. Kennedy and Anthony Nicholls (eds.), Nationalist and Racialist Movements in Britain and Germany before 1914 (London: Macmillan, 1981)

Jay Winter and Antoine Prost , The Great War in History: Debates and Controversies, 1914 to the Present (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Richard Hamilton and Holger Herwig brought together a series of essays on Decisions for War, 1914–1917 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004)

Stefan Schmidt , Frankreichs Außenpolitik in der Julikrise 1914 (Munich: R. Oldenburg Verlag, 2009)

John Keiger ’s synthesis (France and the Origins of the First World War (London: Macmillan, 1983))

M. B. Hayne has shown in The French Foreign Office and the Origins of the First World War 1898–1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993)

Annika Mombauer , ‘A reluctant military leader? Helmuth von Moltke and the July Crisis of 1914’, War in History, 6:4 (1999), pp. 417–46

John Horne (ed.), Vers la guerre totale: le tournant de 1914–1915 (Paris: Tallandier, 2010)

Jenny Macleod , Reconsidering Gallipoli (Manchester University Press, 2004)

Andrew Suttie , Rewriting the First World War: Lloyd George, Politics and Strategy (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)

Justus Doenecke , Nothing Less than War: A New History of America’s Entry into World War I (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2011)

Tim Travers , How the War Was Won: Command and Technology in the British Army on the Western Front 1917–1918 (London: Routledge, 1992)

Jörg Duppler and Gerhard Paul Gross (eds.), Kriegsende 1918: Ereignis, Wirkung, Nachwirkung (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1999)

Wilhelm Deist , ‘The military collapse of the German Empire: the reality behind the stab-in-the-back myth’, War in History, 3 (1996), pp. 186–207

Zara Steiner ’s standard work, The Lights that Failed: European International History, 1919–1933 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Leonard V. Smith , ‘The Wilsonian challenge to international law’, Journal of the History of International Law, 13 (2011), pp. 179–208

Norman Ingram , The Politics of Dissent: Pacifism in France, 1919–1939 (Oxford University Press, 1991)

Andrew Webster , ‘The transnational dream: politicians, diplomats and soldiers in the League of Nations’ pursuit of international disarmament, 1920–1938’, Contemporary European History, 14:4 (2005), pp. 493–518

Beth Linker , War’s Waste: Rehabilitation in World War I America (University of Chicago Press, 2011)

Mary Louise Roberts , Civilization Without Sexes: Reconstructing Gender in Postwar France, 1917–1927 (University of Chicago Press, 1994)

Joy Damousi , The Labour of Loss: Mourning, Memory and Wartime Bereavement in Australia (Cambridge University Press, 1999)

Erica A. Kuhlman , Of Little Comfort: War Widows, Fallen Soldiers and the Remaking of the Nation After the Great War (New York University Press, 2012)

Susan Pedersen , ‘Back to the League of Nations’, American Historical Review, 112:4 (2007), pp. 1091–117

Kevin Grant et al. (eds.), Beyond Sovereignty: Britain, Empire, and Transnationalism, c. 1880–1950 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), pp. 54–79

Claudena M. Skran , Refugees in Inter-War Europe: The Emergence of a Regime (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995)

Keith David Watenpaugh , ‘The League of Nations’ rescue of Armenian genocide survivors and the making of modern humanitarianism, 1920–1927’, American Historical Review, 115:5 (2010), pp. 1315–39

Robert Gerwarth and John Horne , ‘The Great War and paramilitarism in Europe, 1917–23’, Contemporary European History, 19:3 (2010), pp. 267–73

E. D. Brose , The Kaiser’s Army: The Politics of Military Technology in Germany During the Machine Age 1870–1918 (Oxford University Press, 2001)

R. Chickering and S. Förster (eds.), Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front 1914–1918 (Cambridge University Press, 2000)

War in the East and Balkans, 1914–18’, in John Horne (ed.), A Companion to World War I (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), pp. 66–81

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius , War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I (Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Max Schiavon , L’Autriche-Hongrie dans la Première Guerre mondiale: la fin d’un Empire (Paris: Soteca, 2011)

David Woodward , Hell in the Holy Land: World War I in the Middle East (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2006)

Adrian Smith has written perhaps the sole analytical study of these legendary aces in his book, Mick Mannock, Fighter Pilot: Myth, Life, and Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001)

Holger Afflerbach ’s biography, Falkenhayn (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1996)

John A. Hobson ’s classic, Imperialism (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1965 [1902])

D. P. Crook ’s book, Darwinism, War and History: The Debate over the Biology of War from the ‘Origins of Species’ to the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 1994)

Nicholas A. Lambert ’s tome, Planning Armageddon: British Economic Warfare and the First World War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012)

Mustafa Aksakal ’s monograph, The Ottoman Road to War: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008)

James J. Mathews ’s article, ‘World War I and the rise of African nationalism: Nigerian veterans as catalysts of political change’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 20:3 (1982), pp. 493–502

Michelle Moyd , ‘“We don’t want to die for nothing”: askari at war in German East Africa, 1914–1918’, in Santanu Das (ed.), Race, Empire and First World War Writing (Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 53–76

Dirk Vanderwalle , A History of Modern Libya (Cambridge University Press, 2006)

N. G. Garson , ‘South Africa and World War I’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 8:1 (1979), pp. 92–116

Sandra Swart , ‘“A Boer and his gun and his wife are three things always together”: republican masculinity and the 1914 rebellion’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 24:2 (1998), pp. 116–38

Michael A. Reynolds , Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1908–1918 (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Yücel Yanıkdağ , ‘Educating the peasants: the Ottoman army and enlisted men in uniform’, Middle Eastern Studies, 40:6 (2004), pp. 91–107

Nader Sohrabi , Revolution and Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire and Iran (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Ryan Gingeras , Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire, 1912–1923 (Oxford University Press, 2009)

Uğur Ümit Üngör , The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950 (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Michael Provence , ‘Ottoman modernity, colonialism, and insurgency in the Arab Middle East’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 43 (2011), pp. 205–25

Santanu Das ’s, ‘Indians at home, Mesopotamia and France, 1914–1918: towards an intimate history’, in Santanu Das (ed.), Race, Empire and First World War Writing (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Akira Iriye , The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations, vol. iii: The Globalizing of America, 1913–1945 (Cambridge University Press, 1993)

Bill Albert and Paul Henderson , South America and the First World War: The Impact of the War on Brazil, Argentina, Peru and Chile (Cambridge University Press, 1988)

Yannick Wehrli , ‘Les délégations latino-américanes et les intérêts de la France à la Société des Nations’, Relations internationales, 137:1 (2009), pp. 45–59

Heather Jones , Violence against Prisoners of War in the First World War: Britain, France and Germany, 1914–1920 (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Alan Kramer , ‘Combatants and noncombatants: atrocities, massacres and war crimes’, in John Horne (ed.), A Companion to World War I (Chichester and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), pp. 188–201

Genocide at the twilight of the Ottoman Empire’, in Donald Bloxham and A. Dirk Moses (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies (Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 365–85

Ronald Grigor Suny , Fatma Müge Göçek and Norman M. Naimark (eds.), A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Donald Bloxham , The Final Solution: A Genocide (Oxford University Press, 2009)

Ulrich Trumpener , Germany and the Ottoman Empire 1914–1918 (Princeton University Press, 1968), pp. 21–61


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