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The Cambridge History of War
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Volume IV of The Cambridge History of War offers a definitive new account of war in the most destructive period in human history. Opening with the massive conflicts that erupted in the mid nineteenth century in the US, Asia and Europe, leading historians trace the global evolution of warfare through 'the age of mass', 'the age of machine' and 'the age of management'. They explore how industrialization and nationalism fostered vast armies whilst the emergence of mobile warfare and improved communications systems made possible the 'total warfare' of the two World Wars. With military conflict regionalized after 1945 they show how guerrilla and asymmetrical warfare highlighted the limits of the machine and mass as well as the importance of the media in winning 'hearts and minds'. This is a comprehensive guide to every facet of modern war from strategy and operations to its social, cultural, technological and political contexts and legacies.


'This final volume of The Cambridge History of War poses perhaps a greater challenge to its editors than any of its predecessors, but they have met it with total success. The years it covers, from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day, have seen the greatest transformationin society in the history of mankind, and war has been transformed with it … It would be invidious to single out individual chapters for commendation. All are by well-chosen experts … but the real credit must go to the editors who planned the book, selected a team so uniquely well qualified to write it and provided an excellent bibliography.'

Source: International Affairs

'This is a pretty amazing book … The speed of this ambitious romp through history is sometimes breathtaking.'

Thomas Ricks Source: Foreign Policy (

'A cultural history of war that is based on the latest scholarship and state-of-the-art conceptualization. … an outstanding collective achievement.'

Benjamin Ziemann Source: H-Soz-u-Kult

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Select bibliography
The wars of mid-century
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Lentin, AnthonyLloyd George and the Lost Peace. New York, 2001.
Lynch, Cecilia. Beyond Appeasement: Interpreting Interwar Peace Movements in World Politics. Ithaca, 1999.
Macartney, C. A.National States and National Minorities. New York, 1968.
MacMillan, Margaret, Peacemakers: The Peace Conference of 1919 and its Attempt to End WarLondon, 2001.
Marks, Sally. The Ebbing of European Ascendancy: An International History of the World 1914–1945. London and New York, 2002.
Marks, SallyThe Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933. 2nd edn. New York, 2003.
Martel, Gordon, ed. A Companion to Europe, 1900–1945. Malden, MA, 2006.
Mayer, Arno J.Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counter-Revolution at Versailles, 1918–1919. New York, 1967.
Mommsen, Wolfgang, and Kettenacker, Lother, eds. The Fascist Challenge and the Policy of Appeasement. London and Boston, 1983.
Northedge, F. S.The League of Nations: Its Life and Times, 1920–1946. Leicester, 1986.
Pederson, Susan. “Back to the League of Nations.” American Historical Review 112 (2007): 1091–117.
Schuker, Stephen A.The End of French Predominance in Europe: The Financial Crisis of 1924 and the Adoption of the Dawes Plan. Chapel Hill, 1976.
Sharp, Alan. The Versailles Settlement: Peacemaking after the First World War, 1919–1923. 2nd edn. Basingstoke, 2008.
Sharp, AlanThe Versailles Settlement: Aftermath and Legacy, 1919–2010. London, 2010.
Siegel, Mona. The Moral Disarmament of France: Education, Pacifism, and Patriotism, 1914–1940. Cambridge and New York, 2004.
Skran, Claudena M.Refugees in Inter-War Europe: The Emergence of a Regime. New York, 1995.
Steiner, Zara. The Lights That Failed: European International History, 1919–1933. Oxford, 2005.
Steiner, ZaraThe Triumph of the Dark: European International History, 1933–1939. New York, 2011.
Thorne, Christopher. The Limits of Foreign Policy: The West, the League, and the Far Eastern Crisis of 1931–1933. London, 1972.
Walters, Frank. History of the League of Nations. London, 1960.
Wasserstein, Bernard. The British in Palestine: The Mandatory Government, and the Arab-Jewish Conflict, 1917–1929. London, 1978.
Weinberg, Gerhard L.Hitler’s Foreign Policy, 1933–1939: The Road to World War II. New York, 2005.
Willis, James F.Prologue to Nuremberg: The Politics and Diplomacy of Punishing War Criminals of the First World War. Westport, CT, 1982.
Commemorating war, 1914–1945
Cannadine, David. “War and Death, Grief and Mourning in Modern Britain.” In Whaley, Joachim, ed. Mirrors of Mortality: Studies in the Social History of Death. London, 1982, 187–242.
Farmer, Sarah Bennett. “Oradour-sur-Glane: Memory in a Preserved Landscape.” French Historical Studies 19 (1995): 27–47.
Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. New York, 1975.
Gaffney, Angela. Aftermath: Remembering the Great War in Wales. Cardiff, 1998.
Greenberg, Allan. “Lutyens’s Cenotaph.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 48 (1989): 5–23.
Hynes, Samuel. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London, 1990.
Hynes, SamuelThe Soldiers’ Tale: Bearing Witness to Modern War. London, 1997.
Inglis, Ken. “A Sacred Place: The Making of the Australian War Memorial.” War and Society 3 (1985): 99–127.
Inglis, KenThe Homecoming: The War Memorial Movement in Cambridge, England.” Journal of Contemporary History 27 (1992): 583–606.
Inglis, KenWar Memorials: Ten Questions for Historians.” Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains 167 (1992): 5–22.
Inglis, KenWorld War One Memorials in Australia.“ Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains 167 (1992): 51–58.
Inglis, KenEntombing Unknown Soldiers: From London and Paris to Baghdad.” History and Memory 5 (1993): 7–31.
Inglis, KenSacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape. Carlton, Victoria, 1998.
Inglis, Ken, and Phillips, Jock. “War Memorials in Australia and New Zealand: A Comparative Survey.” In Rickard, John and Spearritt, Peter, eds., Packaging the Past? Public Histories. Melbourne, 1987, 179–92.
Kavanagh, Gaynor. “Museum as Memorial: The Origins of the Imperial War Museum,” Journal of Contemporary History 23 (1988): 77–97.
King, Alex. Memorials of the Great War in Britain: The Symbolism and Politics of Remembrance. Oxford: Berg, 1998.
Koven, Seth. “Remembering and Dismemberment: Crippled Children, Wounded Soldiers, and the Great War in Great Britain.” American Historical Review 99 (1994): 1167–202.
Lloyd, David W.Battlefield Tourism: Pilgrimage and the Commemoration of the Great War in Britain, Australia, and Canada, 1919–1939. Oxford, 1998.
Macleod, Jenny. “Memorials and Location: Local versus National Identity and the Scottish National War Memorial,” Scottish Historical Review 89 (2010): 73–95.
Malvern, Sue, “War, Memory and Museums: Art and Artifact in the Imperial War Museum.” History Workshop Journal 49 (2000): 177–203.
Malvern, SueWar Tourisms: ‘Englishness’, Art, and the First World War.” Oxford Art Journal 24 (2001): 47–66.
Marcuse, Harold. “Holocaust Memorials: The Emergence of a Genre.” American Historical Review 115 (2010): 53–89.
Mosse, George L.Two World Wars and the Myth of the War Experience,” Journal of Contemporary History 21 (1986): 491–513.
Mosse, George L.Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the Two World Wars. New York and Oxford, 1990.
Prost, Antoine. Republican Identities in War and Peace: Representations of France in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Oxford, 2002.
Richards, Michael. “From War Culture to Civil Society: Francoism, Social Change and Memories of the Spanish Civil War.” History and Memory 14 (2002): 93–120.
Ron, Robin. “A Foothold in Europe: The Aesthetics and Politics of American War Cemeteries in Western Europe.” Journal of American Studies 29 (1995): 55–72.
Sherman, Daniel J.Objects of Memory: History and Narrative in French War Museums.” French Historical Studies 19 (1995): 49–74.
Taaffe, Seamus. “Commemorating the Fallen: Public Memorials to the Irish Dead of the Great War.” Archaeology Ireland 13 (1999): 18–22.
Trumpener, Katie. “Memories Carved in Granite: Great War Memorials and Everyday Life.” PMLA 115 (2000): 1096–103.
Winter, Jay M.Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History. Cambridge, 1995.
Winter, Jay M.Remembering War: The Great War between History and Memory in the Twentieth Century. New Haven, 2006.
Winter, Jay M.Dreams of Peace and Freedom: Utopian Moments in the Twentieth Century. New Haven, 2007.
Winter, Jay M., and Sivan, Emmanuel, eds. War and Remembrance in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, 1999.
Ziino, Bart. ‘“A Lasting Gift to His Descendants’: Family Memory and the Great War in Australia.” History and Memory 22 (2010): 125–46.
Military doctrine and planning in the interwar era
Alexander, Don W.Repercussions of the Breda Variant.” French Historical Studies 8 (1974): 459–88.
Alexander, Martin, S.The Republic in Danger: General Maurice Gamelin, and the Politics of French Defence, 1933–1940. Cambridge, 1992.
Bankwitz, Philip Charles Farwell. Maxime Weygand and Civil-Military Relations in Modern France. Cambridge, 1967.
Baer, George W.One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The US Navy, 1890–1990. Stanford, 1994.
Barnhart, Michael A.Japan Prepares for Total War: The Search for Economic Security, 1919–1941. Ithaca, 1987.
Beattie, Peter M.The Tribute of Blood: Race, Honor, and Nation in Brazil, 1864–1945. Durham, NC, and London, 2001.
Biddle, Tami Davis. Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914–1945. Princeton, 2002.
Boog, Horst, ed. The Conduct of the Air War in the Second World War: An International Comparison. Oxford, 1992.
Cain, Anthony Christopher. The Forgotten Air Force: French Air Doctrine in the 1930s. Washington, DC, 2002.
Carr, Raymond. Modern Spain, 1875–1980. Oxford, 1980.
Challener, Richard D.The French Theory of the Nation in Arms, 1866–1939. New York, 1965.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933–1945: Its Political and Military Failure. London, 1978.
Cooper, MatthewThe German Air Force, 1933–1945: An Anatomy of Failure. London, 1981.
Coox, Alvin D.Nomonhan: Japan against Russia, 1939. Stanford, 1985.
Corum, James S.The Roots of Blitzkrieg: Hans von Seeckt and German Military Reform. Lawrence, KS, 1992.
Corum, James S.The Luftwaffe: Creating the Operational Air War, 1918–1940. Lawrence, KS, 1997.
Craig, Gordon A. The Politics of the Prussian Army 1640–1945. Oxford, 1955.
Dennis, Peter. Decision by Default: Peacetime Conscription and British Defence 1919–39. London, 1972.
Doughty, Robert A.The Seeds of Disaster: The Development of French Army Doctrine, 1919–1939. Hamden, CT, 1985.
Evans, David C., and Peattie, Mark R.. Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy 1887–1941. Annapolis, MD, 1997.
Gat, Azar. British Armour Theory and the Rise of the Panzer Arm: Revising the Revisionists. New York, 2000.
Gat, AzarA History of Military Thought from the Enlightenment to the Cold War, New York, 2001.
Geyer, Michael. “German Strategy in the Age of Machine Warfare, 1914–1945.” In Paret, Peter, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, 1986, 527–97.
Gooch, John. Mussolini and His Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922–1940. Cambridge, 2007.
Griffith, Paddy. Battle Tactics of the Western Front: The British Army’s Art of Attack, 1916–1918. New Haven, 1992.
Habeck, Mary R.Storm of Steel: The Development of Armor Doctrine in Germany and the Soviet Union, 1919–1939. Ithaca, 2003.
Hallion, Richard. Strike from the Sky: The History of Battlefield Air Attack 1911–1945Washington, DC, and London, 1989.
Harries, Meiron, and Harries, Susie. Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. New York, 1991.
Harris, J. P.Men, Ideas, and Tanks: British Military Thought and Armoured Forces, 1903–1939. Manchester and New York, 1995.
Harrison, Mark. “Resource Mobilization for World War II: The USA, UK, USSR, and Germany, 1938–1945.” Economic History Review 41 (1988): 171–92.
Harrison, Richard W.The Russian Way of War: Operational Art, 1904–1940. Lawrence, KS, 2001.
Howard, Michael. The Continental Commitment: The Dilemmas of British Defence Policy in the Era of the Two World Wars. London, 1972.
Ienaga, Saburo. The Pacific War: World War II and the Japanese, 1931–1945. New York, 1978.
Johnson, David E.Fast Tanks and Heavy Bombers: Innovation in the US Army, 1917–1945. Ithaca and New York, 1998.
Kier, Elizabeth. Imagining War: French and British Military Doctrine between the Wars. Princeton, 1997.
Kiesling, Eugenia C.Arming against Hitler: France and the Limits of Military Planning. Lawrence, KS, 1996.
La Gorce, Paul Marie. The French Army: A Military-Political History. New York, 1963.
Li, Xiaobing. A History of the Modern Chinese Army. Lexington, KY, 2007.
McCann, Frank D.Soldiers of the Patria: A History of the Brazilian Army, 1889–1937. Stanford, 2004.
Megargee, Geoffrey P.Inside Hitler’s High Command. Lawrence, KS, 2000.
Millett, Allan Reed, and Murray, Williamson, Military Effectiveness. 3 vols. Boston, 1988. Vol. I: The First World War. Vol. II: The Interwar Period. Vol. III: The Second World War.
Muller, Richard. The German Air War in Russia. Baltimore, 1992.
Murray, Williamson, Luftwaffe. Baltimore, 1985.
Murray, Williamson, and Millett, Allan Reed. Military Innovation in the Interwar Period. Cambridge, 1996.
Ogorkiewiez, Richard M.Armor: A History of Mechanized Forces. New York, 1960.
Pedraja, René. Wars of Latin America, 1899–1941, Jefferson, NC, and London, 2006.
Posen, Barry. The Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany between the World Wars. Ithaca, 1984.
Reid, Brian Holden. Studies in British Military Thought: Debates with Fuller and Liddell Hart. Lincoln, NE, 1998
Sater, William F., and Holger, H. Herwig. The Grand Illusion: The Prussianization of the Chilean Army. Lincoln, NE, 1999.
Scheina, Robert L.Latin America’s Wars. Vol. II: The Age of the Professional Soldiers, 1900–2001. Washington, DC, 2003.
Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. New York, 1977.
Tooze, Adam. The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Unmaking of the Nazi Economy. New York, 2006.
Travers, Tim. How the War Was Won: Command and Technology in the British Army on the Western Front, 1917–1918. New York, 1992.
von Hagen, Mark. Soldiers in the Proletarian Dictatorship: The Red Army and the Soviet Socialist State, 1917–1930. Ithaca, 1990.
Winton, Harold R.To Change an Army: General Sir John Burnett-Stuart and British Armored Doctrine, 1927–1938. Lawrence, KS. 1988.
Winton, Harold R., and Mets, David R., eds. The Challenge of Change: Military Institutions and New Realities, 1918–1941. Lincoln, NE, 2000.
The military and the revolutionary state
Adelman, Jonathan R.The Revolutionary Armies: The Historical Development of the Soviet and Chinese People’s Liberation Armies. Westport, CT, 1980.
Alpert, Michael. “The Clash of Spanish Armies: Contrasting Ways of War in Spain, 1936–1939.” War in History 6 (1999): 345.
Bartov, Omer. Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich. New York, 1992.
Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. New York, 2006.
Benvenuti, Francesco. The Bolsheviks and the Red Army, 1918–1922. Cambridge, 1988.
Brown, Stephen. “Communists and the Red Cavalry: The Political Education of the Konarmiia in the Russian Civil War, 1918–20.” Slavonic and East European Review 73 (1995): 82–99.
Campbell, Bruce B.The SA after the Röhm Purge.” Journal of Contemporary History 28 (1993): 659–74.
Campbell, Bruce B.The SA Generals and the Rise of Nazism. Lexington, KY, 1998.
Citino, Robert M.The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920–1939. Boulder, 1999.
Craig, Gordon. The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1690–1945. Oxford, 1955.
Darnell, Walter. Frunze: The Soviet Clausewitz, 1885–1925. The Hague, 1969.
Erickson, John. The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History. 3rd edn. London, 2001.
Figes, Orlando. “The Red Army and Mass Mobilization during the Russian Civil War 1918–1920.” Past and Present 129 (1990): 168–211.
Fritz, Stephen. Frontsoldaten: The German Soldier in World War II. Lexington, KY, 1995.
Gooch, John. Mussolini and His Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922–1940. Cambridge, 2007.
Griffith, Samuel B.The Chinese People’s Liberation Army. New York, 1967.
Harrison, Richard. The Russian Way of War: Operational Art, 1904–1940. Lawrence, KS, 2001.
Höhne, Heinz. The Order of the Death’s Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS. London, 2000.
Jablonsky, David. “Röhm and Hitler: The Continuity of Political-Military Discord.” Journal of Contemporary History 23 (1988): 367–86.
Jackson, Gabriel. The Spanish Republic and the Civil War 1931–1939. Princeton, 1965.
Kau, Michael Y. M.The People’s Liberation Army and China’s Nation-Building. White Plains, NY, 1973.
Knox, MacGregor. Mussolini Unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy’s Last War. Cambridge, 1982.
Knox, MacGregor1 October 1942: Adolf Hitler, Wehrmacht Officer Policy, and Social Revolution.” Historical Journal 43 (2000): 801–25.
Knox, MacGregorHitler’s Italian Allies: Royal Armed Forces, Fascist Regime, and the War of 1940–1943. Cambridge, 2000.
Li, Xiaobang. A History of the Modern Chinese Army. Lexington, KY, 2007.
Matthews, James. “‘Our Red Soldiers’: The National Army’s Management of Its Left-Wing Conscripts in the Spanish Civil War 1936–9.” Journal of Contemporary History 45 (2010): 344–63.
Geoffrey, Megargee.. War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941. Lanham, MD, 2005.
Messerschmidt, Manfred. “The Wehrmacht and the Volksgemeinschaft.” Journal of Contemporary History 18 (1983): 719–44.
Müller, Klaus J.The Army, Politics, and Society in Germany, 1933–1945: Studies in the Army’s Relation to Nazism. New York, 1987.
O’Neill, Robert J.The German Army and the Nazi Party, 1933–1939. New York, 1966.
Payne, Stanley G.The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism. New Haven and London, 2004.
Perlmutter, Amos. “The Romantic Revolutionary: The Storm Troopers and the Waffen-SS.” In Perlmutter, Amos and Bennett, Valerie Plave, eds., The Political Influence of the Military: A Comparative Reader. New Haven, 1980, 105–9.
Perlmutter, Amos, and LeoGrande, William M.. “The Party in Uniform: Toward a Theory of Civil-Military Relations in Communist Political Systems.” American Political Science Review 76 (1982): 778–89.
Reese, Roger R.Stalin’s Reluctant Soldiers: A Social History of the Red Army, 1925–1941. Lawrence, KS, 1996.
Reese, Roger R.Red Army Professionalism and the Communist Party, 1918–1941.” Journal of Military History 66 (2002): 71–102.
Reese, Roger R.Red Commanders: A Social History of the Soviet Army Officer Corps, 1918–1991. Lawrence, KS, 2005.
Salisbury, Harrison E.The Long March: The Untold Story. London, 1985.
Seaton, Albert. Stalin as Military Commander. New York, 1976.
Stone, David R.Hammer and Rifle: The Militarization of the Soviet Union, 1926–1933. Lawrence, KS, 2000.
Sullivan, Brian R. “The Italian Armed Forces, 1918–1940.” In Millett, Allan R. and Murray, Williamson, eds., Military Effectiveness. Vol. II: The Interwar Period. Boston, 1990, 169–217.
Sullivan, Brian R.Fascist Italy’s Military Involvement in the Spanish Civil War.” Journal of Military History 59 (1995): 697–727.
Sullivan, Brian R. “The Italian Soldier in Combat, June 1940–September 1943: Myths, Realities and Explanations.” In Addison, Paul and Cadder, Angus, eds., Time to Kill: The Soldier’s Experience of War in the West 1939–1945. London, 1997, 177–205.
Sweet, John J. T.Iron Arm: The Mechanization of Mussolini’s Army, 1920–1940. Westport, CT, 1980.
Thaxton, Ralph. “On Peasant Revolution and National Resistance: Toward a Theory of Peasant Mobilization and Revolutionary War with Special Reference to Modern China.” World Politics 30 (1977): 24–57.
von Hagen, Mark. “Civil-Military Relations and the Evolution of the Soviet Socialist State.” Slavic Review 50 (1991): 268–76.
Von Hagen, MarkSoldiers in the Proletarian Dictatorship: The Red Army and the Soviet Socialist State, 1917–1930. Ithaca, 1990.
Wegner, Bernd. The Waffen-SS: Organization, Ideology and Function. Oxford, 1990.
Wheeler-Bennett, John. The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918–1945. 2nd edn. New York, 1967.
White, D. Fedotoff. “Soviet Philosophy of War.” Political Science Quarterly 51 (1936): 321–53.
White, D. FedotoffThe Growth of the Red Army. Princeton, 1944.
World War II
Allen, Louis. Burma: The Longest War 1941–1945. London, 1984.
Bartov, Omer. Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich. New York, 1991.
Bix, Herbert P.Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York, 2000.
Blair, Clay. Hitler’s U-Boat War. 2 vols. New York, 1996–98.
Burns, James McGregor. Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom 1940–1945. New York, 1970.
Citino, Robert M.Death of the Wehrmacht: The German Campaigns of 1942. Lawrence, KS, 2007.
Costello, John. The Pacific War. New York, 1981.
D’Este, Carlo. Decision in Normandy. New York, 1991.
Dull, Paul S.A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941–1945. Annapolis, MD, 1978.
Frank, Richard B.Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. New York, 1999.
Frank, Richard B.Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle. New York, 1990.
Giangreco, D. M.Hell to Pay: Operation DOWNFALL and the Invasion of Japan, 1945–1947. Annapolis, MD, 2009.
Glantz, David M.Soviet Military Deception in the Second World War. London, 1989.
Glantz, David M., and House, Jonathan. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. Lawrence, KS, 1995.
Grier, Howard D.Hitler, Dönitz, and the Baltic Sea: The Third Reich’s Last Hope, 1944–1945. Annapolis, MD, 2007.
Griffiths, Thomas E., Jr. MacArthur’s Airman: General George C. Kenney and the War in the Southwest Pacific. Lawrence, KS, 1998.
Hastings, Max. Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944–1945. New York, 2004.
Hastings, MaxRetribution: The Battle for Japan, 1944–45. New York, 2008.
Herring, George C.Aid to Russia 1941–1946: Strategy, Diplomacy and the Origins of the Cold War. New York, 1973.
Ienaga, Saburo. The Pacific War 1931–1945. New York, 1978.
James, D. Clayton. The Years of MacArthur. Vol. II: 1941–1945. Boston, 1975.
Jones, F. C.Japan’s New Order in East Asia: Its Rise, and Fall 1937–45. London, 1954.
Kahn, David. The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing. New York, 1967.
Kershaw, Ian. Hitler. 2 vols. New York, 1998–2000.
Lamb, Richard. War in Italy 1943–1945: A Brutal Story. New York, 1996.
Lambert, John W., and Polmar, Norman. Defenseless: Command Failure at Pearl Harbor. St. Paul, MN, 2003.
Linderman, Gerald F.The World within War: America’s Combat Experience in World War II. New York, 1997.
Lowman, David D.Magic: The Untold Story of US Intelligence and the Evacuation of Japanese Residents from the West Coast during World War II. Stanford, 2000.
McKale, Donald M.Hitler’s Shadow War: The Holocaust and World War II. New York, 2002.
Megargee, Geoffrey P.War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941. Lanham, MD, 2006.
Merridale, Catherine. Ivan’s War: Life and Death in the Red Army, 1939–1945. New York, 2006.
Mierzejewski, Alfred C.The Collapse of the German War Economy: Allied Air Power and the German National Railway. Chapel Hill, 1988.
Miller, Donald L.Masters of the Air: America’s Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War against Nazi Germany. New York, 2006.
Nagorski, Andrew. The Greatest Battle: Stalin, Hitler, and the Desperate Struggle for Moscow that Changed the Course of World War II. New York, 2007.
Parshall, Jonathan, and Tully, Anthony. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of Midway. Washington, DC, 2005.
Paxton, Robert O.Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order 1940–1944. New York, 1972.
Pennington, Reina. Wings, Women, and War: Soviet Air Women in World War II Combat. Lawrence, KS, 2001.
Spector, Ronald H.Eagle against the Sun: The American War with Japan. New York, 1985.
Stoler, Mark A.Allies and Adversaries: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Grand Alliance and US Strategy in World War II. Chapel Hill, 2000.
Taaffe, Stephen R.MacArthur’s Jungle War: The 1944 New Guinea Campaign. Lawrence, KS, 1998.
Weinberg, Gerhard L.A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge and New York, 2005.
Weinberg, Gerhard L.Visions of Victory: The Hopes of Eight World War II Leaders. Cambridge and New York, 2005.
Weinberg, Gerhard L.Hitler’s Foreign Policy 1933–1939: The Road to World War II. New York, 2010.
Wette, Wolfram. The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Cambridge, 2006.
Willmott, H. P.Empires in the Balance: Japanese and Allied Pacific Strategies to April 1942. Annapolis, MD, 1982.
Willmott, H. P.The Barrier and the Javelin: Japanese and Allied Strategies, February to June 1942. Annapolis, MD, 1983.
Wilson, Theodore A., ed. D-Day 1944. Lawrence, KS, 1994.
Wilt, Alan F.The Atlantic Wall 1941–1944: Hitler’s Defenses for D-Day. New York, 2004.
Military occupations, 1945–1955
Alexander, G. M.Prelude to the Truman Doctrine: British Policy in Greeece, 1944–1947. Oxford, 1982.
Bessel, Richard. Germany 1945: From War to Peace. New York, 2009.
Cesarini, David. Major Farran’s Hat: Murder, Scandal, and Britain’s War against Jewish Terrorism, 1945–1948. London, 2008.
Day, David. Conquest: How Societies Overwhelm Others. Oxford, 2008.
Dower, John W.Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York, 2000.
Edelstein, David. Occupational Hazards: Success and Failure in Military Occupation. Ithaca, 2008.
Gott, Kendall D.Mobility, Vigilance, and Justice: The US Army Constabulary in Germany, 1946–1953. Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2005.
Harper, John Lamberton. America and the Reconstruction of Italy, 1945–1948. New York, 1986.
Harris, C. R. S.Allied Military Administration of Italy, 1943–1945. London, 1957.
Kay, Alex J.Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940–1941. New York, 2006.
Kennedy, Paul M.The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations. New York, 2006.
Liberman, Peter. Does Conquest Pay? The Exploitation of Occupied Industrial Societies. Princeton, 1996.
MacDonough, Giles. After the Reich: The Brutal Hitory of the Allied Occupation. New York, 2007.
Millett, Allan R.The War for Korea, 1945–1950: A House Burning. Lawrence, KS, 2006.
Moon, Penderel. Divide and Quit. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1961.
Murray, Williamson., and Lacey, Jim, eds. The Making of Peace: Rulers, States, and the Aftermath of War. Cambridge, 2009.
Naimark, NormanThe Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949. Cambridge, MA, 1995.
Rose, Norman. A Senseless, Squalid War: Voices from Palestine, 1945–1948. London, 2008.
Schaller, Michael. The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in Asia. New York, 1985.
Spector, Ronald. In the Ruins of Empire: The Japanese Surrender and the Battle for Postwar Asia. New York, 2007.
Sugita, Yoneyuki. Pitfall or Panacea: The Irony of US Power in Occupied Japan 1945–1952. New York, 2003.
Takemae, Eiji et al. Inside GHQ: The Allied Occupation of Japan and Its Legacy. New York, 2002.
Ther, Philipp, and Siljak, Ana, eds. Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe. Lanham, MD, 2001.
Thomas, Martin. “Colonial Violence in Algeria and the Distorted Logic of State Retribution: The Setief Uprising of 1945.” Journal of Military History 75 (2011): 125–57,
Wolpert, Stanley. Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India. New York, 2006.
Young, Louise. Japan’s Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism. Berkeley, 1998.
The wars after the war, 1945–1954
Anderson, Benedict R. O’G.Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944–1946. Rev. edn. Jakarta, 2006.
Anusauskas, Arvydas. The Anti-Soviet Resistance in the Baltic States. Vilnius, 1999.
Armstrong, Charles. The North Korean Revolution, 1945–1950. Ithaca, 2003.
Ben-Ze’ev, Efrat. Remembering Palestine in 1948: Beyond National Narratives. Cambridge, 2011.
Bose, Sumantra. Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Cambridge, MA, 2005.
Bradley, Mark Philip. Vietnam at War. Oxford, 2009.
Casey, Steven. Selling the Korean War: Propaganda, Politics, and Public Opinion in the United States, 1950–1953. Oxford, 2010.
Jian, Chen. China’s Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation. New York, 1994.
Gerolymatos, André. Red Acropolis, Black Terror: The Greek Civil War and the Origins of Soviet-American Rivalry, 1943–1949. New York, 2004.
Guha, Ramachandra. India after Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy. New York, 2008.
Hogan, Michael J.A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945–1954. Cambridge, 2000.
Jackson, Colin F.Lost Chance or Lost Horizon? Strategic Opportunity and Escalation Risk in the Korean War, April–July 1951.” Journal of Strategic Studies 33 (2010): 255–89.
Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe since 1945. London, 2005.
Lampe, John. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. 2nd edn. Cambridge, 2002.
Lawrence, Mark, and Logevall, Fredrik. The First Vietnam War: Colonial Conflict and Cold War Crisis. Cambridge, MA, 2006.
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Weapons technology in the two nuclear ages
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Conventional war, 1945–1990
Adan, Avraham . On the Banks of the Suez: An Israeli General’s Personal Account of the Yom Kippur War. Novato, CA, 1980.
Chubin, Shahram. “The Last Phase of the Iran-Iraq War: From Statelmate to Ceasefire.” Third World Quarterly 11 (1989): 1–14.
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Wars of decolonization, 1945–1975
Anderson, David, and Killingray, David. Policing and Decolonisation: Politics, Nationalism, and the Police 1917–65, Manchester, 1992.
Beckett, Ian, and Pimlott, John. Armed Forces and Modern Counter-Insurgency, London, 1985.
Blaxland, Gregory. The Regiments Depart, London, 1971.
Bolt, Neville, Betz, David, and Azari, Jaz. Propaganda of the Deed: Whitehall Report 3–08, Royal United Services Institute. London, 2008.
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Clayton, Anthony. Counter-Insurgency in Kenya 1952–60. Manhattan, KS, 1984
Clayton, AnthonyThe Sétif Uprising of May 1945, Cruelty and Terror in an Anti-Colonial Uprising.” Small Wars and Counterinsurgencies 3 (1992): 1–21.
Clayton, AnthonyThe Wars of French Decolonisation, London, 1994.
Corum, James S.Bad Strategies: How Major Powers Fail in Counterinsurgency. Minneapolis, 2008.
Crawshaw, Nancy. The Cyprus Revolt: An Account of the Struggle for Union with Greece. London, 1978.
Dalloz, Jacques. The War in Indochina, 1945–54. Dublin, 1990.
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Giap, Vo Nguyen. People’s War, People’s Army. New York, 1962.
Giap, Vo NguyenDieu Bien Phu. Hanoi, 1964.
Gras, Yves. Histoire de la Guerre d’Indochine. Paris, 1979.
Hastings, Adrian. “Some Reflections upon the War in Mozambique.” African Affairs 73 (1974): 263–76.
Heduy, Philippe. La Guerre d’Indochine 1945–54. Paris, 1981.
Heggoy, Alf Andrew. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Algeria. Bloomington, 1972.
Henriksen, Thomas H.Revolution and Counterrevolution: Mozambique’s War of Independence 1964–1974. Westport, CT, 1983.
Holland, Robert. Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus. Oxford, 1998.
Holland, Robert ed. Emergencies and Disorders in the European Empires after 1945. London, 1994.
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Kahin, George McTurnan. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, 1952.
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Marcum, John A., The Angolan Revolution. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA, 1969–78.
Marston, Daniel, and Malkasian, Carter, eds. Counterinsurgency in Modern Warfare. London, 2008.
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Mockaitis, Thomas R.British Counterinsurgency in the Post-imperial Era. Manchester, 1995.
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Mumford, Andrew, and Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline. “Unnecessary or Unsung? The Strategic Role of Air Power in Britain’s Colonial Counterinsurgencies.” In Hayward, Joel, ed., Air Power, Insurgency and the War on Terror. Cranwell, 2009, 63–78.
O’Ballance, Edgar. The Indo-China War, 1945–54. London, 1964.
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Paret, Peter. French Revolutionary Warfare from Indo-China to Algeria, London, 1964.
Porteu de la, Morandière François. Soldats du Djebel. Paris, 1979.
Reid, Anthony. Indonesian National Revolution, 1945–50. Hawthorn, 1974.
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Strachan, Hew. “British Counterinsurgency from Malaya to Iraq.” Journal of the Royal United Services Institute 152 (2007): 8–11.
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Tronchon, Jacques. L’Insurrection malgache de 1947. Paris, 1974.
Ventner, Al J.Report on Portugal’s War in Guinea-Bissau. Pasadena, CA, 1973.
Walker, Jonathan. Aden Insurgency: The Savage War in South Arabia. Staplehurst, 2005.
Wang, Joey. “Understanding Insurgency and State Response – Does Historical Context Matter? A Look Back at France and Algeria.” Journal of the Royal United Services Institute 153 (2008): 56–61.
War and memory since 1945
Aguilar, Paloma. Memory and Amnesia: The Role of the Spanish Civil War in the Transition to Democracy. Oxford, 2000.
Bloxham, Donald. Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory. Oxford, 2001.
Buruma, Ian. The Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan. London, 1995.
Dubin, Steven C.Displays of Power: Memory and Amnesia in American Museums. New York, 1999.
Evans, Martin, and Lunn, Kenneth, eds. War and Memory in the Twentieth Century. Oxford, 1997.
Farmer, Sarah. Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1999.
Fitzpatrick, Ellen F.History’s Memory: Writing America’s Past, 1880–1980. Cambridge, MA, 2002.
Fulbrook, Mary. German National Identity after the Holocaust. London, 1999.
Gregor, Neil. Haunted City: Nuremberg and the Nazi Past. New Haven, 2008.
Hein, Laura, and Selden, Mark, eds. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Armonk, NY, 2000.
Hilberg, Raul. The Politics of Memory: The Journey of a Holocaust Historian. Chicago, 1996.
Jager, Sheila, and Mitter, Rana, eds. Ruptured Histories: War, Memory, and the Post-Cold War in Asia. Cambridge, MA, 2007.
La Capra, Dominick. History and Memory after Auschwitz. Ithaca, 1998.
Lagrou, Pieter. The Legacy of Nazi Occupation: Patriotic Memory and National Recovery in Western Europe, 1945–1965. Cambridge, 2000.
Maier, Charles. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust and German National Identity. Cambridge, MA, 1997.
McAdams, A. J.Judging the Past in Unified Germany. Cambridge, 2001.
Merridale, Catherine. Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia. London, 2001.
Mosse, George. Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars. New York and Oxford, 1990.
Müller, Jan-Werner ed. Memory and Power in Post-War Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past. Cambridge, 2002..
Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. Boston, 1999.
Rousso, Henry. The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944. Cambridge, MA, 1991.
Rousso, HenryThe Haunting Past : History, Memory, and Justice in Contemporary France. Philadelphia, 2002.
Seraphim, Franziska. War Memory and Social Politics in Japan, 1945–2005. Cambridge, MA, 2006.
Snyder, Timothy. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. New Haven, 1999.
Steinlauf, Michael. Bondage to the Dead: Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust. Syracuse, 1997.
Tai, Hue-Tam Ho, ed. The Country of Memory: Remaking the Past in Late Socialist Vietnam. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2001.
Tumarkin, Nina. The Living and the Dead: The Rise and Fall of the Cult of World War II in Russia. New York, 1994.
Waxman, Zoe Vania. Writing the Holocaust: Identity, Testimony, Representation. Oxford, 2006.
Winter, Jay, and Sivan, Emmanuel, eds. War and Remembrance in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, 1999.
Wood, Nancy. Vectors of Memory: Legacies of Trauma in Postwar Europe. Oxford, 1999.
Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera’s Eye. Chicago, 1998.
The era of American hegemony, 1989–2005
Baumann, Robert F., and Lawrence, A. Yates.“My Clan against the World”: US and Coalition Forces in Somalia, 1992–1994. Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2004.
Biddle, Stephen. “Victory Misunderstood: What the Gulf War Tells Us about the Future of Conflict.” International Security 21 (1996): 139–79.
Biddle, StephenAfghanistan and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy. Carlisle, PA, 2002.
Boot, Max. War Made New: Technology, Warfare, and the Course of History. New York, 2006.
Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York, 1999.
Cann, John P.Somalia and the Limits of Military Power”. L’Afrique politique. 2000 (2000): 158–76.
Cimbala, Stephen J., and Rainow, Peter. Russia and Postmodern Deterrence. Washington, DC, 2007.
Cohen, Eliot A.A Revolution in Warfare.” Foreign Affairs 75 (1996): 37–54.
Cohen, Eliot A., and Andrew, J. Bacevich, eds. War over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in a Global Age. New York, 2001.
Cronin, Patrick M., ed. The Impenetrable Fog of War: Reflections on Modern Warfare and Strategic Surprise. Westport, CT, 2008.
Harkavy, Robert E., and Stephanie, G.  Neuman. Warfare and the Third World. New York, 2001.
Hashim, Ahmed S.The Revolution in Military Affairs outside the West.” Journal of International Affairs 51 (1998): 431–45.
Kagan, Frederick W.Finding the Target: The Transformation of American Military Policy. New York, 2006.
Keaney, Thomas, and Cohen, Eliot. Gulf War Air Power Survey. 5 vols. Washington, DC, 1993.
Kramer, Mark. “The Perils of Counterinsurgency: Russia’s War in Chechnya.” International Security 29 (2004–5): 5–63.
Lambeth, Benjamin S.NATO’s Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment. Santa Monica, 2001.
Lewis, John Wilson, and Litai, Xue. Imagined Enemies: China Prepares for Uncertain War. Stanford, 2006.
Maloney, Sean M.Enduring the Freedom: A Rogue Historian in Afghanistan. Dulles, VA, 2005.
Moyar, Mark. A Question of Command: Counterinsurgency from the Civil War to Iraq. New Haven, 2009.
Murray, Williamson. “Clausewitz Out, Computer In: Military Culture and Technological Hubris.” National Interest 48 (1997): 57–64.
Naylor, Sean. Not A Good Day to Die: The Untold Story of Operation Anaconda. New York, 2003.
Negash, Tekeste, and Tronvoll, Kjetil. Brothers at War: Making Sense of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. Athens, OH, 2000.
Oakley, Robert et al., eds. Policing the New World Disorder: Peace Operations and Public Security. Washington, DC, 1998.
Odom, William E., and Dujarric, Robert. America’s Inadvertent Empire. New Haven, 2004.
Olsen, John AndreasJohn Warden and the Renaissance of American Air Power. Washington, DC, 2007.
Press, Daryl G.The Myth of Air Power in the Persian Gulf War and the Future of Warfare.” International Security 26 (2001): 5–44.
Ricks, Tom. Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. New York, 2006.
van Creveld, Martin. The Changing Face of War: Lessons of Combat, from the Marne to Iraq. New York, 2006.
West, Bing. No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah. New York, 2005.
Zürcher, Christoph. The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus. New York, 2007.