Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: December 2013

13 - Korean music before and after the West

from Part V - Music histories of the folk and the nation
It is argued that a historically informed approach to the study of Oceania facilitates the understanding of how Oceanian and European cultures were both respectively and mutually shaped by centuries of cross-cultural contact and exchange. Recent scholarship on Oceania's networks of knowledge and culture obviates the need to reconstruct forgotten forms of musical practice or trace strands of musical dissemination and appropriation. Encounter music marked a new aural occurrence in the soundscapes of eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century voyagers and islanders, and it impacted the social relations and power dynamics of the transacting parties. Music and dance constituted an important aspect of Oceanian voyaging: sea songs, fiddle tunes, and hornpipes provided exercise and recreation for European sailors and officers during long passages at sea. Western assumptions about the social and public character of music are confounded by notions of ownership, restricted audience, and secrecy prevalent in parts of Oceania.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of World Music
  • Online ISBN: 9781139029476
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Ahn, Choong-sik (2005) The Story of Western Music in Korea: A Social History, 1885–1950 (eBookstand Books)
Akamatsu, Chijō, and Takashi Akiba (1938) Chōsen fuzoku no kenkyū, Tokyo: Osaka yago shoten, trans. Shim Usŏng as Han’guk minsok ŭi yŏn’gu, Seoul: Tongmunsŏn, 1991
Baker, T. (1882) On the Music of the North American Indians, Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel; republished Buren: Frits Knuf, 1976
Bauman, R. (1992) ‘Introduction’, in R. Bauman (ed.), Folklore, Cultural Performances, and Popular Entertainment, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. xiii–xxi
Bishop, I. B. (1898) Korea and Her Neighbours, London: John Murray; reprinted Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 1970
Boots, J. L. (1940) ‘Korean musical instruments and an introduction to Korean music’, Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 30: 1–31
Byeon, Gyewon (2001) ‘Ch’angjak kugak: Writing new music for Korean traditional instruments’, PhD dissertation, University of London
Chae Hyun-kyung (1996) ‘Ch’angjak kugak: Making Korean music Korean’, PhD dissertation, University of Michigan
Chae Hyun-kyung (1998) ‘Ch’angjak kugak (Newly composed Korean music): Making Korean music Korean’, Tongyang ŭmak/Journal of the Asian Music Research Institute 20: 289–316
Chang Sahun (1948) Minyowa hyangt’o akki, Seoul: Sangmundang
Chang Sahun (1969) Han’guk akki taegwan, Seoul: Han’guk kugak hakhoe
Chang Sahun (1974) Yŏmyŏng ŭi tongsŏ ŭmak, Seoul: Pojinje
Chang Sahun (1980) ‘Education in classical Korean music, past and present’, Korea Journal 20, 11: 39–45
Chang Sahun (1984) Kugak taesajŏn, Seoul: Segwang ŭmak ch’ulp’ansa
Chang Sahun and Sŏng Kyŏngnin (1949) Chosŏn ŭi minyo, Seoul: Kukche ŭmak munhwasa
Chang, Yoonhee (2004) ‘Promoting traditional music through radio in South Korea: An ethnography of GugakFM, a media institution’, MA thesis, Indiana University
Cho Wangsan (1947) Chosŏn minyo kaeron, Seoul: Chungang chunghakkyo
Ch’odŭng hakkyoe ponaegi wiwŏnhoe (eds.) (1995) Im Sŏkchae ch’aerok, Han’guk kubi minyo, Seoul: Tongguk University
Ch’oe Chongmin (1995) ‘Kwangbok 50-nyŏn kugak kyoyuk ŭi hyŏnhwanggwa munjejŏm’, in Kwangbok 50-junyŏn kinyŏm haksul taehoe/ Proceedings of the Conference for the Fiftieth Celebration from Japanese Colonization, 27–28 September 1995, Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn/ National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts, pp. 43–62
Ch’oe Chunshik (1997) Han’guginege munhwanŭn innŭn’ga?Seoul: Sagyejul
Ch’oe Chunshik (2000) Han’guginege munhwaga ŏptago?Seoul: Sagyejul
Ch’oe Pyŏngsam (2000) Samullori paeugi: Wŏlliesŏ yŏnju kkaji, Seoul: Hangminsa
Ch’oe Pyŏngsam, and Ch’oe Hŏn (1992) Samullori: Han’guk ŭmak 27/Selections of Korean Music 27, Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn
Ch’oe T’aehyŏn (1988) Haegŭm sanjo yŏn’gu, Seoul: Segwang ŭmak ch’ulp’ansa
Chŏn Chŏngim (1998) An Ikt’ae, Seoul: Shigongsa
Chŏn Inp’yŏng (1987) ‘Ch’angjak kugak’, Han’guk ŭi onŭl ŭi ŭmak: 165–89, Seoul: Han’guk ŭmak yŏn’guhoe
Chŏn Yŏngjo (ed.) (1982) Kugak yŏnhyŏk, Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn
Chŏng Noshik (1940) Chosŏn ch’anggŭksa, Seoul: Chosŏn ilbosa
Chŏng Pyŏngho (1995) Ch’umch’unŭn Ch’oe Sŭnghŭi, Segyerŭl hwiajabŭn Chosŏn yŏja, Seoul: Ppuri kip’ŭn namu
Clark, D. N. (2003) Living Dangerously in Korea: The Western Experience 1900–1950, Norwalk: East Bridge
Davies, D. M. (1988) The Life and Thought of Henry Gerhard Appenzeller, Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon Press
Economic Planning Board (1987) Han’guk t’onggye yŏn’gam/Korean Statistical Yearbook, Seoul: Economic Planning Board
Epstein, S. (2006) ‘We are the punx in Korea’, in K. Howard (ed.), Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave, Folkestone: Global Oriental, pp. 190–207
Fumitaka, Yamauchi (2000) ‘Ilbon taejung munhwa suyongŭi sahwoesa – Ilchae kangjumgi ch’anggawa Yuhaenggarŭl chungshimŭro [A social history of the application of Japanese popular culture – with a focus on ch’angga and yuhaengga]’, Kyegan nangman ŭmak [Romantic Music Quarterly] 13, 1: 29–143
Gale, J. S. (1898) ‘Korean songs’, The Korean Repository 5, 12: 443
Griffis, W. E. (1882) Coree: The Hermit Nation, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons
Hahn Man-young (1990) Kugak: Studies in Korean Traditional Music, trans. by K. Howard and Inok Paek, Seoul: Tamgu Dang
Han Myŏnghŭi (1985) ‘Hyŏndae kugak’, in Yi Haerang (ed.), Han’guk ŭmaksa, Seoul: Taehan min’guk yesulwŏn, pp. 409–76
Han Pŏmsu (1975) Taegŭm sanjobo, Seoul: Minhaksa
‘Han’guk ŭmak yŏn’gu’ (1985) Journal of the Korean Musicological Society, 13–14: 215–28
Han’guk yesul yŏn’guso (eds.) (1995–7) Han’guk chakkok kasajip, vols. 1–3, Seoul: Han’guk yesul chonghap hakkyo
Han’guk munhwa yesul chinhŭngwŏn (1992 and 2002) Munye yŏn’gam 1992, 2002, Seoul: Han’guk munhwa yesul chinhŭngwŏn
Harrison, F. L. (1973) Time, Place and Music, Buren: Frits Knuf
Hesselink, N. (2004) ‘SamulNori as traditional: Preservation and innovation in a South Korean contemporary percussion genre’, Ethnomusicology 48, 3: 405–39
Hesselink, N. (2012) SamulNori: Contemporary Korean Drumming and the Rebirth of Itinerant Performance Culture, University of Chicago Press
Howard, K. (1999) ‘Korean tradition in Isang Yun’s composition style’, Ssi-ol. Almanach 1998/99, Berlin: Isang Yun Gesellschaft, pp. 67–106
Howard, K. (2006a) Preserving Korean Music: Intangible Cultural Properties as Icons of Identity, Aldershot: Ashgate
Howard, K. (2006b) Creating Korean Music: Tradition, Innovation and the Discourse of Identity, Aldershot: Ashgate
Howard, K. (2006c) ‘Coming of age: Korean pop in the 1990s’, in K. Howard (ed.), Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave, Folkestone: Global Oriental, pp. 82–98
Hulbert, H. B. (1896) ‘Korean vocal music’, The Korean Repository, 3: 45–53
Hulbert, H. B. (1906) The Passing of Korea, New York: Doubleday; reprinted Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 1969
Hunt, E. N. (1980) Protestant Pioneers in Korea, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
Huntley, M. (1987) To Start a Work: The Foundations of Protestant Mission in Korea (1884–1919), New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Hwang, Okon (2006) ‘The ascent and politicization of pop music in Korea: From the 1960s to the 1980s’, in K. Howard (ed.), Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave, Folkestone: Global Oriental, pp. 34–47
Hwang, Pyŏnggi (1978) ‘Chŏnt’ong ŭmakkwa hyŏndae ŭmak’, in Han’guk ŭi minjok munhwa: Kŭ chŏnt’onggwa hyŏndaesŏng, Sŏngnam: Han’guk chŏngshin munhwa yŏn’guwŏn, pp. 218–36; republ. in Yi Kangsuk (ed.), Chongjok ŭmakkwa munhwa, Seoul: Minumsa, 1982, pp. 217–36
Im Sŏkchae (1997) Han’guk kujŏn minyo: yŏn’gup’yŏn, Seoul: Chimmundang
Im Tonggwŏn (1964) Han’guk minyosa, Seoul: Chimmundang
Kang Tŭnghak, Ryu Chongmok, Kim Yŏngdon, Na Sŭngman, O Yongnok, and Yi Pohyŏng (1994) Minyowa minjung ŭi sam, Seoul: Tosŏ ch’ulp’ansa
Keh Chung Sik (1935) Die koreanische Musik, Leipzig, Strasbourg, and Zurich: Heitz
Killick, A. (1997) ‘Putting p’ansori on the stage: A re-study in honor of Marshall R. Pihl’, Korea Journal, 37, 1: 108–30
Killick, A. (1998) ‘The invention of traditional Korean opera and the problem of the traditionesque’, PhD dissertation, University of Washington
Killick, A. (2010) In Search of Traditional Opera: Discourses of Ch’anggŭk, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press
Kim Chŏmdo (2000) Yusŏnggi ŭmban ch’ongnam charyojip 1907-nyŏn put’ŏ 1943-nyôn kkaji/The Complete Listings of SP Phonorecords Released during the Years 1907 up to 1943, Seoul: Synnara
Kim Dong-Won (1999) SamulNori Textbook (Learning Korean Culture Series), Seoul: Overseas Koreans Foundation/Korean National University of Arts
Kim Injae (1990) Kayagŭm sanjo, Seoul: Ŭnha ch’ulp’ansa
Kim, Jin Hi (1998) ‘Independent composer profile 8: Jin Hi Kim’, SCI Newsletter 18, 3: 1–6
Kim Myŏnggon (1993) Han: Kim Myŏnggon ŭi kwangdae kihaeng, Seoul: Tosŏ ch’ulp’ansa
Kim Pyŏngsŏn (2007) Ch’anggawa shinshi ŭi hyŏngsŏng yŏn’gu, Seoul: Somyŏng ch’ulp’an
Kim Taesŏk (1984) Kŏmun’go sanjo, Seoul: Kwanil munhwasa
Kim Tonguk (1961) Han’guk kayo ŭi yŏn’gu, Seoul: Ŭryu munhwasa
Kim Woo-ok (1980) ‘P’ansori: An indigenous theatre of Korea’, PhD dissertation, New York University
Kim Yongŭi (1977) Ihwarŭl pinnŭn ŭmagindŭl, Seoul: Taegwang munhwasa
Korean Conservatorium of Performing Arts/Han’guk chŏnt’ong yesul yŏnju pojonhoe (1990) SamulNori: Kim Tŏksu p’ae SamulNoriga yŏnju hanŭn changgo karak haksŭp p’yŏn1, Seoul: Samho ch’ulp’ansa; English version, SamulNori: Korean Traditional Percussion SamulNori Rhythm Workbook 1: Basic Changgo, Seoul: Sam-ho Music Publishing, 1992a
Korean Conservatorium of Performing Arts/Han’guk chŏnt’ong yesul yŏnju pojonhoe (1992b) SamulNori: Korean Traditional Percussion SamulNori Rhythm Workbook 2: Samdo sul changgo karak/Kim Tŏksu p’ae SamulNoriga yŏnju hanŭn samdo sŏlchanggo karak haksŭp p’yŏn 2, Seoul: Samho ch’ulp’ansa
Korean Conservatorium of Performing Arts/Han’guk chŏnt’ong yesul yŏnju pojonhoe (1995) SamulNori: Korean Traditional Percussion SamulNori Rhythm Workbook 3: Samdo sul changgo karak/Kim Tŏksu p’ae SamulNoriga yŏnju hanŭn samdo sŏlchanggo karak yŏnju p’yŏn 3, Seoul: Samho ch’ulp’ansa
Kungnip kugagwŏn (1991) Yi wangjik aakpuwa ŭmagindŭl, Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn
Kweon, Sug-In (2003) ‘Popular discourses on Korean culture: From the late (1980)s to the present’, Korea Journal, 43, 1: 32–57
Kwon Oh-hyang (1992) ‘Cultural identity through music: A socio-aesthetic analysis of contemporary music in South Korea’, PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
Kwŏn Osŏng (1995) ‘Kugak chŏngch’aek chedo ŭi pyŏnch’ŏn’gwa mirae ŭi chŏnmang’, in Kwangbok 50-junyŏn kinyŏm haksul taehoe/Proceedings of the Conference for the Fiftieth Celebration from Japanese Colonization, 27–28 September 1995,Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn/National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts, pp. 161–81
Lee, Byong Won (1997) Styles and Esthetics in Korean Traditional Music, Seoul: National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts
Lee, Byong Won (1999) ‘The ornaments in traditional Korean music: Structure, function and semantics’, Ssi-ol Almanach 1998/99,Berlin: Internationale Isang Yun Gesellschaft, pp. 59–66
Lee, Byong Won (2000) ‘Western staff notation and its impact on Korean musical practice’, In Search of New Creativity: The Changing Values of Music, Seoul: Asian Music Research Institute, Seoul National University, pp. 79–90
Lee Kang Sook [Yi Kangsuk] (1977) ‘Korean music culture: Genuine and quasi-Korean music’, Korea Journal, 20, 11: 4–10
Lee Kang Sook [Yi Kangsuk] (1980) ‘Today’s Korean music’, Korean Journal, 20, 11: 70–7
Lee, Ki-baik (1984) A New History of Korea, trans. by E. W. Wagner and E. J. Shultz, Seoul: Ilchogak
Lee Sŏngmu (1991) ‘The rise of chungin and their characteristics’, Papers of the British Association for Korean Studies, 1: 107–16
Lee Yong-il (1990) ‘A study of Korean music education and its improvement’, in Jack Dobbs (ed.), Music Education: Facing the Future, Helsinki: International Society for Music Education, pp. 260–6
Maliangkay, R. (2006) ‘Supporting our boys: American military entertainment and Korean pop music in the (1950)s and early-(1960)s’, in K. Howard (ed.), Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave, Folkestone: Global Oriental, pp. 21–33
Miller, T. E., and J. Chonpairot (1995) Crossroads: A History of Siamese Music Reconstructed from Western Documents, (1505)–(1932), DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies
Min Kyŏngbae (1997) Han’guk kyohoe ch’ansŏnggasa, Seoul: Yŏnse taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu
Min Kyŏngch’an (1986) ‘Sŏyang ŭmak chŏnnaerŭl ponŭn segye ŭi nŭn’, in Ŭmak tonga, 194–7
Morton, J., and P. Collins (eds.) (1992) Dictionary of Contemporary Composers, London and Chicago: St James’ Press
Mun Chaesuk (1989) Chukp’a: Kayagŭm kokchip, Seoul: Segwang ŭmak ch’ulp’ansa
Murayama, Chijun (1932) Chōsen no fugeki, Keijō [Seoul]: Chōsen sōtokufu
Myers, H. (ed.) (1993) Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies, London and New York: Macmillan and W.W. Norton
Nakamura, Rihei (1997) ‘Han’guk ŭi Yiwangjo kungjung ŭmak kyosa Ek’erŭt’ŭ’, trans. into Korean by Min Kyŏngch’an, in Nangman ŭmak, 10: 99–120
No Tongŭn (1989) Han’guk minjok ŭmak hyŏndan’gye, Seoul: Segwang ŭmak ch’ulp’ansa
No Tongŭn (1992) Kim Sunnam, kŭ salmgwa yesul, Seoul: Han’gilsa
No Tongŭn (1995) Han’guk kŭndae ŭmaksa 1, Seoul: Han’gilsa
No Tongŭn and Yi Kŏnyong (1991) Minjok ŭmangnon, Seoul: Han’gilsa
Pak Ch’anho (1992) Han’guk kayosa [History of Korean Popular Music] (1987), trans. from Japanese by An Tongnim, Seoul: Hyŏnam
Pak, Gloria Lee (2006) ‘On the mimetic faculty: A critical study of the 1984 ppongtchak debate and post-colonial mimesis’, in K. Howard (ed.), Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave, Folkestone: Global Oriental, pp. 62–71
Pak Hwang (1976) Ch’anggŭksa yŏn’gu, Seoul: Paengnok ch’ulp’ansa
Pak Pŏmhun (1985) P’iri sanjo yŏn’gu, Seoul: Segwang ŭmak ch’ulp’ansa
Park, Chan E. (2003) Voices from the Straw Mat: Toward an Ethnography of Korean Story Singing, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press
Park,Sung Hee (2011) ‘Patronage and creativity in Seoul: The late 18th to late 19th century urban middle class and its vocal music’, PhD dissertation, SOAS, University of London
Pihl, M. R. (1977) ‘Korea in the bardic tradition: P’ansori as an oral art’, in Korea Studies Forum, vol. 2, Seoul: The Korean-American Education Commission, pp. 1–106
Pihl, M. R. (1994) The Korean Singer of Tales, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Pilzer, J. D. (2006) ‘The 20th-century “disappearance” of Korean professional female entertainers during the rise of Korea’s modern sex-and-entertainment industry’, in M. Feldman and B. Gordon (eds.), The Courtesan’s Arts: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 295–311
Provine, R. C. (1984) ‘Yanggŭm’, in S. Sadie (ed.), New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, vol. 3, London: Macmillan, p. 882
Provine, R. C., Y. Tokumaru, and J. L. Witzleben (eds.) (2002) East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea. Vol. 7: The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, New York: Routledge
Rinser, L., and Isang Yun (1977) Der verwundete Drache: Dialog über Leben und Werk des Komponisten, Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer
Robinson, M. E. (1988) Cultural Nationalism in Colonial Korea, 1920–1925, Seattle: University of Washington
Rockwell, C. (1974) ‘Trends and developments in Korean traditional music today’, Korea Journal, 14, 3: 15–20
Rutt, R., and Kim Chong-un (trans.) (1974) Virtuous Women: Three Masterpieces of Traditional Korean Fiction, Seoul: Korean National Commission for UNESCO
Sayers, R., with R. Rinzler (1987) The Korean Onggi Potter, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press
Shim Usŏng (1974a) ‘Namsadang’, in Survey of Traditional Arts: Folk Arts, Seoul: National Academy of Arts, pp. 455–72
Shim Usŏng (1974b) Namsadang p’ae yŏn’gu, Seoul: Tonghwa ch’ulp’ansa
Shim Usŏng (1985) ‘Han’guk ŭi yurang yein chiptan: Namsadangp’aerŭl chungshimŭro’, in Chŏn’tong munhw, 140–9
Usŏk (1985) Chŏnt’ong munhwa wa sŏyang munhwa, Seoul: Sungmyŏng taehakkyo ch’ulp’ansa
Sŏn Sŏngwŏn (1996) Taejung ŭmagŭi ppuri, Seoul: Tosŏ ch’ulp’an Kkun
Song, Bang-song [Song Pangsong] (1976) ‘Korean kwangdae musicians and their musical traditions’, Korea Journal, 14, 9: 12–19
Song, Bang-song [Song Pangsong] (1980) Source Readings in Korean Music, Seoul: Korean National Commission for UNESCO
Song Hyejin (1981) ‘Yiwangjin aakpuwa inyŏrŭl maejŏttŏn pakkat saramdŭl’, in Yiwangjik aakpuwa ŭmagindŭl, Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn, pp. 137–48
Song Hyejin, Kim Myŏngsŏk, and Ŭn’gyŏng (eds.) (1996) Han’guk ŭmak: Ch’angjakkok chakp’um mongnokchip, Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn
Song Pangsong (1981) Han’guk ŭmakhak nonmun haeje, Sŏngnam: Han’guk chŏngshin munhwa yŏn’guwŏn
Song Pangsong (1984) Han’guk ŭmak t’ongsa, Seoul: Ilchogak
Song Pangsong (1985) ‘Chosŏn hugi ŭi ŭmak’, in Yi Haerang (ed.), Han’guk ŭmaksa, Seoul: Taehan min’guk yesulwŏn, pp. 279–408
Song Pangsong (1989) Han’guk ŭmakhak sŏsŏl, Seoul: Segwang ŭmak ch’ulp’ansa
Sung, Sang Yeon (2001) ‘An ethnography of public school music education in South Korea: Issues in the reintroduction of Korean music’, MA thesis, Indiana University
Taehan min’guk yesulwŏn, (1988, 1998, and 2004) Han’guk yesul ch’ongjip, vols. 2–4, Seoul: Taehan min’guk yesulwŏn,
Um, Hae-kyung (1992) ‘Making p’ansori: Korean musical drama’, PhD dissertation, Queen’s University of Belfast
Van Zile, J. (2001) Perspectives on Korean Dance, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press
Walraven, B. (1994) Songs of the Shaman: The Ritual Chants of the Korean MudangLondon: KPI
Yano, C. (2002) Tears of Longing: Nostalgia and the Nation in Japanese Popular Song, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, Harvard University Press
Yi Chaesuk (1971) Kayagŭm sanjo, Seoul: Han’guk kugak hakhoe
Yi Chaesuk (1979) Kugak panjubŏp, Seoul: Sumundang
Yi Chaesuk (1982) Kayagŭm sanjo Kim Chukp’a ryu, Seoul: Ŭnha ch’ulp’ansa
Yi Chaesuk (1987) Kayagŭm sanjo Sŏng Kŭmyŏn ryu, Seoul: Ŭnha ch’ulp’ansa
Yi Chinwŏn (2007) Taegŭm sanjo ch’angshija Pak Chonggi p’yŏngjŏn, Seoul: Minsogwŏn
Yi Kangsuk (1985) Ŭmak ŭi ihae, Seoul: Minŭmsa
Yi Kangsuk and Kim Ch’unmi and Min Kyŏngch’an (2001) Uri yangak 100-nyŏn, Seoul: Hyŏnamsa
Yi Kŏnyong (1987) Han’guk ŭmak ŭi nolliwa yulli, Seoul: Segwang ŭmak ch’ulp’ansa
Yi Kŏnyong (1988) Minjok ŭmak ŭi chip’yŏng, Seoul: Han’gilsa
Yi Kŏnyong (1990) ‘Ch’aekŭl naemyŏnsŏ’, Minjok ŭmak, 1: 10–11
Yi Kwangshik (1981) Han’guk kaehwasa yŏn’gu, Seoul: Ilchogak
Yi Kyut’ae (1983) Han’gugin ŭi ŭishik kujo, Seoul: Shinwŏn ch’ulp’ansa
Yi Pohyŏng, Yi Chuyŏng, Yi Tongyŏng, and Chŏng Ch’unja (1985) Hyangje p’ungnyu: Muhyŏng munhwajae (ŭmak) chosa pogosŏ 6, Seoul: Munhwajae kwalliguk/Munhwajae yŏn’guso
Yi Sanggyu (1995) ‘Ch’angjak hwaltong mit kugakki kaeryang ŭi sŏnggwawa munjejŏm’, in Kwangbok 50-junyŏn kinyŏm haksul taehoe/Proceedings of the Conference for the Fiftieth Celebration from Japanese Colonization, Seoul: National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts, pp. 109–60
Yi Sangjun (1929) Chosŏn sokkok chip, Seoul: Samsŏngsa
Yi Sangman (1976) ‘Ŭmak kyegwan’, in Munye ch’onggam, Seoul: Han’guk munhwa yesul chinhŭngwŏn, pp. 329–52
Yi Sangman (1984) ‘Han’guk ŭi sŏyang ŭmak paengnyŏn’, Kaeksŏk, 1: 160–3
Yi Sangman (1995) ‘Chŏnt’ong ŭmak kongyŏn ŭi saeroun chŏngnibŭl wihan cheŏn’, in Kwangbok 50-junyŏn kinyŏm haksul taehoe/Proceedings of the Conference for the Fiftieth Celebration from Japanese Colonization, Seoul: National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts, pp. 9–18
Yi Sŏngch’ŏn (1992) ‘Han’guk chŏnt’ong ŭmak ŭi ch’angjak pangbŏbe kwanhan yŏn’gu’, in Yŏnse nonmunjip, Seoul: Yŏnse taehakkyo, pp. 119–81
Yi Sŏngch’ŏn (1997) Han’guk, han’gugin, han’guk ŭmak, Seoul: P’ungnam
Yi Soyŏng (1993) ‘Minjok ŭmak undong ŭi iron’gwa shilch’ŏn’, in Kim Ch’angnam (ed.), Norae, vol. 4, Seoul: Shilch’ŏn munhaksa, pp. 55–90
Yi Yŏngmi (1991) Minjok yesul undong ŭi yŏksawa iron [History and Theory of the National Art Movement], Seoul: Han’gilsa
Yi Yŏngmi (1998) Han’guk taejung kayosa [A History of Korean Popular Song], Seoul: Hanguk yesul yŏn’guso ch’ongsŏ; Seoul: Shigongsa, 2000
Yi Yŏngmi (2006) ‘The beginnings of Korean pop: Popular music during the Japanese occupation era (1910–45)’, in K. Howard (ed.), Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave, Folkestone: Global Oriental, pp. 1–9
Yi Yusŏn (1985) Han’guk yangak paengnyŏnsa, Seoul: Chungang taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu
Yi Yusŏn and Yi Sangman (1984) ‘Hyŏndae yangak’, in Yi Haerang (ed.), Han’guk ŭmaksa, Seoul: Taehan min’guk yesulwŏn, pp. 477–608
Yun Miyŏng (ed.) (2001) Kŏnwŏn (1400)-nyŏn, kaewŏn 50-nyŏn Kungnip kugagwŏn, Seoul: Kungnip kugagwŏn