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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: December 2014

10 - Greece in the Early Iron Age: Mobility, Commodities, Polities, and Literacy

from Mobility, Migration and Colonisation
Summary
The late second millennium BC on Sardinia is among the most dynamic and vital periods in the island's history, when Nuragic society undergoes massive changes. This chapter examines this perplexing period, drawing on the evidence of imports and the built environment to construct a picture of a still inward-turning society whose emergent elites were unsuccessful at overcoming a tradition of acephalous cohesion. The chapter focuses on the best provenanced and best dated of Aegean imports and imitations, Cypriot-style goods, amber, Iberian imports, the Aegean-style pots, the copper oxhide ingots, and two amber bead types such as the Tiryns and Allumiere beads. The Cypriot-style metals, for which it is virtually impossible to confirm if they are imported or locally made, belong to the twelfth and eleventh centuries BC, with some objects dating to the tenth century BC. While some Cypriot-style oxhide ingots have been found in the south, they cluster more in the central zone.
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The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean
  • Online ISBN: 9781139028387
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139028387
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References

Classical Authors and Texts

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Aristotle, Politica.

Herodotus, Histories.

Hesiod, Works and Days.

Homer, Iliad.

Homer, Odyssey.

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War.

Modern Authors
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Camp, J.M. 1979 A drought in the late eighth century BC. Hesperia 48: 397–411.
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Coldstream, J.N., and H.W. Catling (eds) 1996 Knossos North Cemetery: Early Greek Tombs. British School at Athens, Supplementary Volume 28. London: British School at Athens.
De Polignac, F. 1984 La Naissance de la cité grecque. Paris: Editions La Découverte.
Desborough, V.R.d’A. 1952 Protogeometric Pottery. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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Mazar, A., and C. Bronk Ramsey 2008 14C dates and the Iron Age chronology of Israel: a response. Radiocarbon 50: 159–80.
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Classical Authors and Texts

Aristotle, Poetica.

Aristotle, Politica.

Herodotus, Histories.

Hesiod, Works and Days.

Homer, Iliad.

Homer, Odyssey.

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War.

Modern Authors

Bartoloni, G., and F. Delpino (eds) 2005 Oriente e Occidente: Metodi discipline a confronto. Riflessioni sulla cronologia dell’età del ferro in Italia. Atti dell’Incontro di studi, Roma, 30–31 ottobre 2003. Mediterranea 1. Pisa, Italy: Istituti Editoriali et Poligrafici Internazionali.
Bartoloni, P. 2009 Miniere e metallic nella Sardegna fenicia e punica. Sardinia, Corsica et Baleares Antiquae 7: 11–18.
Bietti Sestieri, A.M. 1988 The ‘Mycenaean connection’ and its impact on the central Mediterranean societies. Dialoghi di Archeologia 6: 23–51.
Blegen, C.W. 1952 Two Athenian grave groups of about 900 BC. Hesperia 21: 279–94.
Camp, J.M. 1979 A drought in the late eighth century BC. Hesperia 48: 397–411.
Cherry, J.F. 1988 Pastoralism and the role of animals in the pre- and protohistoric economies of the Aegean. In C.R. Whittaker (ed.), Pastoral Economies in Classical Antiquity, 6–34. Cambridge: Cambridge Philological Society.
Coldstream, J.N. 1977 Geometric Greece. London: Methuen.
Coldstream, J.N. 2009 Greek Geometric Pottery: A Survey of Ten Local Styles and Their Chronology. 2nd edn. Bristol, UK: Phoenix Press.
Coldstream, J.N., and H.W. Catling (eds) 1996 Knossos North Cemetery: Early Greek Tombs. British School at Athens, Supplementary Volume 28. London: British School at Athens.
De Polignac, F. 1984 La Naissance de la cité grecque. Paris: Editions La Découverte.
Desborough, V.R.d’A. 1952 Protogeometric Pottery. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Desborough, V.R.d’A. 1964 The Last Mycenaeans and Their Successors: An Archaeological Survey c. 1200–c. 1000 BC. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Desborough, V.R.d’A. 1972 The Greek Dark Ages. London: Ernest Benn.
Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 2006 The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age: Continuity and Change between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries BC. London and New York: Routledge.
Dietler, M. 2005 The archaeology of colonization and the colonization of archaeology: theoretical reflections on an ancient Mediterranean colonial encounter. In G. Stein (ed.), The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters: Comparative Perspectives, 33–68. Santa Fe, New Mexico: School for Advanced Research Press.
Douzougli, A., and J.K. Papadopoulos 2010 Liatovouni: a Molossian cemetery and settlement in Epirus. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 125: 1–87.
Fantalkin, A. 2001 Low chronology and Greek Protogeometric and Geometric Pottery in the southern Levant. Levant 33: 117–25.
Fantalkin, A. 2008 Contact Between the Greek World and the Southern Levant During the Seventh–Sixth Centuries BCE. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Finkelstein, I., and E. Piasetzky 2009 Radiocarbon-dated destruction layers: a skeleton for Iron Age chronology in the Levant. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 28: 255–74.
Finley, M.I. 1973 The Ancient Economy. London: Chatto and Windus.
Forsberg, S. 1995 Near Eastern Destruction Datings as Sources for Greek and Near Eastern Iron Age Chronology. Archaeological and Historical Studies. The Cases of Samaria (722 B.C.) and Tarsus (696 B.C.). Uppsala, Sweden: Academia Upsaliensis.
Gras, M. 1985 Trafics tyrrhéniens archaïques. Paris: École françaises de Rome.
Hägg, R. (ed.) 1983 The Greek Renaissance of the Eighth Century BC: Tradition and Innovation. Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 30. Stockholm: Swedish Institute at Athens.
Hall, J.M. 2007a Polis, community, and ethnic identity. In H.A. Shapiro (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece, 40–60. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, J.M. 2007b A History of the Archaic Greek World ca. 1200–479 BCE. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell.
Hall, J.M. 2008 Foundation stories. In G.R. Tsetskhladze (ed.), Greek Colonisation: An Account of Greek Colonies and Other Settlements Overseas, Volume 2. Mnemosyne Supplement 193(2): 383–426. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
Halstead, P. 1990 Present to past in the Pindhos: diversification and specialization in mountain economies. Rivista di Studi Liguri 56: 61–80.
Hammond, N.G.L. 2000 The ethne in Epirus and Upper Macedonia. Annual of the British School at Athens 95: 345–52.
Hoffman, G.L. 1997 Imports and Immigrants: Near Eastern Contacts with Iron Age Crete. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Hooker, J.T. 1976 Mycenaean Greece. London and Boston: Routledge and Keegan Paul.
Horden, P., and N. Purcell 2000 The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History. Oxford: Blackwell.
James, P., I.J. Thorpe, N. Kokkinos, N. Morkot and J. Frankish 1991 Centuries of Darkness: A Challenge to the Conventional Chronology of Old World Archaeology. London and New York: Jonathan Cape.
Jeffery, L.H. 1990 The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece: A Study of the Origin of the Greek Alphabet and its Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries BC. Revised ed., with supplement by A.W. Johnston. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Jung, R. 2006 Chronologia Comparata: Vergleichende Chronologie von Südgriechenland und Süditalien von ca. 1700/1600 bis 1000 v.u.Z. Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse 348. Veröffentlichungen der Mykenischen Kommission 26. Vienna: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Kotsonas, A. 2008 The Archaeology of Tomb A1K1 of Orthi Petra in Eleutherna: The Early Iron Age Pottery. Herakleion (Crete), Greece: University of Crete.
Kurke, L. 1999 Coins, Bodies, Games and Gold: The Politics of Meaning in Archaic Greece. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Langdon, S. 1987 Gift exchange in Geometric sanctuaries. In T. Linders and G. Nordqvist (eds), Gifts to the Gods, Boreas 15: 107–13. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International.
Langdon, S. 2008 Art and Identity in Dark Age Greece, 1100–700 BCE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Latacz, J. 2004 Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lemos, I.S. 2002 The Protogeometric Aegean: The Archaeology of the Late Eleventh and Tenth Centuries BC. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Luraghi, N. 1996 Partage du sol et occupation du territoire dans les colonies grecques d’Occident au VIIIe siècle. In M. Broze (ed.), Les moyens d’expression du pouvoir dans les sociétés anciennes, 213–19. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters.
Maeir, A.M., A. Fantalkin and A. Zuckerman 2009 The earliest Greek import in the Iron Age Levant: new evidence from Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel. Ancient West and East 8: 57–80.
Malkin, I. 1998 The Returns of Odysseus: Colonization and Ethnicity. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Marchand, S. 1996 Down from Olympus: Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750–1970. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Mazar, A., and C. Bronk Ramsey 2008 14C dates and the Iron Age chronology of Israel: a response. Radiocarbon 50: 159–80.
Molloy, B. 2005 Naue II swords and the collapse of the Aegean Bronze Age. In C. Briault, J. Green, A. Kaldelis and A. Stellatou (eds), SOMA 2003: Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1391: 115–17. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Molloy, B. 2010 Swords and swordmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age. American Journal of Archaeology 114: 403–28.
Morris, I. 1987 Burial and Ancient Society: The Rise of the Greek City-state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morris, I. 1989 Circulation, deposition and the formation of the Greek Iron Age. Man n.s. 24: 505–19.
Morris, I. 1994 Archaeologies of Greece. In I. Morris (ed.), Classical Greece: Ancient Histories and Modern Archaeologies, 8–47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morris, I. 1997 Periodization and the heroes: inventing a Dark Age. In M. Golden and P. Toohey (eds), Inventing Ancient Culture: Historicism, Periodization, and the Ancient World, 96–131. London and New York: Routledge.
Morris, I., and B.B. Powell (eds) 1997 A New Companion to Homer. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
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