Skip to main content
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge World History
    • Online ISBN: 9780511978807
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The development of agriculture has often been described as the most important change in all of human history. Volume 2 of The Cambridge World History explores the origins and impact of agriculture and agricultural communities, and also discusses issues associated with pastoralism and hunter-fisher-gatherer economies. To capture the patterns of this key change across the globe, the volume uses an expanded timeframe from 12,000 BCE–500 CE, beginning with the Neolithic and continuing into later periods. Scholars from a range of disciplines, including archaeology, historical linguistics, biology, anthropology, and history, trace common developments in the more complex social structures and cultural forms that agriculture enabled, such as sedentary villages and more elaborate foodways, and then present a series of regional overviews accompanied by detailed case studies from many different parts of the world, including Southwest Asia, South Asia, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, and Europe.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

  • 10 - Introduction: a world with agriculture
    pp 243-260
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This introduction traces the origins of agriculture and the character of early agricultural communities across the world and surveys the development of the more complex social structures and cultural forms that agriculture enabled. Like modern scientists, however, some experimenters either unwittingly or intentionally manipulated the genetic make-up of plant and animal populations, selecting for traits and characteristics that were more productive or more pleasing and thus preferred. Food production has been linked to significant changes in landscapes and populations that eventually supported the rise of urbanism and enabled human populations to expand from 6 million to over 7 billion today. Alan Outram describes how, whether keeping a few livestock within a mixed farming system or maintaining large herds and flocks in systems of specialized pastoralism, the key limiting factors that have to be solved are access to grazing land and, for times of the year when the natural grazing is insufficient, adequate supplies of fodder.
  • 11 - Archaeogenetics
    pp 261-288
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Archaeogenetics was developing its own approaches to data handling, hybridizing techniques borrowed from a variety of disparate disciplines. The mtDNA and the male-specific part of the Y chromosome are the two uniparental, non-recombining genetic marker systems, which led the way for genealogical and phylogeographic studies. Phylogeography utilizes three variables, the reconstructed phylogenetic tree of descent, or genealogy, the geographic distribution of the lineages and the time depth of various clusters. Founder analysis is an attempt to formalize a phylogeographic approach to identifying colonization events, but it exemplifies the approach more broadly. The analysis of ancient DNA has the potential to test models built on the basis of modern variation and archaeology. Ancient DNA is starting to contribute to the study of other aspects of the spread of farming.
  • 12 - Agricultural origins: what linguistic evidence reveals
    pp 289-309
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The reach of the currently available linguistic evidence on early agriculture also extends back to the middle or the later middle Holocene for the Middle East, India and Mesoamerica. The essential foundation for the linguistic recovery of history is a systematic reconstruction of the relationships and phonological histories of the families of languages spoken in the regions whose human histories one wishes to investigate. Two major originating centres of food production lay in Africa, one in the far eastern Sahara and the other far to the west, in West Africa, along with a probable third centre in the southwestern Ethiopian highlands. The lexicons of subsistence in the first several periods in the history of the Nilo-Saharan language family reveal an extended, stage-by-stage history of shift from food collection to food production. A new stage in the evolution of West African agricultural practices began by no later than the fifth millennium BCE.
  • 13 - What did agriculture do for us? The bioarchaeology of health and diet
    pp 310-334
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter focuses on what kind of evidence can be productively used from human remains to tell us something about a population's diet and health. It addresses the questions of how agriculture contributes to our health and diet and how bioarchaeology can help people understand this relationship better. Essentially, bioarchaeological studies of health and well-being provide a deep-time perspective on understanding the origin, evolution, and history of disease, which is very relevant to the emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine. It is much easier to consider the health of contemporary people who hunt and forage, and ecological factors specific to living hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists can be used effectively to understand the diet they eat and challenges to health they experience. Advances in understanding the nature of the agricultural transition and its impact on humans have particularly been seen recently in genetic studies, for example how plants and animals have evolved.
  • 14 - Communities
    pp 335-352
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter surveys the nature of early agricultural communities, focusing on archaeological evidence for the social life of early farmers in different parts of the world. In many ways early agricultural societies are extremely diverse, but underlying this range of cultural forms are striking similarities, suggesting that agriculture tended to constrain and direct social behaviour along certain lines. The chapter focuses on archaeological evidence for, first, the nature of agricultural practice, and second, forms and scales of collective social action, from residential families to work parties, ritual congregations and broader networks. It also presents three pairs of case studies, each comprising a major centre of agricultural origin involving domestication of key cereal crops and an adjacent region of agricultural spread, West Asia and Europe, China and Korea and Mesoamerica and the Southwest. Archaeobotanical evidence indicates that cultivation took place in a range of lowland and upland contexts, using high-water-table, floodwater, mesa top run-off, or rain-fed techniques.
  • 15 - Pastoralism
    pp 353-386
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter focuses on cultures that rely on the herding of animals for the majority of their subsistence, though some discussion of mixed farming regimes, in order to identify the origins of some herding practices and to help make comparisons with purely pastoralist economies. It explores the key issues affecting the origins of pastoral societies, such as the circumstances of animal domestication, the supply of fodder and the origins of dairying and wool exploitation. From the agriculturalists' point of view, the feeding of stock allows the conversion of inedible by-products into protein and fat. In order to understand the development of prehistoric pastoralism, it is necessary to ask when practices such as milking first developed and whether the timing of Sherratt's secondary products revolution holds true for all regions and environments within Eurasia. It is archaeologically very difficult to reconstruct patterns of mobility among ancient pastoralists. Fully nomadic groups will leave extremely ephemeral settlement evidence.
  • 16 - Agriculture and urbanism
    pp 387-410
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter explores the complex relationship between agriculture and urbanism, from its central role enabling the development of larger and denser settlements over time, to varying strategies and choices in agricultural practice. New technologies are increasingly aiding archaeologists in documenting the spatial networks of these urban centres. While classic, low-tech methods like pedestrian survey are still among the most thorough methods of locating archaeological sites within an urban catchment, this form of research is inherently limited in scale. These expanded archaeological data sets on urban-hinterland relationships have both increased our ability to challenge the standard narrative and illustrated its persistence. The modern understandings of the relationship between urbanism and agriculture continue to erode long-held beliefs, the standard narrative, that urban zones were highly centralized systems abstracted from their hinterland, which provided agricultural products for the city under despotic control.
  • 17 - Early agriculture in Southwest Asia
    pp 411-444
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The oldest documented Neolithic cultures occur in the Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia, more commonly known as the Near East. While future research may ultimately yield an even older Neolithic, it has been best and most thoroughly studied in this region. This chapter provides an overview of the Near Eastern Neolithic in the several terms like environment and climate, Near East-specific theories on the Neolithic, issues of sedentism and the nature of the first villages and contemporary and future research trends. The Near Eastern Neolithic was first documented during archaeology's formative development and some of the considerable diversity in terminology is result of the academic and national backgrounds of the variety of scholars involved in these early studies. Refinements in precise environmental reconstruction methods have greatly assisted in addressing this issue. The emerging research on Cyprus has reoriented how archaeologists view island colonization, domestication processes and accompanying social changes, and the spread of the Neolithic from its mainland cores.
  • 18 - 'Ain Ghazal, Jordan
    pp 445-471
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The oldest layers occur atop sterile red clay, and it appears that 'Ain Ghazal began as a small village about 2 ha in area. The end of the MPPNB in the southern Levant was a tumultuous one, and there were severe disturbances in the settlement pattern of the region. Wholesale abandonment of farming villages in Israel and the Jordan valley began around this time, and many of the dislocated populations sought refuge elsewhere, probably often in highland Jordan. If the plastering of skulls of some family members might have had some relationship with ancestral veneration in the MPPNB, it is highly likely that the stunning plaster statuary from 'Ain Ghazal is an extension of the ancestral cult that characterized the central Levant. In view of larger cultic buildings, people prefer to call the smaller apsidal and circular buildings shrines to indicate a lower rank in a hierarchy of ritual buildings.
  • 19 - Early agriculture in South Asia
    pp 472-498
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter summarizes the archaeological evidence for the Neolithic and early food production across South Asia, with a focus on four major macro-regions with distinct chronological sequences, crop ecologies and cultural traditions. The four macro-regions are given by the northwest, including the greater Indus valley, the Gangetic plains, eastern India and savanna India. The earliest agriculture in South Asia can be found along the western tributaries of the Indus River, at aceramic settlements like Mehrgarh. Towards the middle Ganges plains there is clear evidence of a strongly indigenous Neolithic tradition, which included the development of rice cultivation and eventual sedentism. The nature of early Neolithic societies in eastern India has been less well studied than other parts of the subcontinent. However, there is a growing corpus of information from various streams of evidence available in the archaeological literature. The case for a truly independent origin of agriculture in South Asia is strongest in the southern peninsula of India.
  • 20 - Mehrgarh, Pakistan
    pp 499-513
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Mehrgarh is the best-known early village site in South Asia, and presents the earliest evidence for sedentary occupation, agriculture and pastoralism thus far discovered. Sedentary occupation was displaced episodically, such that the use of individual areas appears to have been largely sequential. Mehrgarh period I appears to have been at least partly contemporaneous with the earliest aceramic levels at the site of Kili Gul Muhammad, at the other end of the Bolan Pass. Mehrgarh is located well outside the distribution of the wild progenitors of both domesticated einkorn and emmer wheat, which are limited to the Near Eastern arc or the Fertile Crescent. New aceramic sites have, however, now been found in southwest and southeast Iran, which have added significantly to our understanding of the distribution of aceramic Neolithic settlements. Excavations in the uppermost levels at MR 4 and MR 2 revealed evidence for increasing sophistication of the ceramic decoration repertoire during Mehrgarh period III.

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

E.B. Banning Housing Neolithic farmers.Near Eastern Archaeology, 66 (2003), 421.

S.C. Agarwal and B.A. Glencross . Social Bioarchaeology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

L. Barton , S.D. Newsome , F.-H. Chen , et al. ‘Agricultural origins and the isotopic identity of domestication in northern China.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (2009), 5523–8.

R.E. Blanton and L. Fargher . Collective Action in the Formation of Pre-modern States. New York: Springer, 2008.

G. Barker et al. ‘The “human revolution” in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity of anatomically modern humans, and of behavioural modernity, at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo).Journal of Human Evolution, 52 (2007), 243–61.

S. Badenhorst Descent of Iron Age farmers in southern Africa during the last 2000 years.African Archaeological Review, 27 (2010), 87106.

E. Asouti and D.Q. Fuller . ‘A contextual approach to the emergence of agriculture in Southwest Asia: reconstructing early Neolithic plant-food production.Current Anthropology, 54 (2013), 299345.

E.B. Banning The Neolithic period: triumphs of architecture, agriculture, and art.Near Eastern Archaeology, 61 (1998), 188237.

V.G. Childe Man Makes Himself. London: Watts, 1936.

B.K. Hanks and K. Linduff (eds.). Social Complexity in Prehistoric Eurasia. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

P. Bogucki Tactical and strategic settlements in the early Neolithic of lowland Poland.’ Journal of Anthropological Research, 35 (1979), 238–46.

E. Boaretto et al. ‘Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan province, China.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (2009), 9595–600.

G. Barker and M. Richards . ‘Foraging–farming transitions in island Southeast Asia.Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 20 (2013), 256–80.

R. Barrett , C.W. Kuzawa , T. McDade , and G.J. Armelagos . ‘Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: the third epidemiological transition.Annual Review of Anthropology, 27 (1998), 247–71.

184 M. Balasse , S.H. Ambrose , A.B. Smith , and T.D. Price , ‘The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the south-western cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel.Journal of Archaeological Science, 29 (2002), 917–32.

A.F.C. Holl Background to the Ghana empire: archaeological investigations on the transition to statehood in the Dhar Tichitt region (Mauritania).Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 4 (1985), 73115.

V.G Childe . ‘The urban revolution.Town Planning Review, 21 (1950), 317.

M. Boyd , T. Varney , C. Surette , and J. Surette . ‘Reassessing the northern limit of maize consumption in North America: stable isotope, plant microfossil, and trace element content of carbonized food residue.Journal of Archaeological Science, 35 (2008), 2545–56.

D.Q. Fuller Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: a working synthesis.Journal of World Prehistory, 20 (2006), 186.

G. Barker The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why did Foragers Become Farmers? Oxford University Press, 2006.

W. Creamer , J. Haas , and A. Ruiz . ‘Archaeological investigation of late Archaic sites (3000–1800 bc) in the Pativilca valley, Peru.Fieldiana Anthropology, 40 (2007), 178.

G.L. Barnes Landscape and subsistence in Japanese history.’ In I.P. Martini and W. Chesworth (eds.), Landscapes and Societies. New York: Springer, 2010. 321–40.

M. Brickley and R. Ives . The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease. London: Academic Press, 2008.

123 T. Brown and K. Brown . Biomolecular Archaeology: An Introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

G.L. Cowgill Origins and development of urbanism: archaeological perspectives.Annual Review of Anthropology, 33 (2004), 525–42.

G. Crawford Advances in understanding early agriculture in Japan.Current Anthropology, Supplement 4, 52 (2011), S331–45.

N. Boivin Landscape and cosmology in the south Indian Neolithic: new perspectives on the Deccan ashmounds.Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 14 (2004), 235–57.

T.D. Dillehay From Foraging to Farming in the Andes: New Perspectives on Food Production and Social Organization. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

B. Bramanti , M.G. Thomas , W. Haak , et al. ‘Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe’s first farmers.Science, 326 (2009), 137–40.

D.Q. Fuller Harappan seeds and agriculture: some considerations.Antiquity, 75 (2001), 410–14.

R. Blust The prehistory of the Austronesian-speaking peoples: a view from language.Journal of World Prehistory, 9/4 (1995), 453510.

R. Bendrey Some like it hot: environmental determinism and the pastoral economies of the later prehistoric Eurasian steppe.Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, 1 (2011), 116.

O. Bar-Yosef The Natufian culture in the Levant: threshold to the origins of agriculture.Evolutionary Anthropology, 6 (1998), 159–77.

L. Liu The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press, 2004.

D.Q. Fuller Finding plant domestication in the Indian subcontinent.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S347–62.

K. Mizoguchi The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

W. Edwards Buried discourse: the Toro site and Japanese national identity in the early postwar period.Journal of Japanese Studies, 17 (1991), 123.

L. Liu and X. Chen . The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

513 K.C. MacDonald Betwixt Tichitt and the IND: the pottery of the Faïta Facies, Tichitt tradition.Azania, 46 (2011), 4969.

S. Bortenschlager and K. Öggl (eds.). The Iceman and his Natural Environment: Palaeobotanical Results. The Man in the Ice 4. Vienna and New York: Springer, 2000.

G. Brandt , W. Haak , C.J. Adler , et al. ‘Ancient DNA reveals key stages in the formation of central European mitochondrial genetic diversity.Science, 342 (2013), 257–61.

K. Chandler-Ezell , D.M. Pearsall , and J.A. Zeidler . ‘Root and tuber phytoliths and starch grains document manioc (Manihot esculenta), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and llerén (Calathea sp.) at the Real Alto site, Ecuador.Economic Botany, 60 (2006), 103–20.

T.D. Dillehay , H.H. Eiling , Jr, and J. Rossen . ‘Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102 (2005), 17241–4.

P. Bellwood Asian farming diasporas? Agriculture, languages, and genes in China and Southeast Asia.’ In M. Stark (ed.), Archaeology of Asia. London: Blackwell, 2006. 96118.

M.D. Frachetti et al. ‘Earliest direct evidence for broomcorn millet and wheat in the Central Eurasia steppe region.’ Antiquity, 84 (2010), 9931010.

J.E. Buikstra and C.A. Roberts (eds.). The Global History of Paleopathology: Pioneers and Prospects. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

G. Rollefson The greening of the badlands: pastoral nomads and the “conclusion” of Neolithization in the southern Levant.’ Paléorient, 37/1 (2011), 101–9.

M.J. Heckenberger , J.C. Russell , C. Fausto , et al. ‘Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.Science, 321 (2008), 1214–17.

M.S. Copley , R. Berstan , S.N. Dudd , et al. ‘Direct chemical evidence for widespread dairying in prehistoric Britain.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (2003), 1524–9.

P. Brotherton , W. Haak , J. Templeton , et al. ‘Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans.Nature Communications, 4 (2013), 1764.

D.Q. Fuller Neolithic cultures.’ In D.M. Pearsall (ed.), Encyclopedia of Archaeology. New York: Academic Press, 2008. 756–68.

C.H. Brown Prehistoric chronology of the common bean in the New World: the linguistic evidence.’ In J.E. Staller and M.C. Carrasco (eds.), Pre-Columbian Foodways in Mesoamerica. New York: Springer, 2010. 273–89.

T.D. Dillehay , J. Rossen , T.C. Andres , and D.E. Williams . ‘Preceramic adoption of peanut, squash, and cotton in northern Peru.Science, 316 (2007), 1890–3.

D.Q. Fuller South Asia: archaeology.’ In I. Ness and P. Bellwood (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, vol. i. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

334 X. Liu , H.V. Hunt , and M.K. Jones . ‘River valleys and foothills: changing archaeological perceptions of North China’s earliest farms.Antiquity, 83 (2009), 8295.

D.Q. Fuller Pathways to Asian civilizations: tracing the origins and spread of rice and rice cultures.Rice, 4 (2011), 7892.

A. Chamberlain Demography in Archaeology. Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

G. Kron Food production.’ In W. Schiedel (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Economy. Cambridge University Press, 2012. 156–74.

D.Q. Fuller , T. Denham , M. Arroyo-Kalin , et al. ‘Convergent evolution and parallelism in plant domestication revealed by an expanding archaeological record.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (2014), 6147–52.

P. Bogucki and R. Grygiel . ‘The household cluster at Brześć Kujawski 3: small-site methodology in the Polish lowlands.World Archaeology, 13 (1981), 5972.

X. Liu , M.K. Jones , Z. Zhao , G. Liu , and T.C. O’Connell . ‘The earliest evidence of millet as a staple crop: new light on Neolithic foodways in North China.American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149 (2012), 238–90.

K.C. MacDonald , R. Vernet , M. Martinon-Torres , and D.Q. Fuller . ‘Dhar Néma: from early agriculture to metallurgy in southeastern Mauritania.Azania, 44 (2009), 348.

R.P. Evershed , S. Payne , A.G. Sherratt , et al. ‘Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding.Nature, 455 (2008), 528–31.

P. Bogucki and R. Grygiel . ‘Early farmers of the North European Plain.Scientific American, 248/4 (1983), 104–12.

R. Braidwood The agricultural revolution.Scientific American, 203 (1960), 130–41.

N. Fijn Living with Herds: Human–Animal Coexistence in Mongolia. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

C. Ehret Linguistic archaeology.African Archaeological Review, 29/2 (2012), 109–30.

T.P. Denham Archaeological evidence for mid-Holocene agriculture in the interior of Papua New Guinea: a critical review.Archaeology in Oceania, 38 (2003), 159–76.

P.G. Johansen Landscape, monumental architecture, and ritual: a reconsideration of the south Indian ashmounds.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 23 (2004), 309–30.

C.E. Peterson and G. Shelach . ‘Jiangzhai: social and economic organization of a middle Neolithic Chinese village.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 31 (2012), 265301.

T.P. Denham Early agriculture and plant domestication in New Guinea and island Southeast Asia.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S379–95.

K.W. Hillig Genetic evidence for speciation in cannabis (Cannabaceae).Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 52 (2005), 161–80.

G. Shelach Economic adaptation, community structure, and sharing strategies of households at early sedentary communities in northeast China.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 25 (2006), 318–45.

P. Bogucki , D. Nalepka , R. Grygiel , and B. Nowaczyk . ‘Multiproxy environmental archaeology of Neolithic settlements at Osłonki, Poland, 5500–4000 bc.Environmental Archaeology, 17/1 (2012), 4565.

M.F. Deguilloux , R. Leahy , M.H. Pemonge , and S. Rottiér . ‘European Neolithization and ancient DNA: an assessment.Evolutionary Anthropology, 21 (2012), 2437.

P.J. Munson Archaeology and the prehistoric origins of the Ghana empire.Journal of African History, 21 (1980), 457–66.

J.M. Marston Archaeological markers of agricultural risk management.’ Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 30 (2011), 190205.

C. Gamble , W. Davies , P. Pettitt , L. Hazelwood , and M. Richards . ‘The archaeological and genetic foundations of the European population during the late Glacial: implications for “agricultural thinking”.Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 15 (2005), 193223.

K.V. Flannery and J. Marcus . The Creation of Inequality: How our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery and Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.

H.V. Hunt , M.G. Campana , M.C. Laws , et al. ‘Genetic diversity and phylogeography of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) across Eurasia.Molecular Ecology, 20 (2011), 4756–71.

P. Gerbault , A. Liebert , Y. Itan , et al. ‘Evolution of lactase persistence: an example of human niche construction.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 366 (2011), 863–77.

M. Donohue and T.P. Denham . ‘Farming and language in island Southeast Asia: reframing Austronesian history.Current Anthropology, 51 (2010), 223–56.

K.D. Morrison and L.L. Junker (eds.). Forager-Traders in South and Southeast Asia: Long-Term Histories. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

T. Ingold Hunters, Pastoralists and Ranchers. Cambridge University Press, 1980.

M. Hudson Rice, bronze and chieftains: an archaeology of Yayoi ritual.Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 19 (1992), 139–89.

T.P. Denham Envisaging early agriculture in the highlands of New Guinea: landscapes, plants and practices.World Archaeology, 37 (2005), 290306.

E. Ostrom Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

M. Ould Khattar Les sites Gangara, la fin de la culture de Tichitt et l’origine de Ghana.Journal des Africanistes, 65 (1995), 3141.

K.V. Flannery The origins of the village revisited: from nuclear to extended households.American Antiquity, 67 (2002), 417–33.

Z. Zhao New archaeobotanic data for the study of the origins of agriculture in China.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S295–304.

H.V. Hunt , M.V. Linden , X. Liu , et al. ‘Millets across Eurasia: chronology and context of early records of the genera Panicum and Setaria from archaeological sites in the Old World.Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17 (2008), 518.

242 J. Diamond and P. Bellwood . ‘Farmers and their languages: the first expansions.Science, 300 (2003), 597603.

H.J. Greenfield The secondary products revolution: the past, the present and the future.World Archaeology, 42 (2010), 2954.

R. Grygiel and P. Bogucki . ‘Early farmers in north-central Europe: 1989–1994 excavations at Osłonki, Poland.Journal of Field Archaeology, 24 (1997), 161–78.

H.V. Hunt et al. ‘Waxy phenotype evolution in the allotetraploid cereal broomcorn millet: mutations at the GBSSI locus in their functional and phylogenetic context.’ Molecular and Biological Evolution, 30 (2013), 109–22.

Y. Itan , A. Powell , M.A. Beaumont , J. Burger , and M.G. Thomas . ‘The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.PLoS Computational Biology, 5 (2009), e1000491.

M. Hudson and G. Barnes . ‘Yoshinogari: a Yayoi settlement in northern Kyushu.Monumenta Nipponica, 46 (1991), 211–35.

J.R. Harlan Crops and Man. 2nd edn. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, 1992.

D.R. Piperno The origins of plant cultivation and domestication in the New World tropics: patterns, process, and new developments.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S56–78.

D. Gifford-Gonzalez and O. Hanotte , ‘Domesticating animals in Africa: implications of genetic and archaeological findings.Journal of World Prehistory, 24 (2011), 123.

M.K. Jones , H.V. Hunt , E. Lightfoot , et al. ‘Food globalization in prehistory.World Archaeology, 43 (2011), 665–75.

S.K. McIntosh Modeling political organization in large-scale settlement clusters: a case study from the inland Niger delta, Mali.’ In S.K. McIntosh (ed.), Beyond Chiefdoms: Pathways to Complexity in Africa. Cambridge University Press, 1999. 6679.

C. Higham , X. Guangmao , and L. Qiang . ‘The prehistory of a friction zone: first farmers and hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia.’ Antiquity, 85 (2011), 529–43.

R. King and P. Underhill . ‘Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages.Antiquity, 76 (2002), 707–14.

D.Q. Fuller , E. Harvey , and L. Qin . ‘Presumed domestication? Evidence for wild rice cultivation and domestication in the fifth millennium bc of the lower Yangtze region.Antiquity, 81 (2007), 316–31.

B. Mutin Cultural dynamics in southern Middle-Asia in the fifth and fourth millennia bc: a reconstruction based on ceramic traditions.Paléorient, 38 (2012), 159–84.

Y.V. Kuzmin Two trajectories in the Neolithization of Eurasia: pottery versus agriculture (spatiotemporal patterns).Radiocarbon, 55 (2013), 1304–13.

M. Lacan , C. Keyser , F.X. Ricaut , et al. ‘Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (2011), 18255–9.

D.R. Piperno Prehistoric human occupation and impacts on neotropical forest landscapes during the late Pleistocene and early/middle Holocene.’ In M.B. Bush and J.R. Flenley (eds.), Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. Berlin and New York: Springer, 2007. 193218.

W. Lorkiewicz Nonalimentary tooth use in the Neolithic population of the Lengyel culture in central Poland (4600–4000 bc).American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144 (2011), 538–51.

B.H. Menze and J.A. Ur . ‘Mapping patterns of long-term settlement in northern Mesopotamia at a large scale.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 778–87.

D. Hofmann and J. Smyth (eds.). Tracking the Neolithic House in Europe: Sedentism, Architecture, and Practice. New York: Springer, 2013.

T.P. Denham , J. Golson , and P.J. Hughes . ‘Reading early agriculture at Kuk (phases 1–3), Wahgi valley, Papua New Guinea: the wetland archaeological features.Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 70 (2004), 259–98.

444 C.L. King , A. Bentley , C. Higham , et al. ‘Economic change after the agricultural revolution in Southeast Asia?Antiquity, 88 (2014), 112–25.

T. Ingold The Perception of the Environment: Essays in Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. London: Routledge, 2000.

T.P. Denham and S.G. Haberle . ‘Agricultural emergence and transformation in the upper Wahgi valley during the Holocene: theory, method and practice.The Holocene, 18 (2008), 499514.

W. Lorkiewicz Skeletal trauma and violence among the early farmers of the North European Plain: evidence from Neolithic settlements of the Lengyel culture in Kuyavia, north-central Poland.’ In R. Schulting and L. Fibiger (eds.), Sticks, Stones, and Broken Bones: Neolithic Violence in a European Perspective. Oxford University Press, 2012. 5176.

54 G. Larson , U. Albarella , K. Dobney , et al. ‘Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (2007), 15276–81.

K.D. Morrison The intensification of production: archaeological approaches.’ Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 1 (1994), 111–59.

G.A. Lee , G.W. Crawford , L. Liu , Y. Sasaki , and X. Chen . ‘Archaeological soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: does size matter?PLoS ONE, 6 (2011), e26720.

D.R. Piperno and T.D. Dillehay . ‘Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (2008), 19622–7.

C.A. Petrie and K.D. Thomas . ‘The topographic and environmental context of the earliest village sites in western South Asia.Antiquity, 86 (2012), 1055–67.

J. Quilter Late preceramic Peru.Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 387438.

A. Jones Prehistoric Materialities: Becoming Material in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press, 2012.

E. Lightfoot , X. Liu , and M.K. Jones . ‘Why move starchy cereals? A review of the isotopic evidence for prehistoric millet consumption across Eurasia.World Archaeology, 45 (2013), 574623.

A.K. Outram , A. Kasparov , N.A. Stear , et al. ‘Patterns of pastoralism in later Bronze Age Kazakhstan: new evidence from faunal and lipid residue analyses.Journal of Archaeological Science, 39 (2012), 2424–35.

V. Macaulay and M. Richards . ‘Mitochondrial genome sequences and phylogeographic interpretation.’ In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Chichester: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.20843.pub2. 2013.

A Ogundiran . ‘Four millennia of cultural history in Nigeria (ca. 2000 bcad 1900): archaeological perspectives.Journal of World Prehistory, 19 (2005), 133–68.

C. Kusimba and S.B. Kusimba (eds.). East African Archaeology: Foragers, Potters, Smiths and Traders. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2003.

V. Paz Rock shelters, caves, and archaeobotany in island Southeast Asia.Asian Perspectives, 44 (2005), 107–18.

T.A. Kohler News from the northern American Southwest: prehistory from the edge of chaos.Journal of Archaeological Research, 1 (1993), 267321.

T.P. Denham , S.G. Haberle , C. Lentfer , et al. ‘Origins of agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of New Guinea.Science, 301 (2003), 189–93.

H. Malmström , M.T.P. Gilbert , M.G. Thomas , et al. ‘Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians.Current Biology, 19 (2009), 1758–62.

D. Rindos The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984.

A.K. Outram , N.A. Stear , R. Bendrey , et al. ‘The earliest horse harnessing and milking.Science, 323 (2009), 1332–5.

J. Lave and E. Wenger . Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press, 1991.

A. Matsui and M. Kanehara . ‘The question of prehistoric plant husbandry during the Jomon period in Japan.World Archaeology, 38 (2006), 259–73.

R.J. Kelly The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

R. Pinhasi and J.T. Stock (eds.). Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

R. Fullagar , J. Field , T.P. Denham , and C. Lentfer . ‘Early and mid-Holocene processing of taro (Colocasia esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea sp.) at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.Journal of Archaeological Science, 33 (2006), 595614.

R. Nielsen and M.A. Beaumont . ‘Statistical inferences in phylogeography.Molecular Ecology, 18 (2009), 1034–47.

A.K. Outram , N.A. Stear , A. Kasparov , et al. ‘Horses for the dead: funerary foodways in Bronze Age Kazakhstan’, Antiquity, 85 (2011), 116–28.

G.-A. Lee The transition from foraging to farming in prehistoric Korea.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S307–29.

S. Payne Kill-off patterns in sheep and goats: the mandibles from Asvan Kale.Anatolian Studies, 23 (1973), 281303.

M. Pala , A. Olivieri , A. Achilli , et al. ‘Mitochondrial DNA signals of late Glacial re-colonization of Europe from Near Eastern refugia.American Journal of Human Genetics, 90 (2012), 915–24.

M. Tengberg Crop husbandry at Miri Qalat Makran, SW Pakistan (4000–2000 bc).Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 8 (1999), 312.

A. Rosen Civilizing Climate: Social Responses to Climate Change in the Ancient Near East. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2007.

E.J. Reitz and E.S. Wing . Zooarchaeology. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

J. Golson The New Guinea highlands on the eve of agriculture.Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 11 (1991), 8291.

M. Pala , G. Chaubey , P. Soares , and M.B. Richards . ‘The archaeogenetics of European ancestry.’ In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Chichester: Wiley. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0024624. 2014.

D.M. Pearsall and P.W. Stahl . ‘The origins and spread of early agriculture and domestication: environmental and cultural considerations.’ In J.A. Matthews (ed.), The Sage Handbook of Environmental Change. 2 vols. Los Angeles: Sage, 2012. vol. ii, 328–54.

M. Spriggs Archaeology and the Austronesian expansion: where are we now?Antiquity, 85 (2011), 510–28.

F. Marshall and E. Hildebrand . ‘Cattle before crops: the beginnings of food production in Africa.Journal of World Prehistory, 16 (2002), 99143.

M. Nishida The emergence of food production in Neolithic Japan.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2 (1983), 305–22.

X. Yang , Z. Wan , L. Perry , et al. ‘Early millet use in northern China.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 3726–30.

R.H. Steckel and J.C. Rose (eds.). The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

J. Robb The Early Mediterranean Village: Agency, Material Culture and Social Change in Neolithic Italy. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

D.R. Piperno , A.J. Ranere , I. Holst , J. Iriarte , and R. Dickau . ‘Starch grain and phytolith evidence for early ninth millennium bp maize from the central Balsas River valley, Mexico.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (2009), 5020–4.

A. Simmons , I. Köhler-Rollefson , G. Rollefson , R. Mandel , and Z. Kafafi . ‘ ’Ain Ghazal: a major Neolithic settlement in central Jordan.Science, 240 (1988), 35–9.

D.R. Piperno and D.M. Pearsall . The Origins of Agriculture in the Lowland Neotropics. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998.

M. Richards , V. Macaulay , E. Hickey , et al. ‘Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool.American Journal of Human Genetics, 67 (2000), 1251–76.

A.G. Sherratt The secondary products revolution of animals in the Old World.World Archaeology, 15 (1983), 90104.

R. Schulting and L. Fibiger (eds.). Sticks, Stones, and Broken Bones: Neolithic Violence in a European Perspective. Oxford University Press, 2012.

P.J. Mitchell and P.J. Lane (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology. Oxford University Press, 2013.

A. Salas , M. Richards , T. De la Fe , et al. ‘The making of the African mtDNA landscape.American Journal of Human Genetics, 71 (2002), 1082–111.

J. Golson and P.J. Hughes . ‘The appearance of plant and animal domestication in New Guinea.Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 36 (1980), 294303.

J.W. Wood , G.R. Milner , H.C. Harpending , and K.M. Weiss . ‘The osteological paradox: problems of inferring health from skeletal samples.Current Anthropology, 33 (1992), 343–70.

B. Trigger Understanding Early Civilizations. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

K.C. Twiss Transformations in an early agricultural society: feasting in the southern Levantine Pre-Pottery Neolithic.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 27 (2008), 418–42.

O. Semino , G. Passarino , P.J. Oefner , et al. ‘The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective.Science, 290 (2000), 1155–9.

K. Neumann , K. Boesten , A. Höhn , et al. ‘First farmers in the Central African rainforest: a view from southern Cameroon.Quaternary International, 249 (2012), 5362.

T.D. Price (ed.). Europe’s First Farmers. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

V. Lebot Biomolecular evidence for plant domestication in Sahul.Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 46 (1999), 619–28.

H. Silverman and W.H. Isbell (eds.). Handbook of South American Archaeology. New York: Springer, 2008. 157–83.

B. Turner and J. Sabloff . ‘Classic period collapse of the Central Maya lowlands: insights about human–environment relationships for sustainability.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 13908–14.

J.D. Vigne , F Briois , A. Zazzo , et al. ‘First wave of cultivators spread to Cyprus at least 10,600 y ago.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 8445–9.

P. Skoglund , H. Malmström , M. Raghavan , et al. ‘Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe.Science, 336 (2012), 466–9.

R. Oslisly , L. White , I. Bentaleb , et al. ‘Climatic and cultural changes in the West Congo basin forests over the past 5000 years.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 368 (2013), 20120304.

D.W. Phillipson African Archaeology. 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

P. Soares , T. Rito , J. Trejaut , et al. ‘Ancient voyaging and Polynesian origins.American Journal of Human Genetics, 88 (2011), 239–47.

J. Schibler and S. Jacomet . ‘Short climatic fluctuations and their impact on human economies and societies: the potential of the Neolithic lake shore settlements in the Alpine foreland.Environmental Archaeology, 15 (2010), 173–82.

K. Takeuchi , R.D. Brown , I. Washitani , A. Tsunekawa , and M. Yokohari (eds.). Satoyama: The Traditional Rural Landscape of Japan. Berlin: Springer, 2003.

J.M. Powell The history of plant use and man’s impact on the vegetation.’ In J.L. Gressitt (ed.), Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea, vol. i. The Hague: Junk, 1982. 207–27.

T. Watkins New light on Neolithic revolution in South-west Asia.Antiquity, 84 (2010), 621–34.

J.M. Powell Plant resources and palaeobotanical evidence for plant use in the Papua New Guinea highlands.Archaeology in Oceania, 17 (1982), 2837.

P. Soares , L. Ermini , N. Thomson , et al. ‘Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock.American Journal of Human Genetics, 84 (2009), 740–59.

P. Soares , A. Achilli , O. Semino , et al. ‘The archaeogenetics of Europe.Current Biology, 20 (2010), R174–83.

M. Zeder Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean basin: origins, diffusion, and impact.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (2008), 11597–604.

M. Zeder ‘The origins of agriculture in the Near East.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S221–35.

C.S. Troy , D.E. MacHugh , J.F. Bailey , et al. ‘Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origins of European cattle.Nature, 410 (2001), 1088–91.

G. Willcox and D. Stordeur . ‘Large-scale cereal processing before domestication during the tenth millennium cal bc in northern Syria.Antiquity, 86 (2012), 99114.

K. Wright The social origins of cooking and dining in early villages of Western Asia.Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 66 (2000), 89121.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 146
Total number of PDF views: 2419 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 1764 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th April 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.