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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

Part I - Early cities as arenas of performance

  • Edited by Norman Yoffee, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • pp 25-110
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The Cambridge World History
  • Volume 3: Early Cities in Comparative Perspective, 4000 BCE–1200 CE
  • Edited by Norman Yoffee
  • Online ISBN: 9781139035606
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Further readings

Arnold, Dieter, Die Tempel Ägyptens: Götterwohnungen, Kultstätten, Baudenkmäler, Zurich: Artemis & Winkler, 1992.
Baines, John, “Kingship before Literature: The World of the King in the Old Kingdom,” in Rolf Gundlach and Christine Raedler (eds.), Selbstverständnis und Realität: Akten des Symposiums zur ägyptischen Königsideologie Mainz 15–17.6.1995, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997, pp. 125–74.
Baines, John, “Modelling the Integration of Elite and Other Social Groups in Old Kingdom Egypt,” in Juan Carlos Moreno García (ed.), Élites et pouvoir en Égypte ancienne, Lille: Université Charles-de-Gaulle, 2010, pp. 117–44.
Baines, John, “Public Ceremonial Performance in Ancient Egypt: Exclusion and Integration,” in Takeshi Inomata and Lawrence Coben (eds.), Archaeology of Performance: Theaters of Power, Community, and Politics, Lanham, MD: AltaMira, 2006, pp. 261–302.
Bard, Kathryn, “Royal Cities and Cult Centers, Administrative Towns, and Workmen's Settlements in Ancient Egypt,” in Joyce Marcus and Jeremy A. Sabloff (eds.), The Ancient City: New Perspectives on Urbanism in the Old and New World, Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press, 2008, pp. 165–82.
Bietak, Manfred, “Houses, Palaces and Development of Social Structure in Avaris,” in Manfred Bietak, Ernst Czerny, and Irene Forstner-Müller (eds.), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2010, pp. 11–68.
Bietak, Manfred, “Urban Archaeology and the ‘Town’ Problem in Ancient Egypt,” in Kent R. Weeks (ed.), Egyptology and the Social Sciences, Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1979, pp. 97–144.
Bietak, Manfred, Ernst Czerny, and Irene Forstner-Müller (eds.), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2010.
Bietak, Manfred, and Irene Forstner-Müller, “The Topography of New Kingdom Thebes and Per-Ramesses,” in Mark Collier and Steven Snape (eds.), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen, Bolton: Rutherford Press, 2011, pp. 23–50.
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Campagno, Marcelo, “Kinship, Concentration of Population and the Emergence of the State in the Nile Valley,” in Renée Friedman and Peter N. Fiske (eds.), Egypt at Its Origins 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference “Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt,” London, 27th July–1st August 2008, Leuven: Departement Oosterse Studies, 2011, pp. 1229–42.
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Graham, Angus, “Islands in the Nile: A Geoarchaeological Approach to Settlement Location in the Egyptian Nile Valley and the Case of Karnak,” in Manfred Bietak, Ernst Czerny, and Irene Forstner-Müller (eds.), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2010, pp. 125–43.
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Jeffreys, David J., and Ana Tavares, “The Historic Landscape of Early Dynastic Memphis,” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 50 (1994), 143–73.
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Kemp, Barry J., “The City of el-Amarna as a Source for the Study of Urban Society in Ancient Egypt,” World Archaeology 9 (1977), 123–39.
Kemp, Barry J., “The Window of Appearance at el-Amarna and the Basic Structure of This City,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 62 (1976), 81–99.
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Köhler, E. Christiana, “On the Origins of Memphis – the New Excavations in the Early Dynastic Necropolis at Helwan,” in Stan Hendrickx, Renée Friedman, Krzysztof M. Ciałowicz, and Marek Chłodnicki (eds.), Egypt at Its Origins: Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams, Proceedings of the International Conference “Origins of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28th August–1st September 2002, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2004, pp. 295–315.
Lacovara, Peter, The New Kingdom Royal City, London: Kegan Paul International, 1997.
Lehner, Mark E., The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 1997.
Luft, Ulrich, “The Ancient Town of el-Lâhûn,” in Stephen Quirke (ed.), Lahun Studies, Reigate: Sia, 1998, pp. 1–41.
Martin, Geoffrey Thorndike, “Memphis: The Status of a Residence City in the Eighteenth Dynasty,” in Miroslav Bárta and Jaromír Krejčí (eds.), Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000, Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute, 2000, pp. 99–120.
Nims, Charles F., and Wim Swaan, Thebes of the Pharaohs: Pattern for Every City, London: Elek, 1965.
O'Connor, David, Abydos: Egypt's First Pharaohs and the Cult of Osiris, London: Thames & Hudson, 2009.
O'Connor, David, “City and Palace in New Kingdom Egypt,” Cahiers de Recherche de l'Institut de Papyrologie et Égyptologie de Lille 11 (1989), 73–87.
O'Connor, David, “The City and the World: Worldview and Built Forms in the Reign of Amenhotep III,” in Eric H. Cline and David O'Connor (eds.), Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998, pp. 125–72.
O'Connor, David, “Cosmological Structures of Ancient Egyptian City Planning,” in Tony Atkin and Joseph Rykwert (eds.), Structure and Meaning in Human Settlements, Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 2005, pp. 55–66.
Ragazzoli, Chloé, Éloges de la ville en Égypte ancienne: histoire et littérature, Paris: PUPS, 2008.
Routledge, Carolyn, “Temple as Center in Ancient Egyptian Urbanism,” in Walter Emanuel Aufrecht, Neil A. Mirau, and Steven W. Gauley (eds.), Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997, pp. 221–35.
Vleeming, S. P. (ed.), Hundred-Gated Thebes: Acts of a Colloquium on Thebes and the Theban Area in the Graeco-Roman Period, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995.

Further readings

Ashmore, Wendy, “Some Issues of Method and Theory in Lowland Maya Settlement Archaeology,” in Wendy Ashmore (ed.), Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research, 1981, pp. 47–54.
Ashmore, Wendy, and Jeremy Sabloff, “Spatial Orders in Maya Civic Plans,” Latin American Antiquity 13 (2002), 201–15.
Barrera Vásquez, Alfredo (ed.), Diccionario Maya Cordemex, Maya–Español, Español–Maya, Mérida, Yucatan: Ediciones Cordemex, 1980.
Bruegmann, Robert, Sprawl: A Compact History, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Chase, Arlen, Diane Z. Chase, and Michael E. Smith, “States and Empires in Ancient Mesoamerica,”Ancient Mesoamerica 20 (2009), 175–82.
Conolly, James, and Mark Lake, Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Fash, Barbara W., and Richard Agurcia Fasquelle, “The Evolution of Structure 10L-16, Heart of the Copán Acropolis,” in E. Wyllys Andrews and William L. Fash (eds.), Copán: The History of an Ancient Maya Kingdom, Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 2005, pp. 201–37.
Feldman, Lawrence H., A Dictionary of Poqom Maya in the Colonial Era, Lancaster, CA: Labyrinthos, 2004.
Graham, Ian, Archaeological Explorations in El Peten, Guatemala, New Orleans: Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, 1967.
Houston, Stephen D., “Classic Maya Depictions of the Built Environment,” in Stephen D. Houston (ed.), Form and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1998, pp. 333–72.
Houston, Stephen D., Hieroglyphs and History at Dos Pilas: Dynastic Politics of the Classic Maya, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.
Houston, Stephen D., “Living Waters and Wondrous Beasts,” in Daniel Finamore and Stephen D. Houston (eds.), Fiery Pool: The Maya and the Mythic Sea, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010, pp. 66–79.
Houston, Stephen D., and Takeshi Inomata, The Classic Maya, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Houston, Stephen D., and Patricia A. McAnany, “Bodies and Blood: Critiquing Social Construction in Maya Archaeology,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22 (2003), 26–41.
Houston, Stephen D., and David Stuart, “Of Gods, Glyphs, and Kings: Divinity and Rulership among the Classic Maya,” Antiquity 70 (1996), 289–312.
Houston, Stephen D., David Stuart, and Karl Taube, The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
Inomata, Takeshi, “Plazas, Performers and Spectacles: Political Theaters of the Classic Maya,” Current Anthropology 47 (2006), 805–42.
Inomata, Takeshi, and Stephen D. Houston (eds.), Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001.
Laporte, Juan Pedro, and Vilma Fialko, “Un reencuentro con Mundo Perdido, Tikal, Guatemala,” Ancient Mesoamerica 6 (1995), 41–94.
Laughlin, Robert M., The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of Santo Domingo Zinacantán, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.
Llobera, Marcos, “Extending GIS-based Visual Analysis: The Concept of Visualscapes,” International Journal of Geographical Information Science 17 (2003), 25–48.
Looper, Matthew, To Be Like Gods: Dance in Maya Civilization, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009.
MacDonald, William L., The Architecture of the Roman Empire: An Urban Appraisal, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.
Martin, Simon, “Preguntas epigráficas acerca de los escalones de Dzibanché,” in Enrique Nalda (ed.), Los cautivos de Dzibanché, México: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 2004, pp. 105–15.
Martin, Simon, and Nikolai Grube, Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya, London: Thames & Hudson, 2008.
Mathews, Peter, “Classic Maya Emblem Glyphs,” in T. Patrick Culbert (ed.), Classic Maya Political History: Hieroglyphic and Archaeological Evidence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 19–29.
Maxwell, Judith M., and Robert M. Hill II, Kaqchikel Chronicles: The Definitive Edition, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
Miller, Mary E., The Murals of Bonampak, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Normark, Johan, “The Triadic Causeways of Ichmul: Virtual Highways Becoming Actual Roads,” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 18 (2008), 215–38.
Plank, Shannon E., Maya Dwellings in Hieroglyphs and Archaeology: An Integrative Approach to Ancient Architecture and Spatial Cognition, Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 2004.
Rice, Don, “Late Classic Maya Population: Characteristics and Implications,” in Glenn R. Storey (ed.), Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-Cultural Approaches, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006, pp. 252–76.
Robertson, John S., Danny Law, and Robbie A. Haertel, Colonial Ch'olti’: The Seventeenth-Century Morán Manuscript, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010.
Ruz, Mario H., Vocabulario de lengua tzeldal según el orden de Copanabastla de Fray Domingo de Ara, México, DF: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1986.
Scarborough, Vernon L., “Reservoirs and Watersheds in the Central Maya Lowlands,” in Scott L. Fedick (ed.), The Managed Mosaic: Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1996, pp. 304–14.
Sjoberg, Gideon, The Preindustrial City: Past and Present, New York: The Free Press, 1960.
Smith, Michael E., “The Archaeological Study of Neighborhoods and Districts in Ancient Cities,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29 (2010), 137–54.
Smith, Michael E., “Can We Read Cosmology in Ancient Maya Cityplans? Comment on Ashmore and Sabloff,” Latin American Antiquity 14 (2003), 221–8.
Smith, Michael E., “Sprawl, Squatters and Sustainable Cities: Can Archaeological Data Shed Light on Modern Urban Issues?”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20 (2010), 229–53.
Smith, Monica L., “Introduction: The Social Construction of Ancient Cities,” in Monica L. Smith (ed.), The Social Construction of Ancient Cities, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, pp. 1–36.
Spence, Michael W., “Tlailotlacan: A Zapotec Enclave in Teotihuacan,” in Janet C. Berlo (ed.), Art, Ideology, and the City of Teotihuacan, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1992, pp. 19–88.
Stone, Andrea, Images from the Underworld: Naj Tunich and the Tradition of Maya Cave Painting, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.
Stone, Andrea, and Marc Zender, Reading Maya Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Maya Painting and Sculpture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2011.
Stuart, David, “‘The Fire Enters His House’: Architecture and Ritual in Classic Maya Texts,” in Stephen D. Houston (ed.), Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, pp. 373–425.
Stuart, David, “New Year Records in Classic Maya Inscriptions,” The PARI Journal 5 (2004), 1–6.
Stuart, David, “Reading the Water Serpent as witz,” Maya Decipherment (2007), accessed August 9, 2014,
Stuart, David, Ten Phonetic Syllables, Washington, D.C.: Center for Maya Research, 1987.
Stuart, David, and Stephen D. Houston, Classic Maya Place Names, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1994.
Taube, Karl A., “Ancient and Contemporary Maya Conceptions of the Field and Forest,” in A. Gómez-Pompa, Michael F. Allen, Scott L. Fedick, and Juan Jiménez-Moreno (eds.), Lowland Maya Area: Three Millennia at the Human–Wildland Interface, New York: Haworth Press, 2003, pp. 461–94.
Taube, Karl A., William A. Saturno, David Stuart, and Heather Hurst, The Murals of San Bartolo, El Petén, Guatemala, Barnardsville, NC: Boundary End Archaeology Research Center, 2010, Part 2.
Tokovinine, Alexandre, “The Power of Place: Political Landscape and Identity in Classic Maya Inscriptions, Imagery, and Architecture,” unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 2008.
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Vogt, Evon Z., and David Stuart, “Some Notes on Ritual Caves among the Ancient and Modern Maya,” in James E. Brady and Keith M. Prufer (eds.), In the Maw of the Earth Monster: Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005, pp. 157–63.
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Further readings

Bulbeck, David, and Ian Caldwell, “Oryza Sativa and the Origins of Kingdoms in South Sulawesi, Indonesia: Evidence from Rice Husk Phytoliths,” Indonesia and the Malay World 36 (2008), 1–20.
Christie, Jan Wisseman, “State Formation in Early Maritime Southeast Asia: A Consideration of the Theories and the Data,” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 151 (1995), 235–88.
Christie, Jan Wisseman, “States without Cities: Demographic Trends in early Java,” Indonesia 52 (1991), 23–40
Coedès, George, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, W. F. Vella (ed.), S. B. Cowing, (trans.), Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1968.
Cummings, Williams, “Historical Texts as Social Maps: Lontaraq bilang in Early Modern Makassar,” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 161 (2005), 40–62.
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Evans, Damian, Christophe Pottier, Roland Fletcher, Scott Hensley, Ian Tapley, Anthony Milne, and Michael BarbettiA Comprehensive Archaeological Map of the World's Largest Preindustrial Settlement Complex at Angkor, Cambodia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 104 (2007), 14,277–82.
Hudson, Bob, “The Origins of Bagan: The Archaeological Landscape of Upper Burma to AD 1300,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Sydney, 2004.
Jacques, Claude, “Le pays Khmer avant Angkor,” Journal des Savants 1 (1986), 59–95.
Jacques, Claude, and Pierre Lafond, The Khmer Empire: Cities and Sanctuaries, Fifth to Thirteenth Centuries, Bangkok: River Books, 2007.
Junker, Laura Lee, “Population Dynamics and Urbanism in Premodern Island Southeast Asia,” in Glenn R. Storey (ed.), Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-Cultural Approaches, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006, pp. 211–14.
Lavy, Paul A., “As in Heaven, So on Earth: The Politics of Visnu, Siva and Harihara Images in Preangkorian Khmer Civilisation,” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34 (2003), 21–39.
Malleret, Louis, L'Archéologie du Delta du Mekong, Paris: Publication de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient, 1959–1963, Vols. I–III.
Manguin, Pierre-Yves, “The Archaeology of the Early Maritime Polities of Southeast Asia,” in Peter Bellwood and Ian C. Glover (eds.), Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004, pp. 282–313.
Manguin, Pierre-Yves, “City-states and City-state Cultures in Pre-15th-century Southeast Asia,” in Mogens H. Hansen (ed.), A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures, Copenhagen: Reitzels Forlag, 2000, pp. 409–16.
Manguin, Pierre-Yves, “Les cités-États de l'Asie du Sud-Est côtière: de l'ancienneté et de la permanence des formes urbaines,” Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême Orient 87 (2000), 151–82.
Manguin, Pierre-Yves, “Southeast Sumatra in Protohistoric and Srivijaya Times: Upstream–Downstream Relations and the Settlement of the Peneplain,” in Dominik Bonatz, John N. Miksic, J. David Neideland, and Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz (eds.), From Distant Tales: Archaeology and Ethnohistory in the Highlands of Sumatra, Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009, pp. 434–84.
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Pollock, Sheldon, The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
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