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    Hyland, Sabine 2016. How khipus indicated labour contributions in an Andean village: An explanation of colour banding, seriation and ethnocategories. Journal of Material Culture, Vol. 21, Issue. 4, p. 490.

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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

9 - Inka administration in Tawantinsuyu by means of the knotted-cords

from Part II - Early cities and information technologies
Summary
By about 3100 BCE ancient Egypt formed a large state extending northward for a thousand kilometers from the First Cataract of the Nile to the Mediterranean Sea. The location of the primary urban settlement of early Memphis has been plausibly identified by drill cores as a relatively modest-sized area well beneath the modern floodplain. The third millennium state, especially its prime city and royal residence, was strongly oriented toward ceremonial, and ritual performances were often depicted or evoked in images. This admittedly hypothetical picture applies most strongly to the 3rd and 4th dynasties. Configurations of cities in the Middle Kingdom are poorly understood because the Memphite area has yielded little evidence. The picture sketched so far is markedly different from that of the New Kingdom, when Thebes and Memphis became sizeable cities that were sited on the floodplain.
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The Cambridge World History
  • Volume 3: Early Cities in Comparative Perspective, 4000 BCE–1200 CE
  • Edited by Norman Yoffee
  • Online ISBN: 9781139035606
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139035606
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Further readings

Bauer, Brian S., Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Brundage, Burr Cartwright, Lords of Cuzco: A History and Description of the Inca People in Their Final Days, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.
Covey, R. Alan, How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.
Covey, R. Alan, “Inka Administration of the Far South Coast of Peru,” Latin American Antiquity 11 (2000), 119–38.
D'Altroy, Terence N., The Incas, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.
D'Altroy, Terence N, Provincial Power in the Inka Empire, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
Julien, Catherine J., “Inca Decimal Administration in the Lake Titicaca Region,” in George C. Collier, Renato I. Rosaldo, and John D. Wirth (eds.), The Inca and Aztec States, 1400–1800: Anthropology and History, New York: Academic Press, 1982, pp. 119–51.
Malpass, Michael A., Provincial Inca: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Assessment of the Impact of the Inca State, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1993.
McEwan, Gordon, The Incas: New Perspectives, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.
Morris, Craig, and Adriana von Hagen, The Incas, London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 2011.
Silverblatt, Irene, “Imperial Dilemmas, the Politics of Kinship, and Inca Reconstructions of History,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 30 (1988), 83–102.
Von Hagen, Adriana, and Craig Morris, The Cities of the Ancient Andes, New York: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 1998.