Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: June 2012

4 - Spatial variation in ecosystems

Summary

Two fundamental and interconnected themes in ecology are the development and maintenance of spatial and temporal pattern, and the consequences of that pattern for the dynamics of populations and ecosystems.

(Levin 1992, p. 1959)

Introduction

Since the seminal contribution by Clark (1976), economists have sought to develop spatial models of resource management in a variety of contexts, including renewable resource harvesting, deforestation, mining, biological invasion, coastal services, and marine reserve establishment. Although ecology has long been interested in the spatial pattern and geographical distribution of organisms, since the 1980s ecologists have increasingly acknowledged the importance of spatial scale in influencing the structure and functions of ecosystems. The aim of this chapter is to show how the latter spatial considerations also matter in the treatment of ecosystems as natural assets.

Chapter 3 suggested that by adopting ecological landscape, or land area, as the basic unit, modeling an ecosystem as a natural asset is relatively straightforward. The natural asset model developed in the chapter demonstrated the likely ecological and economic tradeoffs that occur when an ecological landscape is converted as opposed to conserved or even possibly restored. Although the flow of ecosystem services provided by the landscape was critical to assessing these tradeoffs over time, there was no explicit discussion about how the spatial pattern of the ecological production of these services might vary across the landscape.

References
Aburto-Oropeza, O.Ezcurra, E.Danemann, 2008 Mangroves in the Gulf of California increase fishery yieldsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 10456
Aguilar-Perera, A.Appeldoorn, R.S. 2008 Spatial distribution of marine fishes along a cross-shelf gradient containing a continuum of mangrove-seagrass-coral reefs off southwestern Puerto RicoEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76 378
Aksornkoae, S.Tokrisna, R. 2004
Albers, H.J. 1996 Modeling ecological constraints on tropical forest management: spatial interdependence, irreversibility and uncertaintyJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 30 73
Alix-Garcia, J. 2007 A spatial analysis of common property deforestationJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 53 141
Alongi, D.M. 2008 Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate changeEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76 1
Ando, A.W.Camm, J.Polasky, S.Solow, A. 1998 Species distributions, land values, and efficient conservationScience 279 2126
Balmford, A.Gaston, K.J.Blyth, S.James, A.Kapos, V. 2003 Global variation in terrestrial conservation costs, conservation benefits, and unmet conservation needsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 1046
Barbier, E.B. 2003 Habitat-fishery linkages and mangrove loss in ThailandContemporary Economic Policy 21 59
Barbier, E.B. 2007 Valuing ecosystems as productive inputsEconomic Policy 22 177
Barbier, E.B. 2008 Ecosystems as natural assetsFoundations and Trends in Microeconomics 4 611
Barbier, E.B.Sathirathai, S. 2004 Shrimp Farming and Mangrove Loss in ThailandEdward ElgarLondon
Barbier, E.B.Koch, E.W.Silliman, B.R. 2008 Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and valuesScience 319 321
Bockstael, N.E. 1996 Modeling economics and ecology: the importance of a spatial perspectiveAmerican Journal of Agricultural Economics 78 1168
Brown, G.Roughgarden, J. 1997 A metapopulation model with a common poolEcological Economics 22 65
Carwardine, J.Wilson, K.A.Ceballos, G. 2008 Cost-effective priorities for global mammal conservationProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 11446
Clark, C.W. 1976 Mathematical BioeconomicsWiley InterscienceNew York
Cochard, R.Ranamukhaarachchi, S.L.Shivakoti, G.P. 2008 The 2004 tsunami in Aceh and Southern Thailand: a review on coastal ecosystems, wave hazards and vulnerabilityPerspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 10 3
Costello, C.Polasky, S. 2008 Optimal harvesting of stochastic spatial resourcesJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 56 1
Ferraro, P.J. 2003 Assigning priority to environmental policy interventions in a heterogeneous worldJournal of Policy Analysis and Management 22 27
Ferraro, P.J. 2004 Targeting conservation investments in heterogeneous landscapes: a distance-function approach and application to watershed managementAmerican Journal of Agricultural Economics 86 905
Finnoff, D.Tschirhart, J.T. 2003 Protecting an endangered species while harvesting its prey in a general equilibrium ecosystem modelLand Economics 70 160
Finnoff, D.Tschirhart, J.T. 2003 Harvesting in an eight-species ecosystemJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 45 589
Flaaten, O.Stollery, K. 1996 The economic costs of biological predation: theory and application to the case of the North Atlantic minke whale’s () consumption of fishEnvironmental and Resource Economics 8 75
Forbes, K.Broadhead, J. 2007
Gaudet, G.Moreaux, M.Salant, S. 2001 Intertemporal depletion of resource sites by spatially distributed usersAmerican Economic Review 91 1149
Grafton, R.Q.Kompas, T.Schneider, V. 2005 The bioeconomics of marine reserves: a selected review with policy implicationsJournal of Bioeconomics 7 161
Grafton, R.Q.Kompas, T.Ha, P.V. 2009 Cod today and none tomorrow: the economic value of a marine reserveLand Economics 85 454
Granek, E.F.Polasky, S.Kappel, C.V. 2010 Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based managementConservation Biology 24 207
Johnston, R.J.Grigalunas, T.A.Opaluch, J.J.Mazzotta, M.Diamantedes, J. 2002 Valuing estuarine resource services using economic and ecological models: the Peconic Estuary system.”Coastal Management 30 47
Koch, E.W.Barbier, E.B.Silliman, B.R. 2009 Non-linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protectionFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7 29
Kolstad, C. 1994 Hotelling rents in hotelling space: product differentiation in exhaustible resource marketsJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 26 163
Levin, S.A. 1992 The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: the Robert H. MacArthur LectureEcology 73 1943
Manson, F.J.Loneragan, N.R.Skilleter, G.A.Phinn, S.R. 2005 An evaluation of the evidence for linkages between mangroves and fisheries: a synthesis of the literature and identification of research directionsOceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 43 483
Mazda, Y.Magi, M.Kogo, M.Hong, P.N. 1997 Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong King Delta, VietnamMangroves and Salt Marshes 1 127
McLeod, K.Leslie, H. 2009 Ecosystem-based Management for the OceansIsland PressWashington, DC
Meynecke, J.-O.Lee, S.Y.Duke, N.C. 2008 Linking spatial metrics and fish catch reveals the importance of coastal wetland connectivity to inshore fisheries in Queensland, AustraliaBiological Conservation 141 981
Moberg, F.Rönnbäck, P. 2003 Ecosystem services of the tropical seascape: interactions, substitutions and restorationOcean and Coastal Management 46 27
Mumby, P.J. 2006 Connectivity of reef fish between mangroves and coral reefs: algorithms for the design of marine reserves at seascape scalesBiological Conservation 128 215
Mumby, P.J.Edwards, A.J.Arias-Gonzalez, J.E. 2004 Mangroves enhance the biomass of reef fisheries in the CaribbeanNature 427 533
Naidoo, R.Balmford, A.Ferraro, P.J. 2006 Integrating economic costs into conservation planningTRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 21 681
Parkhurst, G.M.Shogren, J.F. 2008 Smart subsidies for conservationAmerican Journal of Agricultural Economics 90 1192
Petersen, J.E.Kemp, W.M.Bartleson, R. 2003 Multiscale experiments in coastal ecology: improving realism and advancing theoryBioScience 53 1181
Peterson, G.W.Turner, R.E. 1994 The value of salt marsh edge versus interior as habitat for fish and decapods crustaceans in a Louisiana tidal marshEstuaries 17 235
Polasky, S.Camm, J.D.Garber-Yonts, B. 2001 Selecting biological reserves cost-effectively: an application to terrestrial vertebrate conservation in OregonLand Economics 77 68
Robinson, E.J.Z.Albers, H.J.Williams, J.C. 2008 Spatial and temporal modeling of community non-timber forest extractionJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 56 234
Rodwell, L.D.Barbier, E.B.Roberts, C.M.McClanahan, T.R. 2002 A model of tropical marine reserve-fishery linkagesNatural Resource Modeling 15 453
Rodwell, L.D.Barbier, E.B.Roberts, C.M.McClanahan, T.R. 2003 The importance of habitat quality for marine reserve-fishery linkagesCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60 171
Rountree, R.A.Able, K.W. 2007 Spatial and temporal habitat use patterns for salt marsh nekton: implications for ecological functionsAquatic Ecology 41 25
Sanchirico, J.N. 2005 Additivity properties in metapopulation models: implications for the assessment of marine reservesJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 49 1
Sanchirico, J.N.Wilen, J.E. 1999 Bioeconomics of spatial exploitation in a patchy environmentJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 37 129
Sanchirico, J.N.Wilen, J.E. 2002 The impacts of marine reserves on limited-entry fisheriesNatural Resource Modeling 15 291
Sanchirico, J.N.Wilen, J.E. 2005 Optimal spatial management of renewable resources: matching policy scope to ecosystem scaleJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 50 23
Sanchirico, J.N.Mumby, P.J. 2009 Mapping ecosystem functions to the valuation of ecosystem services: implications of species-habitat associations for coastal land-use decisionsTheoretical Ecology 2 67
Sanchirico, J.N.Smith, M.D.Lipton, D.W. 2008 An empirical approach to ecosystem-based fishery managementEcological Economics 64 586
Sathirathai, S.Barbier, E.B. 2001 Valuing mangrove conservation, Southern ThailandContemporary Economic Policy 19 109
Schneider, D.C. 2001 The rise of the concept of scale in ecologyBioScience 51 545
Shackeroff, J.M.Hazen, E.L.Crowder, L.B. 2009 McLeod, Leslie,
Smith, M.D.Zhang, J.Coleman, F.C. 2008 Econometric modeling of fisheries with complex life histories: avoiding biological management failuresJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 55 265
Smith, M.D.Sanchirico, J.N.Wilen, J.E. 2009 The economics of spatial-dynamic processes: applications to renewable resourcesJournal of Environmental Economics and Management 57 104
Turner, M.G. 1989 Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on processAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20 171
Turner, M.G. 2005 Landscape ecology: what is the state of the science?Annual Reviews of Ecological and Evolutionary Systems 36 319
Wacker, H. 1999 Optimal harvesting of mutualistic ecological systemsResource and Energy Economics 21 89
Wolanski, E. 2007 Estuarine EcohydrologyElsevierAmsterdam