Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: March 2016

Chapter 10 - Mood, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period

from Section 2 - Hormonal and reproductive effects
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Comprehensive Women's Mental Health
  • Online ISBN: 9781107045132
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Ahokas, A., Aito, M., et al. (2000). “Positive treatment effect of estradiol in postpartum psychosis: a pilot study.” J Clin Psychiatry 61(3): 166169.
Ahokas, A., Kaukoranta, J., et al. (2001). “Estrogen deficiency in severe postpartum depression: successful treatment with sublingual physiologic 17beta-estradiol: a preliminary study.” J Clin Psychiatry 62(5): 332336.
Akincigil, A., Munch, S., et al. (2010). “Predictors of maternal depression in the first year postpartum: marital status and mediating role of relationship quality.” Soc Work Health Care 49(3): 227244.
Alcorn, K. L., O'Donovan, A., et al. (2010). “A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events.” Psychol Med 40(11): 18491859.
Altemus, M., Neeb, C. C., et al. (2012). “Phenotypic differences between pregnancy-onset and postpartum-onset major depressive disorder.” J Clin Psychiatry 73(12): e1485–1491.
Altshuler, L. L., Cohen, L. S., et al. (2001). “The Expert Consensus Guideline Series. Treatment of depression in women.” Postgrad Med(Spec No): 1–107.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Anderson, E. L. and Reti, I. M. (2009). “ECT in pregnancy: a review of the literature from 1941 to 2007.” Psychosom Med 71(2): 235242.
Appleby, L., Mortensen, P. B., et al. (1998). “Suicide and other causes of mortality after post-partum psychiatric admission.” Br J Psychiatry 173: 209211.
Austin, M. P. (2010). “Classification of mental health disorders in the perinatal period: future directions for DSM-V and ICD-11.” Arch Womens Ment Health 13(1): 4144.
Austin, M.-P., Highet, N., et al. (2011). “Clinical practice guidelines for depression and related disorders – anxiety, bipolar disorder and puerperal psychosis – in the perinatal period.” A guideline for primary care health professionals. Melbourne: beyondblue: the national depression initiative.
Austin, M. P., Kildea, S., et al. (2007). “Maternal mortality and psychiatric morbidity in the perinatal period: challenges and opportunities for prevention in the Australian setting.” Med J Aust 186(7): 364367.
Banti, S., Mauri, M., et al. (2011). “From the third month of pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. Prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of depression. Results from the perinatal depression-research & screening unit study.” Compr Psychiatry 52(4): 343351.
Barth, J., Munder, T., et al. (2013). “Comparative efficacy of seven psychotherapeutic interventions for patients with depression: a network meta-analysis.” PLoS Med 10(5): e1001454.
Beck, C. T. (1998). “The effects of postpartum depression on child development: a meta-analysis.” Arch Psychiatr Nurs 12(1): 1220.
Beck, C. T. (2002). “Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.” Qual Health Res 12(4): 453472.
Beck, C. T., Gable, R. K., et al. (2011). “Posttraumatic stress disorder in new mothers: results from a two-stage U.S. national survey.” Birth 38(3): 216227.
Beck, C. T. and Watson, S. (2010). “Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.” Nurs Res 59(4): 241249.
Belmaker, R. H. and Agam, G. (2008). “Major depressive disorder.” N Engl J Med 358(1): 5568.
Bennett, H. A., Einarson, A., et al. (2004). “Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review.” Obstet Gynecol 103(4): 698709.
Bergink, V., Kushner, S. A., et al. (2011). “Prevalence of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction in postpartum psychosis.” Br J Psychiatry 198(4): 264268.
Beydoun, H. A., Beydoun, M. A., et al. (2012). “Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Soc Sci Med 75(6): 959975.
Bilszta, J. L., Meyer, D., et al. (2010). “Bipolar affective disorder in the postnatal period: investigating the role of sleep.” Bipolar Disord 12(5): 568578.
Blackmore, E. R., Rubinow, D. R., et al. (2013). “Reproductive outcomes and risk of subsequent illness in women diagnosed with postpartum psychosis.” Bipolar Disord 15(4): 394404.
Bledsoe, S. E. and Grote, N. K. (2006). “Treating depression during pregnancy and the postpartum: a preliminary meta-analysis.” Research on Social Work Practice 16(2): 109120.
Bodnar, L. M. and Wisner, K. L. (2005). “Nutrition and depression: implications for improving mental health among childbearing-aged women.” Biol Psychiatry 58(9): 679685.
Boorman, R. J., Devilly, G. J., et al. (2013). “Childbirth and criteria for traumatic events.” Midwifery 30(2): 255261.
Borneskog, C., Sydsjo, G., et al. (2013). “Symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples treated with donated sperm: a descriptive study.” BJOG 120(7): 839846.
Buist, A., Bilszta, J., Barnett, B., Milgrom, J., Condon, J., and Hayes, B. (2005). “Recognition and management of perinatal depression in general practice: results of an Australian National Survey.” Australian Family Physician 34(9): 787790.
Buist, A., Gotman, N., et al. (2011). “Generalized anxiety disorder: course and risk factors in pregnancy.” J Affect Disord 131(1–3): 277283.
Buist, A., Minto, B., et al. (2004). “Mother-baby psychiatric units in Australia-the Victorian experience.” Arch Womens Ment Health 7(1): 8187.
Bunevicius, R., Kusminskas, L., et al. (2009a). “Psychosocial risk factors for depression during pregnancy.” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88(5): 599605.
Bunevicius, R., Kusminskas, L., et al. (2009b). “Depressive disorder and thyroid axis functioning during pregnancy.” World J Biol Psychiatry 10(4): 324329.
Byatt, N., Simas, T. A., et al. (2012). “Strategies for improving perinatal depression treatment in North American outpatient obstetric settings.” J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 33(4): 143161.
Chan, R. W., Raboy, B., et al. (1998). “Psychosocial adjustment among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers.” Child Dev 69(2): 443457.
Chaudron, L. H. and Pies, R. W. (2003). “The relationship between postpartum psychosis and bipolar disorder: a review.” J Clin Psychiatry 64(11): 12841292.
Chung, T. K., Lau, T. K., et al. (2001). “Antepartum depressive symptomatology is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.” Psychosom Med 63(5): 830834.
Clare, C. A. and Yeh, J. (2012). “Postpartum depression in special populations: a review.” Obstet Gynecol Surv 67(5): 313323.
Coble, P. A., Reynolds, C. F., 3rd, et al. (1994). “Childbearing in women with and without a history of affective disorder. II. Electroencephalographic sleep.” Compr Psychiatry 35(3): 215224.
Cohen, L. S., Altshuler, L. L., et al. (2006). “Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment.” JAMA 295(5): 499507.
Collins, C. H., Zimmerman, C., et al. (2011). “Refugee, asylum seeker, immigrant women and postnatal depression: rates and risk factors.” Arch Womens Ment Health 14(1): 311.
Cox, J. and Holden, J. (2003). Perinatal Mental Health: A Guide to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. London: RCPsych Publications.
Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., et al. (1987). “Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.” Br J Psychiatry 150: 782786.
Dannon, P. N., Iancu, I., et al. (2006). “Recurrence of panic disorder during pregnancy: a 7-year naturalistic follow-up study.” Clin Neuropharmacol 29(3): 132137.
Davalos, D. B., Yadon, C. A., et al. (2012). “Untreated prenatal maternal depression and the potential risks to offspring: a review.” Arch Womens Ment Health 15(1): 114.
de Rosnay, M., Cooper, P. J., et al. (2006). “Transmission of social anxiety from mother to infant: an experimental study using a social referencing paradigm.” Behav Res Ther 44(8): 11651175.
Dennis, C. L. (2004). “Preventing postpartum depression part I: a review of biological interventions.” Can J Psychiatry 49(7): 467475.
Dennis, C. L., Coghlan, M., et al. (2013). “Can we identify mothers at-risk for postpartum anxiety in the immediate postpartum period using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory?J Affect Disord 150(3): 12171220.
Dennis, C. L. and Dowswell, T. (2013). “Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD001134.
Dennis, C. L. and Hodnett, E. (2007). “Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating postpartum depression.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev(4): CD006116.
Dennis, C. L. and Kingston, D. (2008). “A systematic review of telephone support for women during pregnancy and the early postpartum period.” J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 37(3): 301314.
Dennis, C. L. and Ross, L. (2006). “Women’s perceptions of partner support and conflict in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.” J Adv Nurs 56(6): 588599.
Dennis, C. L., Ross, L. E., et al. (2007). “Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating antenatal depression.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev(3): CD006309.
Di Florio, A., Forty, L., et al. (2013). “Perinatal episodes across the mood disorder spectrum.” JAMA Psychiatry 70(2): 168175.
Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., et al. (2007). “Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births.” Am J Psychiatry 164(10): 15151520.
Dipietro, J. A. (2012). “Maternal stress in pregnancy: considerations for fetal development.” J Adolesc Health 51(2 Suppl): S3–8.
Doornbos, B., Dijck-Brouwer, D. A., et al. (2009). “The development of peripartum depressive symptoms is associated with gene polymorphisms of MAOA, 5-HTT and COMT.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33(7): 12501254.
Doornbos, B., Fekkes, D., et al. (2008). “Sequential serotonin and noradrenalin associated processes involved in postpartum blues.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32(5): 13201325.
Doucet, S., Letourneau, N., et al. (2012). “Support needs of mothers who experience postpartum psychosis and their partners.” J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 41(2): 236245.
Edge, D. (2007). “Ethnicity, psychosocial risk, and perinatal depression – a comparative study among inner city women in the UK.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63(3), 291295. eScholarID:1d27626, doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.02.013.
Edhborg, M. (2008). “Comparisons of different instruments to measure blues and to predict depressive symptoms 2 months postpartum: a study of new mothers and fathers.” Scand J Caring Sci 22(2): 186195.
Engineer, N., Darwin, L., et al. (2013). “Association of glucocorticoid and type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors gene variants and risk for depression during pregnancy and post-partum.” J Psychiatr Res 47(9): 11661173.
Engqvist, I. and Nilsson, K. (2013). “Experiences of the first days of postpartum psychosis: an interview study with women and next of kin in Sweden.” Issues Ment Health Nurs 34(2): 8289.
Fernandez, J. W., Grizzell, J. A., et al. (2013). “The role of estrogen receptor beta and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in postpartum depression.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 40: 199206.
Field, T., Diego, M., et al. (2003). “Pregnancy anxiety and comorbid depression and anger: effects on the fetus and neonate.” Depress Anxiety 17(3): 140151.
Figueiredo, B. and Conde, A. (2011). “Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum.” Arch Womens Ment Health 14(3): 247255.
Forray, A., Focseneanu, M., et al. (2010). “Onset and exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy and the postpartum period.” J Clin Psychiatry 71(8): 10611068.
Forty, L., Jones, L., et al. (2006). “Familiality of postpartum depression in unipolar disorder: results of a family study.” Am J Psychiatry 163(9): 15491553.
Frey, B. N., Simpson, W., et al. (2012). “Sensitivity and specificity of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire as a screening tool for bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period.” J Clin Psychiatry 73(11): 14561461.
Ganjekar, S., Desai, G., et al. (2013). “A comparative study of psychopathology, symptom severity, and short-term outcome of postpartum and nonpostpartum mania.” Bipolar Disord 15(6): 713718.
Gavin, N. I., Gaynes, B. N., et al. (2005). “Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence.” Obstet Gynecol 106(5 Pt 1): 10711083.
Gaynes, B. N., Gavin, N., et al. (2005). “Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes.” Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ)(119): 18.
Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N. M., Sutter, A. L., et al. (2011). “Inpatient mother-and-child postpartum psychiatric care: factors associated with improvement in maternal mental health.” Eur Psychiatry 26(4): 215223.
Glasheen, C., Richardson, G. A., et al. (2010). “A systematic review of the effects of postnatal maternal anxiety on children.” Arch Womens Ment Health 13(1): 6174.
Glazer, M., Simpson, W., et al. (2013). The use of the GAD-7 as a screening tool for Generalized Anxiety Disorder in pregnant and postpartum women. San Francisco, CA: 166th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association.
Glover, V., O'Connor, T. G., et al. (2010). “Prenatal stress and the programming of the HPA axis.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35(1): 1722.
Goecke, T. W., Voigt, F., et al. (2012). “The association of prenatal attachment and perinatal factors with pre- and postpartum depression in first-time mothers.” Arch Gynecol Obstet 286(2): 309316.
Golombok, S., Perry, B., et al. (2003). “Children with lesbian parents: a community study.” Dev Psychol 39(1): 2033.
Gonzalez, A., Jenkins, J. M., et al. (2012). “Maternal early life experiences and parenting: the mediating role of cortisol and executive function.” J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 51(7): 673682.
Gorman, L. L., O'Hara, M. W., et al. (2004). “Adaptation of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV disorders for assessing depression in women during pregnancy and post-partum across countries and cultures.” Br J Psychiatry Suppl 46: s17–23.
Goyal, D., Gay, C., et al. (2009). “Fragmented maternal sleep is more strongly correlated with depressive symptoms than infant temperament at three months postpartum.” Arch Womens Ment Health 12(4): 229237.
Grace, S. L., Evindar, A., et al. (2003). “The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: a review and critical analysis of the literature.” Arch Womens Ment Health 6(4): 263274.
Gregoire, A. J., Kumar, R., et al. (1996). “Transdermal oestrogen for treatment of severe postnatal depression.” Lancet 347(9006): 930933.
Grigoriadis, S., de Camps Meschino, D., et al. (2011). “Mood and anxiety disorders in a sample of Canadian perinatal women referred for psychiatric care.” Arch Womens Ment Health 14(4): 325333.
Grigoriadis, S., VonderPorten, E. H., et al. (2013a). “The effect of prenatal antidepressant exposure on neonatal adaptation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” J Clin Psychiatry 74(4): e309–320.
Grigoriadis, S., VonderPorten, E. H., et al. (2013b). “Antidepressant exposure during pregnancy and congenital malformations: is there an association? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the best evidence.” J Clin Psychiatry 74(4): e293–308.
Grigoriadis, S., VonderPorten, E. H., et al. (2013c). “The impact of maternal depression during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” J Clin Psychiatry 74(4): e321–341.
Guler, O., Koken, G. N., et al. (2008). “Course of panic disorder during the early postpartum period: a prospective analysis.” Compr Psychiatry 49(1): 3034.
Guler, O., Sahin, F. K., et al. (2008). “The prevalence of panic disorder in pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy.” Compr Psychiatry 49(2): 154158.
Halbreich, U. and Karkun, S. (2006). “Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms.” J Affect Disord 91(2–3): 97111.
Hall, E. and Steiner, M. (2013). “Serotonin and female psychopathology.” Womens Health (Lond Engl) 9(1): 8597.
Healey, C., Morriss, R., et al. (2013). “Self-harm in postpartum depression and referrals to a perinatal mental health team: an audit study.” Arch Womens Ment Health 16(3): 237245.
Heron, J., Gilbert, N., et al. (2012). “Information and support needs during recovery from postpartum psychosis.” Arch Womens Ment Health 15(3): 155165.
Heron, J., McGuinness, M., et al. (2008). “Early postpartum symptoms in puerperal psychosis.” BJOG 115(3): 348353.
Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., et al. (2012). “The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses.” Cognit Ther Res 36(5): 427440.
Howard, L. M., Oram, S., et al. (2013). “Domestic violence and perinatal mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” PLoS Med 10(5): e1001452.
Jones, I. and Cantwell, R. (2010). “The classification of perinatal mood disorders—suggestions for DSMV and ICD11.” Arch Womens Ment Health 13(1): 3336.
Jones, N. A., Field, T., et al. (1998). “Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms are physiologically less developed.” Infant Behav Dev 21(3): 537541.
Joy, C. B. and Saylan, M. (2007). “Mother and baby units for schizophrenia.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev(1): CD006333.
Kane, P. and Garber, J. (2004). “The relations among depression in fathers, children’s psychopathology, and father-child conflict: a meta-analysis.” Clin Psychol Rev 24(3): 339360.
Kaplan, B. J., Giesbrecht, G. F., et al. (2012). “The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.” Matern Child Nutr [Epub ahead of print].
Karacan, I., Williams, R. L., et al. (1969). “Some implications of the sleep patterns of pregnancy for postpartum emotional disturbances.” Br J Psychiatry 115(525): 929935.
Khalafallah, A. A. and Dennis, A. E. (2012). “Iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy and postpartum: pathophysiology and effect of oral versus intravenous iron therapy.” J Pregnancy 2012: 630519.
Kim, D. R., Epperson, N., et al. (2011). “An open label pilot study of transcranial magnetic stimulation for pregnant women with major depressive disorder.” J Womens Health (Larchmt) 20(2): 255261.
Kitamura, T., Yoshida, K., et al. (2006). “Multicentre prospective study of perinatal depression in Japan: incidence and correlates of antenatal and postnatal depression.” Arch Womens Ment Health 9(3): 121130.
Le Strat, Y., Dubertret, C., et al. (2011). “Prevalence and correlates of major depressive episode in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States.” J Affect Disord 135(1–3): 128138.
Leung, B. M. and Kaplan, B. J. (2009). “Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link—a review of the literature.” J Am Diet Assoc 109(9): 15661575.
Leung, B. M., Kaplan, B. J., et al. (2013). “Prenatal micronutrient supplementation and postpartum depressive symptoms in a pregnancy cohort.” BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13: 2.
Lilliecreutz, C., Sydsjo, G., et al. (2011). “Obstetric and perinatal outcomes among women with blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy.” J Affect Disord 129(1–3): 289295.
Maki, P., Hakko, H., et al. (2003). “Parental separation at birth and criminal behaviour in adulthood—a long-term follow-up of the Finnish Christmas Seal Home children.” Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 38(7): 354359.
Martins, C. and Gaffan, E. A. (2000). “Effects of early maternal depression on patterns of infant-mother attachment: a meta-analytic investigation.” J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41(6): 737746.
Matthey, S. (2008). “Using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to screen for anxiety disorders.” Depress Anxiety 25(11): 926931.
Matthey, S., Barnett, B., et al. (2003). “Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: whatever happened to anxiety?J Affect Disord 74(2): 139147.
Meades, R. and Ayers, S. (2011). “Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: a systematic review.” J Affect Disord 133(1–2): 115.
Meltzer-Brody, S., Stuebe, A., et al. (2011). “Elevated corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression (PPD).” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(1): E40–47.
Meng, X. and D’Arcy, C. (2012). “Common and unique risk factors and comorbidity for 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among Canadians.” Can J Psychiatry 57(8): 479487.
Metz, A., Stump, K., et al. (1983). “Changes in platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptor binding post partum: possible relation to maternity blues.” Lancet 1(8323): 495498.
Mileva-Seitz, V., Fleming, A. S., et al. (2012). “Dopamine receptors D1 and D2 are related to observed maternal behavior.” Genes Brain Behav 11(6): 684694.
Mileva-Seitz, V., Kennedy, J., et al. (2011). “Serotonin transporter allelic variation in mothers predicts maternal sensitivity, behavior and attitudes toward 6-month-old infants.” Genes Brain Behav 10(3): 325333.
Mileva-Seitz, V., Steiner, M., et al. (2013). “Interaction between Oxytocin Genotypes and Early Experience Predicts Quality of Mothering and Postpartum Mood.” PLoS One 8(4): e61443.
Milgrom, J., Burrows, G. D., et al. (1998). “Psychiatric illness in women: a review of the function of a specialist mother-baby unit.” Aust N Z J Psychiatry 32(5): 680686.
Misri, S., Kostaras, X., et al. (2000). “The impact of partner support in the treatment of postpartum depression.” Can J Psychiatry 45(6): 554558.
Miszkurka, M., Goulet, L., et al. (2010). “Contributions of immigration to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in Canada.” Can J Public Health 101(5): 358364.
Morse, C. A., Buist, A., et al. (2000). “First-time parenthood: influences on pre- and postnatal adjustment in fathers and mothers.” J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 21(2): 109120.
Mota, N., Cox, B. J., et al. (2008). “The relationship between mental disorders, quality of life, and pregnancy: findings from a nationally representative sample.” J Affect Disord 109(3): 300304.
Mott, S. L., Schiller, C. E., et al. (2011). “Depression and anxiety among postpartum and adoptive mothers.” Arch Womens Ment Health 14(4): 335343.
Munk-Olsen, T., Laursen, T. M., et al. (2006). “New parents and mental disorders: a population-based register study.” JAMA 296(21): 25822589. doi:10.1001/jama.296.21.2582.
Murgatroyd, C. A. and Nephew, B. C. (2013). “Effects of early life social stress on maternal behavior and neuroendocrinology.” Psychoneuroendocrinology 38(2): 219228.
Murphy-Eberenz, K., Zandi, P. P., et al. (2006). “Is perinatal depression familial?J Affect Disord 90(1): 4955.
Murray, D. and Cox, J. L. (1990). “Screening for depression during pregnancy with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EPDS).” Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 8: 99107.
Murray, L., Cooper, P., et al. (2007). “The effects of maternal social phobia on mother-infant interactions and infant social responsiveness.” J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(1): 4552.
Murray, L. and Cooper, P. (1997). “Effects of postnatal depression on infant development.” Arch Dis Child 77(2): 99101.
Murray, L. and Copper, P. J., Eds. (1997). Postpartum depression and child development. New York: The Guilford Press.
Murray, L., Woolgar, M., et al. (2003). “Self-exclusion from health care in women at high risk for postpartum depression.” J Public Health Med 25(2): 131137.
Muzik, M., Bocknek, E. L., et al. (2013). “Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.” Arch Womens Ment Health 16(1): 2938.
Nager, A., Szulkin, R., et al. (2013). “High lifelong relapse rate of psychiatric disorders among women with postpartum psychosis.” Nord J Psychiatry 67(1): 5358.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (2007). Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health: The NICE Guideline on Clinical Management and Service Guidance. Leicester (UK), British Psychological Society.
Navarro, P., Garcia-Esteve, L., et al. (2008). “Non-psychotic psychiatric disorders after childbirth: prevalence and comorbidity in a community sample.” J Affect Disord 109(1–2): 171176.
Newport, D. J., Stowe, Z. N., et al. (2002). “Parental depression: animal models of an adverse life event.” Am J Psychiatry 159(8): 12651283.
O’Connor, T. G., Heron, J., et al. (2002). “Antenatal anxiety predicts child behavioral/emotional problems independently of postnatal depression.” J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41(12): 14701477.
O’Hara, M. W. and McCabe, J. E. (2013). “Postpartum depression: current status and future directions.” Annu Rev Clin Psychol 9: 379407.
O’Hara, M. W. and Swain, A. M. (1996). “Rates and risk of postpartum depression-A meta-analysis.” International Review of Psychiatry 8(1): 3754.
O’Keane, V., Lightman, S., et al. (2011). “Changes in the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during the early puerperium may be related to the postpartum ‘blues’.” Journal of Neuroendocrinology 23(11): 11491155.
Oates, M. (2003). “Perinatal psychiatric disorders: a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality.” Br Med Bull 67: 219229.
Olde, E., van der Hart, O., et al. (2006). “Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: a review.” Clin Psychol Rev 26(1): 116.
Pacheco, A. and Figueiredo, B. (2012). “Mother’s depression at childbirth does not contribute to the effects of antenatal depression on neonate's behavioral development.” Infant Behav Dev 35(3): 513522.
Palladino, C. L., Singh, V., et al. (2011). “Homicide and suicide during the perinatal period: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System.” Obstet Gynecol 118(5): 10561063.
Patterson, C. J. (2001). “Families of the lesbian baby boom: Maternal mental health and child adjustment.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy 4(3–4): 91107.
Patterson, C. J. and Friel, L. V. (2000). Sexual orientation and fertility. In Infertility in the modern world: Biosocial perspectives. Bentley, G. and Mascie-Taylor, N. (eds). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 238260.
Paulson, J. F. and Bazemore, S. D. (2010). “Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression: a meta-analysis.” JAMA 303(19): 19611969.
Pedersen, C. A., Johnson, J. L., et al. (2007). “Antenatal thyroid correlates of postpartum depression.” Psychoneuroendocrinology 32(3): 235245.
Pinsonneault, J. K., Sullivan, D., et al. (2013). “Association study of the estrogen receptor gene ESR1 with post-partum depression – a pilot study.” Arch Womens Ment Health [Epub ahead of print].
Reck, C., Stehle, E., et al. (2009). “Maternity blues as a predictor of DSM-IV depression and anxiety disorders in the first three months postpartum.” J Affect Disord 113(1–2): 7787.
Richards, E. M. and Payne, J. L. (2013). “The management of mood disorders in pregnancy: alternatives to antidepressants.” CNS Spectr: 1–11.
Robertson, E., Grace, S., et al. (2004). “Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature.” Gen Hosp Psychiatry 26(4): 289295.
Robertson, E., Jones, I., et al. (2005). “Risk of puerperal and non-puerperal recurrence of illness following bipolar affective puerperal (post-partum) psychosis.” Br J Psychiatry 186: 258259.
Ross, L. E. (2005). “Perinatal mental health in lesbian mothers: a review of potential risk and protective factors.” Women Health 41(3): 113128.
Ross, L. E., Grigoriadis, S., et al. (2013). “Selected pregnancy and delivery outcomes after exposure to antidepressant medication: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” JAMA Psychiatry 70(4): 436443.
Ross, L. E. and McLean, L. M. (2006). “Anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period: A systematic review.” J Clin Psychiatry 67(8): 12851298.
Ross, L. E., Murray, B. J., et al. (2005). “Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review.” J Psychiatry Neurosci 30(4): 247256.
Ross, L. E., Sellers, E. M., et al. (2004). “Mood changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period: development of a biopsychosocial model.” Acta Psychiatr Scand 109(6): 457466.
Ross, L. E., Steele, L., et al. (2007). “Perinatal depressive symptomatology among lesbian and bisexual women.” Arch Womens Ment Health 10(2): 5359.
Rubertsson, C., Waldenström, U., et al. (2003). “Depressive mood in early pregnancy: Prevalence and women at risk in a national Swedish sampleJournal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 21(2): 113123.
Russell, E. J., Fawcett, J. M., et al. (2013). “Risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnant and postpartum women: a meta-analysis.” J Clin Psychiatry 74(4): 377385.
Russell, J. A., Douglas, A. J., et al. (2001). “Brain preparations for maternity—adaptive changes in behavioral and neuroendocrine systems during pregnancy and lactation. An overview.” Prog Brain Res 133: 138.
Sacher, J., Wilson, A. A., et al. (2010). “Elevated brain monoamine oxidase A binding in the early postpartum period.” Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(5): 468474.
Salmon, M., Abel, K., et al. (2003). “Clinical and parenting skills outcomes following joint mother-baby psychiatric admission.” Aust N Z J Psychiatry 37(5): 556562.
Sanjuan, J., Martin-Santos, R., et al. (2008). “Mood changes after delivery: role of the serotonin transporter gene.” Br J Psychiatry 193(5): 383388.
Sasson, Y., Zohar, J., et al. (1997). “Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a world view.” J Clin Psychiatry 58 Suppl 12: 710.
Schiller, C. E., O’Hara, M. W., et al. (2013). “Estradiol modulates anhedonia and behavioral despair in rats and negative affect in a subgroup of women at high risk for postpartum depression.” Physiology & Behavior 119: 137144.
Schmied, V., Johnson, M., et al. (2013). “Maternal mental health in Australia and New Zealand: A review of longitudinal studies.” Women Birth 26(3): 167178.
Senecky, Y., Agassi, H., et al. (2009). “Post-adoption depression among adoptive mothers.” J Affect Disord 115(1–2): 6268.
Sharma, V. and Mazmanian, D. (2003). “Sleep loss and postpartum psychosis.” Bipolar Disord 5(2): 98105.
Sharma, V., Smith, A., et al. (2004). “The relationship between duration of labour, time of delivery, and puerperal psychosis.” J Affect Disord 83(2–3): 215220.
Sichel, D. A., Cohen, L. S., et al. (1995). “Prophylactic estrogen in recurrent postpartum affective disorder.” Biol Psychiatry 38(12): 814818.
Skrundz, M., Bolten, M., et al. (2011). “Plasma oxytocin concentration during pregnancy is associated with development of postpartum depression.” Neuropsychopharmacology 36(9): 18861893.
Soderquist, J., Wijma, B., et al. (2009). “Risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth.” BJOG 116(5): 672680.
Speisman, B. B., Storch, E. A., et al. (2011). “Postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder.” J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 40(6): 680690.
Spinelli, M. G. (2004). “Maternal infanticide associated with mental illness: prevention and the promise of saved lives.” Am J Psychiatry 161(9): 15481557.
Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., et al. (2006). “A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7.” Arch Intern Med 166(10): 10921097.
Steiner, M., Dunn, E., et al. (2003). “Hormones and mood: from menarche to menopause and beyond.” J Affect Disord 74(1): 6783.
Stuebe, A. M., Grewen, K., et al. (2013). “Association between maternal mood and oxytocin response to breastfeeding.” J Womens Health (Larchmt) 22(4): 352361.
Treloar, S. A., Martin, N. G., et al. (1999). “Genetic influences on post-natal depressive symptoms: findings from an Australian twin sample.” Psychol Med 29(3): 645654.
Uguz, F., Akman, C., et al. (2007). “Postpartum-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: incidence, clinical features, and related factors.” J Clin Psychiatry 68(1): 132138.
Uguz, F., Gezginc, K., et al. (2007). “Obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy.” Compr Psychiatry 48(5): 441445.
Vesga-Lopez, O., Blanco, C., et al. (2008). “Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States.” Arch Gen Psychiatry 65(7): 805815.
Vigod, S. N., Villegas, L., et al. (2010). “Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression among women with preterm and low-birth-weight infants: a systematic review.” BJOG 117(5): 540550.
Viguera, A. C., Tondo, L., et al. (2011). “Episodes of mood disorders in 2,252 pregnancies and postpartum periods.” Am J Psychiatry 168(11): 11791185.
Viguera, A. C., Whitfield, T., et al. (2007). “Risk of recurrence in women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy: prospective study of mood stabilizer discontinuation.” Am J Psychiatry 164(12): 18171824; quiz 1923.
Vythilingum, B. (2010). “Should childbirth be considered a stressor sufficient to meet the criteria for PTSD?Arch Womens Ment Health 13(1): 4950.
Wadhwa, P. D., Sandman, C. A., et al. (2001). “The neurobiology of stress in human pregnancy: implications for prematurity and development of the fetal central nervous system.” Prog Brain Res 133: 131142.
Watanabe, M., Wada, K., et al. (2008). “Maternity blues as predictor of postpartum depression: a prospective cohort study among Japanese women.” J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 29(3): 206212.
Weinberg, M. K. and Tronick, E. Z. (1998). “The impact of maternal psychiatric illness on infant development.” J Clin Psychiatry 59(Suppl 2): 5361.
Weisberg, R. B. and Paquette, J. A. (2002). “Screening and treatment of anxiety disorders in pregnant and lactating women.” Womens Health Issues 12(1): 3236.
Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., et al. (2006). “Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: a STAR*D-child report.” JAMA 295(12): 13891398.
Wisner, K. L., Moses-Kolko, E. L., et al. (2010). “Postpartum depression: a disorder in search of a definition.” Arch Womens Ment Health 13(1): 3740.
Wisner, K. L., Sit, D. K., et al. (2013). “Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings.” JAMA Psychiatry 70(5): 490498.
Yawn, B. P., Olson, A. L., et al. (2012). “Postpartum depression: screening, diagnosis, and management programs 2000 through 2010.” Depress Res Treat 2012: 363964.
Yonkers, K. A., Vigod, S., et al. (2011). “Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of mood disorders in pregnant and postpartum women.” Obstet Gynecol 117(4): 961977.
Yozwiak, J. A. (2010). “Postpartum depression and adolescent mothers: a review of assessment and treatment approaches.” J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 23(3): 172178.
Zambaldi, C. F., Cantilino, A., et al. (2009). “Postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder: prevalence and clinical characteristics.” Compr Psychiatry 50(6): 503509.
Zhang, X., Liu, K., et al. (2010). “Safety and feasibility of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for major depression during pregnancy.” Arch Womens Ment Health 13(4): 369370.
Zimmerman, M. and Galione, J. N. (2011). “Screening for bipolar disorder with the Mood Disorders Questionnaire: a review.” Harv Rev Psychiatry 19(5): 219228.