Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Earl, Jennifer 2018. The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. p. 289.

  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: January 2016

15 - Protest online: theorizing the consequences of online engagement

from Conclusion

Drawing inspiration from protesters who have weathered social stigma, police dogs, rubber bullets, private militias, and even death, social movement scholars collectively hope that when people come together to collectively embody “power in movement” (Tarrow 1994) that this power has some influence or effect. Leaving aside for a moment the varied ability of the field to empirically validate these hopes where traditional, “offline” protest is concerned, many activists and social movement scholars have been far less hopeful about the potential implications of Internet-enabled activism. Instead, scholars and activists have questioned the ability of Internet activism to make change, denigrating online activism by referring to it as “slacktivism,” or privileging offline protest as “real protest” (Diani 2000; Rucht 2004; Tarrow 1998) or “‘real’ actions” (Van Laer and Van Aelst 2010).

But, these negative views are in contrast to what many participants report. For instance, a 2010 survey found that 59% of Americans, and 64% of Internet users, thought that the Internet has had a major impact on the ability of groups to impact society and 49% of Americans, and 52% of Internet users, thought this was true about impacts in their local communities too (Rainie et al. 2011). Likewise, when respondents had participated in the last 12 months in a online group that they judged to be successful, 46% thought that Internet usage played a major role in raising awareness about the issue (Rainie et al. 2011: 3).

I challenge strident dismissals of Internet activism by evaluating the likely range of potential impacts for different kinds of Internet activism. Specifically, I review research on four broad types of Internet activism to evaluate the likelihood of outcomes for each type. I find that one of these types of Internet activism is likely to be ineffective but its offline equivalent is similarly ineffective. For two other types of Internet activism, I find that their potential effects are largely indirect and thus greatly depend on a mediating variable to ultimately determine effectiveness. For the final type of Internet activism, I argue that it might be consequential and therefore examine potential consequences in terms of policy, cultural, internal movement, and biographical impacts. The goal of the chapter is to provide both a more even-handed comparison of offline and online activism and to suggest paths for future research.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Consequences of Social Movements
  • Online ISBN: 9781316337790
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Amenta, Edwin and Caren, Neal. 2004. “The Legislative, Organizational, and Beneficiary Consequences of State-Oriented Challengers.” In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 461–488.
Amenta, Edwin, Carruthers, Bruce, and Zylan, Yvonne. 1992. “A Hero for the Aged? The Townsend Movement, the Political Mediation Model, and U.S. Old-Age Policy, 1934–1950.” American Journal of Sociology, 8: 308–330.
Amenta, Edwin, Dunleavy, Kathleen, and Bernstein, Mary. 1994. “Stolen Thunder? Huey Long's “Share Our Wealth,” Political Mediation, and the Second New Deal.” American Sociological Review, 59:678–702.
Andrews, Kenneth T. 2001. “Social Movements and Policy Implementation: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and the War on Poverty, 1965 to 1971.” American Sociological Review, 66: 71–95.
Ayres, Jeffrey M. 1999. “From the Streets to the Internet: The Cyber-Diffusion of Contention.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 566: 132–143.
Bail, Christopher A. 2012. “The Fringe Effect: Civil Society Organizations and the Evolution of Media Discourse about Islam since the September 11th Attacks.” American Sociological Review, 77: 855–879.
Barkan, Steven E. 1984. “Legal Control of the Southern Civil Rights Movement.” American Sociological Review, 49: 552–565.
Bennett, Daniel and Fielding, Pam. 1999. The Net Effect: How Cyberadvocacy Is Changing the Political Landscape. Merrifield, VA: e-advocates Press.
Bennett, Lance. 2003a. “New Media Power: The Internet and Global Activism.” In Couldry, N. and Curran, J. (eds.), Contesting Media Power. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 17–37.
Bennett, W. Lance. 2003b. “Communicating Global Activism: Strengths and Vulnerabilities of Networked Politics.” Information, Communication and Society, 6: 143–168.
Bennett, W. Lance. 2004. “Social Movements Beyond Borders: Understanding Two Eras of Transnational Activism.” In Porta, D. d. and Tarrow, S. (eds.), Transnational Protest and Global Activism. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 203–227.
Beyer, Jessica Lucia. 2011. “Youth and the Generation of Political Consciousness Online.” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation Thesis, Department of Political Science, University of Washington, Washington.
Bloomberg News. 2011. “Facebook Call Prompts Protest Marches in Vietnam Over Dispute With China.” Available online at:, April 27, 2013.
Boase, Jeffrey, Horrigan, John B., Wellman, Barry, and Rainie, Lee. 2006. “The Strength of Internet Ties.” Pew Internet & American Life Project, Washington, D.C.
Brundidge, Jennifer. 2010. “Encountering “Difference” in the Contemporary Public Sphere: The Contribution of the Internet to the Heterogeneity of Political Discussion Networks.” Journal of Communication, 60: 680–700.
Caren, Neal and Gaby, Sarah. 2011. “Occupy Online: Facebook and the Spread of Occupy Wall Street.” Available online at:, April 27, 2013.
Carty, Victoria. 2002. “Technology and Counter-hegemonic Movements: The Case of Nike Corporation.” Social Movement Studies, 1: 129–146.
Castells, Manuel. 2012. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Chadwick, Andrew. 2011. “Britain's First Live Televised Party Leader's Debate: From the News Cycle to the Political Information Cycle.” Parliamentary Affairs, 64: 24–44.
Cloward, Richard A. and Piven, Frances Fox. 2001. “Disrupting Cyberspace: A New Frontier for Labor Activism?” New Labour Forum, Spring/Summer 2001: 91–94.
Cohen, Cathy J., Kahne, Joseph, Bowyer, Benjamin, Middaugh, Ellen, and Rogowski, Jon. 2012. “Participatory Politics: New Media and Youth Political Action.” MacArthur, Chicago.
Congressional Management Foundation. 2011. “Communicating with Congress: Perceptions of Citizen Advocacy on Capitol Hill.” Congressional Management Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Costain, Anne N. and Majstorovic, Steven. 1994. “Congress, Social Movements and Public Opinion: Multiple Origins of Women's Rights Legislation.” Political Research Quarterly, 47: 111–135.
Cress, Daniel M. and Snow, David A.. 2000. “The Influence of Organization, Disruption, Political Mediation, and Framing.” American Journal of Sociology, 105: 1063–1104.
Deibert, Ronald J., Palfrey, John G., Rohozinski, Rafal, and Zittrain, Jonathan. 2008. “Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering.” Boston: MIT.
Deibert, Ronald, Palfrey, John G., Rohozinski, Rafal, and Zittrain, Jonathan. 2010. Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace. Cambridge: MIT Press.
della Porta, Donatella and Mosca, Lorenzo. 2009. “Searching the Net: Web Sites’ Qualities in the Global Justice Movement.” Information, Communication & Society, 12: 771–792.
Diani, Mario. 2000. “Social Movement Networks: Virtual and Real.” Information, Communication and Society, 3: 386–401.
Earl, Jennifer. 2004. “The Cultural Consequences of Social Movements.” In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 508–530.
Earl, Jennifer. 2007. “Where Have All the Protests Gone? Online.” Washington Post. Washington, DC, pp. B01.
Earl, Jennifer. 2009. “When Bad Things Happen: Toward a Sociology of Trouble.” Sociology of Crime, Law, and Deviance, 12: 231–254.
Earl, Jennifer. 2010a. “The Dynamics of Protest-Related Diffusion on the Web.” Information, Communication & Society, 13: 209–225.
Earl, Jennifer. 2010b. “Spillover as Movement Agenda Setting: How Movement Issues Spillover Online.” Paper presented at MOVEOUT Workshop, Geneva, Switzerland, February 16, 2010.
Earl, Jennifer. 2012. “Our Way or the Highway? Policing “Activism” from the Inside.” In The Daily Disruption, May 1, 2013, Available at:
Earl, Jennifer. 2014. “Something Old and Something New: A Comment on ‘New Media, New Civics’.” Policy & Internet, 6: 169–175.
Earl, Jennifer, Hunt, Jayson, and Garrett, R. Kelly. 2014. “Social Movements and the ICT Revolution.” In van Heijden, H.-A. der (ed.), Handbook of Political Citizenship and Social Movements. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 359–383.
Earl, Jennifer and Kimport, Katrina. 2009. “Movement Societies and Digital Protest: Fan Activism and Other Non-Political Protest Online.” Sociological Theory, 23: 220–243.
Earl, Jennifer and Kimport, Katrina. 2010. “The Diffusion of Different Types of Internet Activism: Suggestive Patterns in Website Adoption of Innovations.” In Givans, B., Roberts, K., and Soule, S.A. (eds.), Dynamics of Diffusion in Social Movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 125–139.
Earl, Jennifer and Kimport, Katrina. 2011. Digitally Enabled Social Change: Activism in the Internet Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Earl, Jennifer, Kimport, Katrina, Prieto, Greg, Rush, Carly, and Reynoso, Kimberly. 2010. “Changing the World One Webpage at a Time: Conceptualizing and Explaining 'Internet Activism.” Mobilization, 15: 425–446.
Earl, Jennifer and Schussman, Alan. 2003. “The New Site of Activism: On-Line Organizations, Movement Entrepreneurs, and the Changing Location of Social Movement Decision-Making.” Research in Social Movements, Conflicts, and Change, 24: 155–187.
Earl, Jennifer and Schussman, Alan. 2004. “Cease and Desist: Repression, Strategic Voting and the 2000 Presidential Election.” Mobilization, 9: 181–202.
Earl, Jennifer and Schussman, Alan. 2008. “Contesting Cultural Control: Youth Culture and Online Petitioning.” In Bennett, W.L. (ed.), Digital Media and Civic Engagement. 71–95. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Edelman, Lauren B. 1992. “Legal Ambiguity and Symbolic Structures: Organization Mediation of Civil Rights Law.” American Journal of Sociology, 97: 1531–1579.
Eltahawy, Mona. 2010. “Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are the New Tools of Protest in the Arab World.” Washington Post. Washington, pp. A13.
Fisher, Dana R. 1998. “Rumoring Theory and the Internet: A Framework for Analyzing the Grass Roots.” Social Science Computer Review, 16: 158–168.
Fisher, Dana and Boekkooi, Marjie. 2010. “Mobilizing Friends and Strangers.” Information, Communication and Society, 13: 193–208.
Fisher, Dana, Stanley, Kevin, Berman, David, and Neff, Gina. 2005. “How Do Organizations Matter? Mobilization and Support for Participants at Five Globalization Protests.” Social Problems, 52: 102–121.
Gabbatt, Adam and Batty, David. 2010. “Second Day of Student Protests – How the Demonstrations Happened.” The Guardian, Available online at:, April 27, 2013.
Gabriel, Trip. 2013. “Online Furor Draws Press to Abortion Doctor's Trial.” New York Times.
Gamson, William A. 1995. “Constructing Social Protest.” In Johnston, H. and Klandermans, B. (eds.), Social Movements and Culture. London: UCL Press, 85–106.
Gamson, William A. 2004. “Bystanders, Public Opinion, and the Media.” In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 242–261.
Gamson, William A. and Modigliani, Andre. 1989. “Media Discourse and Public Opinion of Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach.” American Journal of Sociology, 95: 1–37.
Gamson, William A. and Wolfsfeld, Gadi. 1993. “Movements and Media as Interacting Systems.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 528: 114–125.
Garrett, R. Kelly. 2009. “Echo Chambers Online? Politically Motivated Selective Exposure among Internet News Users.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14: 265–285.
Gillan, Kevin. 2009. “The UK Anti-war Movement Online: Uses and Limitations of Internet Technologies for Contemporary Activism.” Information, Communication & Society, 12: 25–43.
Giugni, Marco G. 2004. “Personal and Biographical Consequences.” In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 489–507.
Gladwell, Malcolm. 2010. “Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted.” New Yorker, October 4, 2010.
Gurak, Laura J. 1997. Persuasion and Privacy in Cyberspace: The Online Protests over Lotus MarketPlace and the Clipper Chip. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gurak, Laura J. and Logie, John. 2003. “Internet Protests, from Text to Web.” In McCaughey, M. and Ayers, M.D. (eds.), Cyberactivism: Online Activism and Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge, 25–46.
Hampton, Keith. 2003. “Grieving for a Lost Network: Collective Action in a Wired Suburb. Special Issue: ICTs and Community Networking.” The Information Society, 19: 417–428.
Hampton, Keith N., Lee, Chul-Joo, and Her, Eun Ja. 2011. “How New Media Affords Network Diversity: Direct and Mediated Access to Social Capital through Participation in Local Social Settings.” New Media & Society, 13: 1031–1049.
Hampton, Keith N., Sessions, Lauren F., and Her, Eun Ja. 2011. “Core Networks, Social Isolation, and New Media: How Internet and Mobile Phone Use is Related to Network Size and Diversity.” Information, Communication & Society, 14: 130–155.
Hampton, Keith and Wellman, Barry. 2003. “Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet Supports Community and Social Capital in a Wired Suburb.” City & Community, 2: 277–311.
Handler, Joel F. 1978. Social Movements and the Legal System: A Theory of Law Reform and Social Change. New York: Academic Press.
Heyboer, Kelly. 2010. “N.J. Student Protests Showcase Facebook's Role in Mobilizing Social Movements.” Available online at:, April 27, 2013.
Hossain, Ashik. 2013. “Defiant Crowd Battles Propaganda War.”, Available online at:, April 27, 2013.
Jenkins, J. Craig and Perrow, Charles. 1977. “Insurgency of the Powerless: Farm Worker Movements (1946–1972).” American Sociological Review, 42: 249–268.
Johnson, Eric W. 2008. “Social Movement Size, Organizational Diversity and the Making of Federal Law.” Social Forces, 88: 967–993.
King, Brayden G. 2011. “The Tactical Disruptiveness of Social Movements: Sources of Market and Mediated Disruption in Corporate Boycotts.” Social Problems, 58: 491–517.
King, Brayden G., Bentele, Keith G., and Soule, Sarah A.. 2007. “Protest and Policymaking: Explaining Fluctuation in Congressional Attention to Rights Issues, 1960–1986.” Social Forces, 86: 137–163.
Klandermans, Bert. 2004. “The Demand and Supply of Participation: Social-Psychological Correlates of Participation in Social Movements.” In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 360–379.
Klatch, Rebecca E. 1999. A Generation Divided: The New Left, the New Right, and the 1960s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kreiss, Daniel. 2012. Taking Our Country Back. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
Kriesi, Hanspeter. 1988. “Local Mobilization for the People's Petition of the Dutch Peace Movement.” International Social Movement Research, 1: 41–82.
Kriesi, Hanspeter. 1989. “New Social Movements and the New Class in the Netherlands.” The American Journal of Sociology, 94: 1078–1116.
Kristof, Nicolas D. 2012. “Viral Video, Vicious Warlord.” New York Times. New York, pp. A35.
Lievrouw, Leah A. 2011. Alternative and Activist New Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Lober, Douglas J. 1995. “Why Protest? Public Behavioral and Attitudinal Response to Siting a Waste Disposal Facility.” Policy Studies Journal, 23: 499–518.
Loveman, Mara. 1998. “High-Risk Collective Action: Defending Human Rights in Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina.” American Journal of Sociology, 104: 477–525.
Madden, Mary and Lenhart, Amanda. 2006. “Online Dating.” Pew Internet and American Life Project, Washington, D.C.
McAdam, Doug. 1983. “Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency.” American Sociological Review, 48: 735–754.
McAdam, Doug. 1986. “Recruitment to High Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer.” American Journal of Sociology, 92: 64–90.
McAdam, Doug and Rucht, Dieter. 1993. “The Cross-National Diffusion of Movement Ideas.” Annals, 528: 56–74.
McAdam, Doug and Su, Yang. 2002. “The War at Home: Antiwar Protests and Congressional Voting, 1965 to 1973.” American Sociological Review, 67: 696–721.
McCammon, Holly J., Campbell, Karen E., Granberg, Ellen M., and Mowery, Christine. 2001. “How Movements Win: Gendered Opportunity Structures and U.S. Women's Suffrage Movements, 1866 to 1919.” American Sociological Review, 66: 49–70.
McCarthy, John D. and Zald, Mayer N.. 1973. The Trend of Social Movements in America: Professionalization and Resource Mobilization. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
McCarthy, John D. and Zald, Mayer N.. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology, 82: 1212–1241.
Meyer, David S. and Boutcher, Steven A.. 2007. “Signals and Spillover: Brown v. Board of Education and Other Social Movements.” Perspectives on Politics, 5: 81–93.
Meyer, David S. and Whittier, Nancy. 1994. “Social Movement Spillover.” Social Problems, 41: 277–298.
Miller, James A., Pennybacker, Susan D., and Rosenhaft, Eve. 2001. “Mother Ada Wright and the International Campaign to Free the Scottsboro Boys, 1931–1934.” The American Historical Review, 106: 387–430.
Minkoff, Debra C. 1997. “The Sequencing of Social Movements.” American Sociological Review, 62: 779–799.
Morozov, Evgeny. 2011. The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. New York: Public Affairs.
Myers, Daniel J. 1999. “Social Activism through Computer Networks.”
Oegema, Dirk and Klandermans, Bert. 1994. “Why Social Movement Sympathizers Don't Participate: Erosion and Nonconversion of Support.” American Sociological Review, 59: 703–722.
Piven, Frances Fox and Cloward, Richard A.. 1977. Poor People's Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail. New York: Vintage Books.
Rainie, Lee, Purcell, Kristen, and Smith, Aaron. 2011. “The Social Side of the Internet.” Pew Internet and American Life Project, Washington, D.C.
Rainie, Lee and Wellman, Barry. 2012. Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Rambler, Irish. 2011. “Spontaneous Demonstration Called on Facebook Attracts Half a Million in Lisbon.” In, vol. 2013.
Rheingold, Howard. 1993. The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Roberts, Hal, Zuckerman, Ethan, Faris, Robert, and Palfrey, John. 2010. “2010 Circumvention Tool Usage Report.” Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Rohlinger, Deana A., Brown, Jordan, and Bunnage, Leslie. 2010. “Unpacking Media Strategy: The Case of the Academic Freedom Movement.” Paper presented at Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta, GA, August 2010.
Rohlinger, Deana A., Bunnage, Leslie, and Brown, Jordan. 2009. “Bridging the Gap: The Role of the Internet in US Progressive Politics.” Paper presented at Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, San Francisco, August 2009.
Rucht, Deiter. 2004. “The Quadruple ‘A’: Media Strategies of Protest Movements Since the 1960s.” In Donk, W.v.d., Loader, B.D., Nixon, P.G., and Rucht, D. (eds.), Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements. New York: Routledge, 25–48.
Schussman, Alan and Earl, Jennifer. 2004. “From Barricades to Firewalls? Strategic Voting and Social Movement Leadership in the Internet Age.” Sociological Inquiry, 74: 439–463.
Sherkat, Darren E. and Blocker, T. Jean. 1997. “Explaining the Political and Personal Consequences of Protest.” Social Forces, 75: 1049–1076.
Shirky, Clay. 2008. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. New York: Penguin Press.
Shulman, Stuart, Callan, Jamie, Hovy, Eduard, and Zavestoski, Stephen. 2006. “Language Processing Technologies for Electronic Rulemaking: A Project Highlight.” In Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Digital Government Research, May 21–24, 2006.
Smith, Aaron, Scholzman, Kay Lehman, Verba, Sidney, and Brady, Henry. 2009. “The Internet and Civic Engagement.” Pew Internet & American Life Project, Washington, D.C.
Soule, Sarah A. 1997. “The Student Divestment Movement in the United States and Tactical Diffusion: The Shantytown Protest.” Social Forces, 75: 855–883.
Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1988. “The Consequences of Professionalization and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement.” American Sociological Review, 53: 585–606.
Strang, David and Soule, Sarah A.. 1998. “Diffusion in Organizations and Social Movements: From Hybrid Corn to Poison Pills.” Annual Review of Sociology, 24: 265–290.
Stross, Randall. 2011. “Consumer Complaints Made Easy. Maybe Too Easy.” New York Times. New York Times, Pp. 3.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. “Fishnets, Internets, and Catnets: Globalization and Transnational Collective Action.” In Hanaganm, M.P., Moch, L.P., and Brake, W. te (eds.), Challenging Authority: The Historical Study of Contentious Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 228–244.
Taylor, Verta and Dyke, Nella Van. 2004. “‘Get up, Stand up’: Tactical Repertoires of Social Movements.” In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 262–293.
Terkildsen, Nayda and Schnell, Frauke. 1997. “How Media Frames Move Public Opinion: An Analysis of the Women's Movement.” Political Research Quarterly, 50: 879–900.
Tufekci, Zeynep and Wilson, Christopher. 2012. “Social Media and the Decision to Participate in Political Protest: Observations from Tahrir Square.” Journal of Communication, 62: 363–379.
Dyke, Nella Van and McCammon, Holly. 2010. “Introduction: Social Movement Coalition Formation.” In Dyke, N. Van and McCammon, H. (eds.), Strategic Alliances: Coalition Building and Social Movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, xi–xviii.
Van Laer, Jeroen and Van Aelst, Peter. 2010. “Internet and Social Movement Action Repertoires.” Information, Communication & Society, 13: 1146–1171.
Vasi, Ion Bogdan. 2006. “The New Anti-War Protests and Miscible Mobilizations.” Social Movement Studies, 5: 137–153.
Vasi, Ion Bogdan and King, Brayden G.. 2012. “Social Movements, Risk Perceptions, and Economic Outcomes: The Effect of Primary and Secondary Stakeholder Activism on Firms’ Perceived Environmental Risk and Financial Performance.” American Sociological Review, 77: 573–596.
Vegh, Sandor. 2003. “Classifying Forms of Online Activism: The Case of Cyberprotests against the World Bank.” In McCaughey, M. and Ayers, M.D. (eds.), Cyberactivism: Online Activism and Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge, 71–95.
Walgrave, Steffan and Vliegenthart, Rens. 2012. “The Complex Agenda-Setting Power of Protest: Demonstrations, Media, Parliament, Government, and Legislation in Belgium, 1993–2000.” Mobilization, 17: 129–156.
Whittier, Nancy. 2004. “The Consequences of Social Movements for Each Other.” In Snow, D.A., Soule, S.A., and Kriesi, H. (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 531–551.
Wojcieszak, Magdalena E. and Mutz, Diana C.. 2009. “Online Groups and Political Discourse: Do Online Discussion Spaces Facilitate Exposure to Political Disagreement?Journal of Communication, 59: 40–56.
Zaeske, Susan. 2003. Signatures of Citizenship. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Zaret, David. 1996. “Petitions and the “Invention” of Public Opinion in the English Revolution.” The American Journal of Sociology, 101: 1497–1555.
Zaret, David. 1999. Origins of Democratic Culture: Printing, Petitions, and the Public Sphere in Early-Modern England. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Zuckerman, Ethan. 2012. “Unpacking Kony 2012.” In, edited by Zuckerman, E..
Zuckerman, Ethan. 2014. “New Media, New Civics?Policy & Internet, 6: 151–168.