Improving the gender balance among IT professionals by involving more women in IT spheres is a goal in many countries. In addition to achieving gender equality, it is of great economic importance, since there is a lack of IT professionals in many countries, including Russia. One possible solution to this problem is to increase the number of females in IT professions. This chapter will discuss the ICT education system in Russia, its history and major contributors to the field, careers in the field, and the relationship of these areas to gender issues. Below I give definitions of the main terms used in this chapter.