Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: May 2010

5 - Psychiatric comorbidity of depersonalization

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

  • Online ISBN: 9780511730023
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Ackner, B. (1954). Depersonalisation I. Aetiology and phenomenology. Journal of Mental Science, 100, 838–853.
Ackner, B. (1960). The prognostic significance of depersonalisation in depressive illnesses treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 242–246.
Ali, S. O., Denicoff, K. D., Ketter, T. A., Smith-Jackson, E. E., Post, R. M. (1997). Psychosensory symptoms in bipolar disorder. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral, 10, 223–231.
Ardila, A., Rosseli, M. (1988). Temporal lobe involvement in Capgras syndrome. International Journal of Neuroscience, 43, 219–224.
Baker, D., Hunter, E., Lawrence, E. et al. (2003). Depersonalisation disorder: clinical features of 204 cases. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 428–433.
Ball, S., Robinson, A., Shekhar, A., Walsh, K. (1997). Dissociative symptoms in panic disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 755–760.
Basaglia, F. (1956). Il corpo nell’hipocondria e nella depersonalizzazione. Rivista sperimentale di freniatria e medicina Legale delle alienazioni mentali, 80, 453–480.
Benedetti, A., Perugi, G., Toni, C., Simonetti, B., Mata, B., Cassano, G. B. (1997). Hypochondriasis and illness phobia in panic–agoraphobic patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 38, 124–131.
Benvenuti, A., Rucci, P., Ravani, L. et al. (2005). Psychotic features in borderline patients: is there a connection to mood dysregulation? Bipolar Disorder, 7, 338–343.
Bourgeois, M., Jordan, M., Daubech, J. F., Rigal, F., Goumilloux, R., Delile, J. M. (1986). Dépersonnalisation, syndrome de Cotard et virage maniaque sous benzodiazepine (Apropos de deux observations). Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 144, 174–182.
Brauer, R., Harrow, M., Tucker, G. J. (1970). Depersonalization phenomena in psychiatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 509–515.
Breh, D. C., Seidler, G. H. (2007). Is peritraumatic dissociation a risk factor for PTSD? Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 8, 53–69.
Brunner, R., Parzer, P., Schmitt, R., Resch, F. (2004). Dissociative symptoms in schizophrenia: a comparative analysis of patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls. Psychopathology, 37, 281–284.
Bryant, R. (1997). Folie à familie: a cognitive study of delusional beliefs. Psychiatry, 60, 44–50.
Bryant, R. A., Panasetis, P. (2005). The role of panic in acute dissociative reactions following trauma. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 489–494.
Cardena, E., Spiegel, D. (1993). Dissociative reactions to the San Francisco Bay Area earthquake of 1989. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 474–478.
Cassano, G. B., Petracca, A., Perugi, G., Toni, C., Tundo, A., Roth, M. (1989). Derealization and panic attacks: a clinical evaluation on 150 patients with panic disorder/agoraphobia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30, 5–12.
Cem Atbaşoglu, E., Schultz, S. K., Andreasen, N. C. (2001). The relationship of akathisia with suicidality and depersonalization among patients with schizophrenia. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 13, 336–341.
Christodoulou, G. N. (1986). Role of depersonalization-derealization phenomena in the delusional misidentification syndromes. Bibliotheca Psychiatrica, 164, 99–104.
Cotard, J. (1891). Perte de la vision mentale dans la mélancolie anxieuse. Archives de Neurologie, 7, 289–295.
Crémieux, A., Cain, J. (1948). Psychastenie grave avec obsession de négation. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 2, 76–80.
Dell, P. F. (2006). A new model of dissociative identity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 29, 1–26.
Edlund, M., Swann, A., Clothier, J. (1987). Patients with panic attacks and abnormal EEG results. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 508–509.
Federn, P. (1926). Some variations in ego feelings. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 2, 434–444.
Feigenbaum, D. (1937). Depersonalization as defense mechanism. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 6, 4–11.
Fuentenebro, F., Berrios, G. E. (1995). The predelusional state: a conceptual history. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 36, 251–259.
Galdston, I. (1947). On the aetiology of depersonalisation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 105, 25–39.
Gittleson, N. L. (1967). A phenomenological test of a theory of depersonalization. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 677–678.
Griffin, G. M., Resick, P., Mechanic, M. B. (1997). Objective assessment of peritraumatic dissociation: psychophysiological indicators. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1081–1088.
Grinberg, L. (1966). The relationship between obsessive mechanism and a state of self disturbance: depersonalization. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 46, 177–183.
Gunderson, J. G., Kolb, J. E., Austin, V. (1981). The diagnostic interview for borderline patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 896–903.
Häfner, H., Maurer, K., Trendler, G., an der Heiden, W., Schmidt, M., Könnecke, R. (2005). Schizophrenia and depression: challenging the paradigm of two separate diseases – a controlled study of schizophrenia, depression and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research, 77, 11–24.
Hillman, R. G. (1981). The psychopathology of being held hostage. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 1193–1197.
Hollander, E., Fairbanks, J., Decaria, C., Liebowitz, M. R. (1989). Pharmacological dissection of panic and depersonalization. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 402.
Hunter, R. C. (1966). The analysis of episodes of depersonalization in a borderline patient. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 47, 32–41.
Hunter, E. C., Sierra, M., David, A. S. (2004). The epidemiology of depersonalisation and derealisation. A systematic review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 9–18.
Hwu, H., Chen, C., Tsuang, M., Tseng, W. (1981). Derealization syndrome and the outcome of schizophrenia: a report from the international pilot study of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 313–318.
Juliusburger (1912). Zur Lehre von den Fremdheitsgefühlen. Monatsschrift für Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 22, 270.
Katerndahl, D. A., Talamantes, M. (2000). A comparison of persons with early-versus late-onset panic attacks. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 422–427.
Klonsky, E. D., Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2007). Self-injury: a research review for the practitioner. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 1045–1056.
Klosterkötter, J., Hellmich, M., Steinmeyer, E. M., Schultze-Lutter, F. (2001). Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 158–164.
Klosterkötter, J., Schultze-Lutter, F., Ruhrmann, S. (2008). Kraepelin and psychotic prodromal conditions. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 258 Suppl, 2, 74–84.
Kraepelin, E. (1896). Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie. (5th edition). Leipzig.
Krishaber, M. (1873). De la Névropathie Cérébro-Cardiaque. Paris:Masson.
Lachlan, A., McWiliams, M. A., Brian, J., Cox, P. H. D., Murray, W. (2001). Trauma and depersonalization during panic attacks. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 656.
Lewis, A. J. (1934). Melancholia: clinical survey of depressive states. Journal of Mental Science, 80, 277–378.
Liebowitz, M..R, McGrath, P. J., Bush, S. C. (1980). Mania occurring during treatment for depersonalization: a report of two cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 41, 33–34.
Locatelli, M., Bellodi, L., Perna, G., Scarone, S. (1993). EEG power modifications in panic disorder during a temporolimbic activation task: relationships with temporal lobe clinical symptomatology. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 5, 409–414.
Locatelli, M., Bellodi, L., Perna, G., Scarone, S. (1995). Temporal lobe involvement in panic disorder: results of a replication study. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 7, 272–273.
Maggini, C., Raballo, A., Salvatore, P. (2002). Depersonalization and basic symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychopathology, 35, 17–24.
Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Schlenger, W. E. et al. (1994). Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress in male Vietnam theater veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 902–907.
Marshall, R. D., Schneier, F. R., Lin, S. H., Simpson, H. B., Vermes, D., Liebowitz, M. (2000). Childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms in panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 451–453.
Mayer-Gross, W. (1935). On depersonalisation. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 15, 103–122.
Mayer-Gross, W., Slater, E., Roth, M. (1969). Clinical Psychiatry, 3rd edn. London: Martin. Baillière, Tindall & Cassell.
Medford, N., Baker, D., Hunter, E. et al. (2003). Chronic depersonalization following illicit drug use: a controlled analysis of 40 cases. Addiction, 98, 1731–1736.
Messer, J. M., Fremouw, W. J. (2008). A critical review of explanatory models for self-mutilating behaviors in adolescents. Clinical Psychology Reviews, 28, 162–178.
Michal, M., Sann, U., Grabhorn, R., Overbeck, G., Röder, Ch. (2005b). Zur Prävalenz von Depersonalisation und Derealisation in der stationären Psychotherapie. Psychotherapeut, 50, 328–339.
Michal, M., Kaufhold, J., Grabhorn, R., Krakow, K., Overbeck, G., Heidenreich, T. (2005a). Depersonalization and social anxiety. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 629–632.
Michal, M., Heidenreich, T., Engelbach, U. et al. (2006). Depersonalisation, soziale Ängste und Scham. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 56, 383–389.
Michal, M., Beutel, M. E., Jordan, J., Zimmermann, M., Wolters, S., Heidenreich, T. (2007). Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 693–696.
Mula, M., Pini, S., Cassano, G. B. (2007). The neurobiology and clinical significance of depersonalization in mood and anxiety disorders: a critical reappraisal. Journal of Affective Disorders, 99, 91–99.
Mula, M., Pini, S., Preve, M., Masini, M., Giovannini, I., Cassano, E. B. (2008). Clinical correlates of depersonalization symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Sept 9. [Epub ahead of Print].
Nixon, R. D., Resick, P. A., Griffin, M. G. (2004). Panic following trauma: the etiology of acute posttraumatic arousal. Journal of Anxiety Disorder, 18, 193–210.
Noyes, R., Kletti, R. (1977). Depersonalisation in response to life threatening danger. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 18, 375–384.
Noyes, R., Hoenk, P. R., Kuperman, S., Slymen, D. J. (1977). Depersonalization in accident victims and psychiatric patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 164, 401–407.
Noyes, R. Jr., Woodman, C., Garvey, M. J. et al. (1992). Generalized anxiety disorder vs. panic disorder. Distinguishing characteristics and patterns of comorbidity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 369–379.
Nuller, Y. L. (1982). Depersonalisation: symptoms, meaning, therapy. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 66, 451–458.
Nystrom, S. (1964). On the relation between clinical factors and efficacy of ECT in depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Suppl, 181, 1–140.
Oberndorf, C. P. (1935). Genesis of feeling of unreality (depersonalization). International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 16, 296–306.
Oberndorf, C.P (1950). The role of anxiety in depersonalisation. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 31, 1–5.
Parnas, J., Handest, P. (2003). Phenomenology of anomalous self-experience in early schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44, 121–134.
Phillips, M..L, Sierra, M. (2003). Depersonalization disorder: a functional neuroanatomical perspective. Stress, 6, 157–165.
Putnam, F. W. (1989). Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder. New York: The Guilford Press.
Ross, C. A. (2007). Borderline personality disorder and dissociation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 8, 71–80.
Roth, M. (1959). The phobic anxiety-depersonalisation syndrome. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 52, 587–595.
Saperstein, J. L. (1949). Phenomena of depersonalization. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 110, 236–251.
Schilder, P. (1938). The social neurosis. Psychoanalitic Review, 25, 1–19.
Schilder, P. (1914). Selbstbewusstsein und Persönlichkeitbewusstsein: eine psychopathologische Studie. Berlin:Verlag von Julius Springer.
Schilder, P. (1935). The Image and Appearance of the Human Body. London: Kegan Paul.
Schönenberg, M., Reichwald, U., Domes, G., Badke, A., Hautzinger, M. (2005). Effects of peritraumatic ketamine medication on early and sustained posttraumatic stress symptoms in moderately injured accident victims. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 182, 420–425.
Schönenberg, M., Reichwald, V., Domes, G., Badke, A., Hautzinger, M. (2008). Ketamine aggravates symptoms of acute stress disorder in a naturalistic sample of accident victims. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22, 493–497.
Sedman, G. (1963). Depersonalization and mood changes in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 669–673.
Sedman, G., Reed, G. F. (1963). Depersonalization phenomena in obsessional personalities and in depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 376–379.
Seemüller, F., Riedel, M., Wickelmaier, F. et al. (2008). Atypical symptoms in hospitalised patients with major depressive episode: frequency, clinical characteristics, and internal validity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108, 271–278.
Séglas, J. (1889a). Semiologie et pathogénie des idées de négation (Les alterations de la personalité dans les délires melancoliques). Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 47, 5–26.
Séglas, J. (1889b). Les alterations de la personalité dans le délire de négation. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 10, 5.
Segui, J., Marquez, M., Garcia, L., Canet, J., Salvador-Carulla, L., Ortiz, M. (2000). Depersonalization in panic disorder: a clinical study. Psychiatry, 41, 172–178.
Shäfer, (no initial) (1880). Bemerkungen zur psychiatrischen Formenlehre. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, 36, 214–278.
Shelton, R., Loosen, P. (1993). Sleep deprivation accelerates the response to nortriptyline. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 17, 113–123.
Shilony, E., Grossman, F. (1993). Depersonalization as a defense mechanism in survivors of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 119–128.
Shorvon, H. J. (1946). The depersonalisation syndrome. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 39, 779–792.
Shorvon, H. J., Lond, M. B. (1947). Prefrontal leucotomy and the depersonalisation syndrome. The Lancet, 2, 714–718.
Sierra, M., Berrios, G. E. (1998). Depersonalization: neurobiological perspectives. Biological Psychiatry, 44, 898–908.
Sierra, M. (2008). Depersonalization disorder: pharmacological approaches. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8, 19–26.
Sierra, M., Berrios, G. E. (2000). The Cambridge Depersonalization Scale: a new instrument for the measurement of depersonalization. Psychiatry Research, 93, 153–164.
Silberman, E. K., Post, R. M., Nurnberger, J., Theodore, W., Boulenger, J. P. (1985). Transient sensory, cognitive and affective phenomena in affective illness: a comparison with complex partial epilepsy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 81–89.
Simeon, D., Guralnik, O., Schmeidler, J., Sirof, B., Knutelska, M. (2001). The role of childhood interpersonal trauma in depersonalization disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1027–1033.
Simeon, D., Knutelska, M., Nelson, D., Guralnik, O. (2003a). Feeling unreal: a depersonalization disorder update of 117 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 990–997.
Simeon, D., Riggio-Rosen, A., Guralnik, O., Knutelska, M., Nelson, D. (2003b). Depersonalization disorder: dissociation and affect. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4, 63–76.
Simeon, D., Guralnik, O., Knutelska, M., Nelson, D. (2004). Dissection of schizotypy and dissociation in depersonalization disorder. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 5, 111–119.
Sloan, P. (1988). Post-traumatic stress in survivors of an airplane crash-landing: A clinical and exploratory research intervention. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 211–229.
Spiegel, D., Classen, C., Cardena, E. (2000). New DSM-IV diagnosis of acute stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1890–1891.
Spitzer, C., Haug, H. J., Freyberger, H. J. (1997). Dissociative symptoms in schizophrenic patients with positive and negative symptoms. Psychopathology, 30, 67–75.
Stein, M. B., Stein, D. J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. Lancet, 371, 1115–1125.
Steinberg, M. (1991). The spectrum of depersonalization: assessment and treatment. In Tasman, A., Goldfinger, S. M. (eds), APA Review of Psychiatry, 10, 223–247.
Steinberg, M., Rounsaville, B., Cicchetti, D. V. (1990). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Dissociative Disorders: preliminary report on a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 76–82.
Swinson, R. P., Kuch, K. (1990). Clinical features of panic and related disorders. In Ballenger, J. C. (ed.), Clinical Aspects of Panic Disorder. Frontiers of Clinical Neuroscience (Vol. 9). New York, NY: Wiley-Liss, pp. 13–30.
Taal, L. A., Faber, A. W. (1997). Dissociation as a predictor of psychopathology following burns injury. Burns, 23, 400–403.
Torch, E. M. (1978). Review of the relationship between obsession and depersonalisation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 58, 191–198.
Trueman, D. (1984). Anxiety and depersonalization and derealization experiences. Psychological Reports, 54, 91–96.
Varsamis, J., Adamson, J. D. (1971). Early schizophrenia. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 6, 487–497.
Wildgoose, A., Waller, G., Clarke, S., Reid, A. (2000). Psychiatric symptomatology in borderline and other personality disorders: dissociation and fragmentation as mediators. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188, 757–763.
Wilkinson, C. B. (1983). Aftermath of a disaster: the collapse of the Hyatt Regency Hotel skywalks. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1134–1139.
Winnik, H. (1947–1948). On the structure of the depersonalization neurosis. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 21, 268–277.
World Health Organization (1992). F48.1. Depersonalisation-derealisation syndrome. In The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization, pp. 171–173.
Wright, S., Young, A. W., Hellawell, D. J. (1993). Sequential Cotard and Capgras delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 345–349.
Young, A. W., Leafhead, K. M., Szulecka, T. K. (1994). The Capgras and Cotard delusions. Psychopathology, 27, 226–231.
Zanarini, M. C., Ruser, T., Frankenburg, F. R., Hennen, J. (2000a). The dissociative experiences of borderline patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41, 223–227.
Zanarini, M. C., Ruser, T. F., Frankenburg, F. R., Hennen, J., Gunderson, J. G. (2000b). Risk factors associated with the dissociative experiences of borderline patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188, 26–30.
Ziegler, L. H. (1929). Compulsions, obsessions and feelings of unreality. Human Biology, 1, 514–527.
Zoellner, L. A., Jaycox, L. H., Watlington, C. G., Foa, E. B. (2003). Are the dissociative criteria in ASD useful? Journal of Trauma and Stress, 16, 341–350.