Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: November 2013

2 - Phonological development: toward a “radical” templatic phonology

from Part I - The current framework
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Emergence of Phonology
  • Online ISBN: 9780511980503
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Abondolo, D. (1998). Khanty. In D. Abondolo (ed.), The Uralic languages, pp. 358–86. London: Routledge.
Bailey, T. M. and Hahn, U. (2001). Determination of wordlikeness: phonotactics or lexical neighborhoods?Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 568–91.
Beckman, M. E. and Edwards, J. (2000a). Lexical frequency effects on young children’s imitative productions. In M. B. Broe and J. B. Pierrehumbert (eds.), Papers in laboratory phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon, pp. 208–18. Cambridge University Press.
Beckman, M. E., and Edwards, J. (2000b). The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. Child Development, 71(1), 240–9.
Berg, T. and Schade, U. (2000). A local connectionist account of consonant harmony in child language. Cognitive Science, 24(1), 123–49.
Berman, R. A. (1977). Natural phonological processes at the one-word stage. Lingua, 43, 1–21.
Bhaya Nair, R. (1991). Monosyllabic English or disyllabic Hindi?Indian Linguistics, 52, 51–90.
Bowerman, M. and Choi, S. (2001). Shaping meanings for language: universal and language-specific in the acquisition of spatial semantic categories. In M. Bowerman, and S. C. Levinson (eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development, pp. 475–511. Cambridge University Press.
Boysson-Bardies, B. de, Hallé, P., Sagart, L., and Durand, C. (1989). A crosslinguistic investigation of vowel formants in babbling. Journal of Child Language, 16(1), 1–17.
Boysson-Bardies, B. and Vihman, M. M. (1991). Adaptation to language: evidence from babbling and first words in four languages. Language, 67(2), 297–319.
Browman, C. P. and Goldstein, L. (1989). Articulatory gestures as phonological units. Phonology, 6(2), 201–51.
Browman, C. P., and Goldstein, L. (1991). Gestural structures: distinctiveness, phonological processes and historical change. In I. G. Mattingly and M. Studdert-Kennedy (eds.), Modularity and the motor theory of speech perception, pp. 313–38. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Browman, Catherine P., and Goldstein, Louis (1992). Articulatory phonology: an overview. Phonetica, 49, 155–80.
Brulard, I. and Carr, P. (2003). French–English bilingual acquisition of phonology: one production system or two?International Journal of Bilingualism, 7(2), 177–202.
Bybee, J. L. (2001). Phonology and language use. Cambridge Univesity Press.
Chiat, S. (1979). The role of the word in phonological development. Linguistics, 17, 491–610.
Clark, H. H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge University Press.
Croft, W. (2000). Explaining language change: an evolutionary approach. Harlow: Longman.
Croft, W. (2001). Radical construction grammar: syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford University Press.
Croft, William (2003). Typology and universals, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press.
Croft, W. and Poole, K. T. (2008). Multidimensional scaling and other techniques for uncovering universals [response to commentaries]. Theoretical Linguistics, 34, 75–84.
Davis, B. L., and MacNeilage, P. F. (1990). Acquisition of correct vowel production: a quantitative case study. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 16–27.
Davis, B. L., and MacNeilage, P. F. (1995). The articulatory basis of babbling. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 1199–1211.
Davis, B. L., and MacNeilage, P. F. (2000). An embodiment perspective on the acquisition of speech perception. Phonetica, 57, 229–41.
Davis, B. L., and MacNeilage, P. F. (2002). Acquisition of serial complexity in speech production: a comparison of phonetic and phonological approaches to first word production. Phonetica, 59, 75–107.
DePaolis, R. A. (2006). The influence of production on the perception of speech. In D. Bamman, T. Magnitskaia, and C. Zaller (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Boston University Conference on Language Development, pp. 142–53. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
D’Odorico, L., Carubbi, S., Salerni, N., and Calvo, V. (2001). Vocabulary development in Italian children; a longitudinal evaluation of quantitative and qualitative aspects. Journal of Child Language 28(3), 351–72.
Donahue, M. L. (1986). Phonological constraints on the emergence of two-word utterances. Journal of Child Language 13(2), 209–18.
Edwards, J., Beckman, M. E., and Munson, B. (2004). The interaction between vocabulary size and phonotactic probability effects on children’s production accuracy and fluency in nonword repetition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 421–36.
Elbers, L. and Ton, J. (1985). Play pen monologues: the interplay of words and babble in the first words period. Journal of Child Language, 12(3), 551–65.
Elbers, L. and Wijnen, F. (1992). Effort, production skill, and language learning. In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: models, research, implications, pp. 337–68. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Elsen, H. (1996). Two routes to language: stylistic variations in one child. First Language, 16(2), 141–58.
Ewen, C. J. and Hulst, H. van der (2002). The phonological structure of words: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
Ferguson, C. A. and Farwell, C. B. (1975). Words and sounds in early language acquisition. Language, 51(2), 419–39. Reprinted in this volume as Chapter 4.
Ferguson, C., Peizer, D. B., and Weeks, T. E. (1973). Model-and-replica phonological grammar of a child’s first words. Lingua, 31(1), 35–65.
Firth, J. R. (1957). Sounds and prosodies. Papers in linguistics, 1934–1951, 121–38.
Francescato, G. (1968). On the role of the word in first language acquisition. Lingua, 21, 144–53.
French, A. (1989). The systematic acquisition of word forms by a child during the first-fifty-word stage. Journal of Child Language, 16(1), 69–90.
Frisch, S. A. (2000). Temporally organized lexical representations as phonological units. In M. B. Broe and J. B. Pierrehumbert (eds.), Papers in Laboratory Phonology V: Acquisition and the Lexicon, pp. 283–98. Cambridge University Press.
Frisch, S. A., Large, N. R., and Pisoni, D. B. (2000). Perception of wordlikeness: effects of segment probability and length on the processing of nonwords. Journal of Memory and Language, 42, 482–96.
Frisch, S. A. and Zawaydeh, B. A. (2001). The psychological reality of OCP-place in Arabic. Language, 77, 91–106.
Goldinger, S. D. (1996). Words and voices: episodic traces in spoken word identification and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22(5), 1166–83.
Goldinger, S. D. (1998). Echoes of echoes? An episodic theory of lexical access. Psychological Review, 105, 251–79.
Goldsmith, J. A. (1990). Autosegmental and metrical phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Grunwell, P. (1982). Clinical phonology. London: Croom Helm.
Haspelmath, M. (2003). The geometry of grammatical meaning: semantic maps and cross-linguistic comparison. In M. Tomasello (ed.), The new psychology of language, vol. 2, pp. 211–42. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hulst, H. van der and Smith, N. V. (1982). An overview of autosegmental and metrical phonology. In H. van der Hulst and N. Smith (eds.), The structure of phonological representations, vol. 1, pp. 1–45. Dordrecht: Foris.
Jaeger, J. J. (1997). How to say “Grandma”: the problem of developing phonological representations. First Language, 17(1), 1–29.
Jakobson, R. (1968). Child language, aphasia, and phonological universals, trans. A. R. Keiler. The Hague: Mouton. (Originally published as Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1941.)
Jusczyk, P. W. (1992). Developing phonological categories from the speech signal. In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: models, research, implications, pp. 17–64. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Jusczyk, P. W. (1997). The discovery of spoken language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Keller, R. (1994). On language change: the invisible hand in language. London: Routledge.
Kenstowicz, M. (1994). Phonology in generative grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kent, R. D. (1992). The biology of phonological development. In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: models, research implications, pp. 65–90. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Kent, R. D. and Bauer, H. R. (1985). Vocalizations of one-year olds. Journal of Child Language, 13(3), 491–526.
Kõrgvee, K. (2001). Lapse sõnavara areng vanuses 1;8–2.1 [A child’s lexical development, aged 1;3–2;1]. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Tartu University.
Kunnari, S. (2000). Characteristics of early lexical and phonological development in children acquiring Finnish (Acta Universitatis Ouluensis B 34 Humaniora). Oulu: Oulu University Press.
Labov, W. (1994). Principles of linguistic variation, vol. 1: Internal factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Labov, W. and Labov, T. (1978). The phonetics of cat and mama. Language, 54(4), 816–52.
Ladefoged, P. and Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
Leopold, W. F. (1939). Speech development of a bilingual child, vol. 1: Vocabulary growth in the first two years. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Lieven, E. V. M., Theakston, A. L., Pine, J. M., and Rowland, C. F. (2000). The use and non-use of auxiliary BE. In E. Clark (ed.),The proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual Child Language Research Forum, pp. 51–58. Cambridge University Press.
Locke, J. L. (1983). Phonological acquisition and change. New York: Academic Press.
Locke, J. and Pearson, D. M. (1992). Vocal learning and the emergence of phonological capacity: a neurobiological approach. In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: models, research, implications, pp. 91–129. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Macken, M. A. (1978). Permitted complexity in phonological development: one child’s acquisition of Spanish consonants. Lingua, 44, 219–53.
Macken, M. A. (1979). Developmental reorganization of phonology: a hierarchy of basic units of acquisition. Lingua, 49, 11–49.
Macken, M. A. (1980). Aspects of the acquisition of stop systems: a cross-linguistic perspective. In G. Yeni-Komshian, J. F. Kavanagh, and C. A. Ferguson (eds.), Child phonology, vol. 1: Production, pp. 143–68. New York: Academic Press.
Macken, M. A. (1992). Where’s phonology? In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: models, research, implications, 249–69. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Macken, M. A. (1995). Phonological acquisition. In J. Goldsmith (ed.), The handbook of phonological theory, pp. 671–96. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Macken, M. A. (1996). Prosodic constraints on features. In B. Bernhardt, J. Gilbert, and D. Ingram (eds.), Proceedings of the UBC International Conference on Phonological Acquisition, pp. 159–72. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
McCarthy, J. and Prince, A. (1988). Quantitative transfer in reduplicative and templatic morphology. Linguistics in the Morning Calm, 2, 3–35.
McCarthy, J. (1990). Foot and word in prosodic morphology: the Arabic broken plural. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 8, 209–84.
McCune, L. and Vihman, M. M. (2001). Early phonetic and lexical development: a productivity approach. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 44, 670–84.
Matthei, E. (1989). Crossing boundaries: more evidence for phonological constraints on early multi-word utterances. Journal of Child Language, 16(1), 41–54.
Menn, L. (1971). Phonotactic rules in beginning speech: a study in the development of English discourse. Lingua, 26, 225–51.
Menn, L. (1983). Development of articulatory, phonetic, and phonological capabilities. In B. Butterworth (ed.), Language production, vol. 2, pp. 3–50. London: Academic Press. Reprinted in this volume as Chapter 6.
Menn, L. and Matthei, E. (1992). The “two-lexicon” account of child phonology: looking back, looking ahead. In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: models, research, implications, pp. 211–47. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Ohala, J. (1993). The phonetics of sound change. In C. Jones (ed.), Historical linguistics: Problems and Perspectives, pp. 237–78. London: Longman.
Oller, D. K. (1980). The emergence of the sounds of speech in infancy. In G. Yeni-Komshian, J. F. Kavanagh, and C. A. Ferguson (eds.), Child phonology, vol. 1: Production, pp. 93–112. New York: Academic Press.
Oller, D. K. (2000). The emergence of the speech capacity. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pierrehumbert, J. (2001). Exemplar dynamics: word frequency, lenition and contrast. In J. L. Bybee, and P. Hopper (eds.), Frequency and emergence in grammar, pp. 137–57. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pierrehumbert, J. (2003a). Phonetic diversity, statistical learning, and acquisition of phonology. Language and Speech, 46(2/3), 115–54.
Pierrehumbert, J. (2003b). Probabilistic theories of phonology. In R. Bod, J. B. Hay, and S. Jannedy (eds.), Probability theory in linguistics, pp. 177–228. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Pierrehumbert, J., Beckman, M. E., and Ladd, D. R. (2000). Conceptual foundations of phonology as a laboratory science. In N. Burton-Roberts, P. Carr, and G. Docherty (eds.), Phonological knowledge: conceptual and empirical issues, pp. 273–304. Oxford University Press.
Reichling, A. J. B. N. (1935). Het word; een studie omtrent de grondslag van taal en taalgebruik. Nijmegen. Reprinted Zwolle, 1967.
Salo, A. (1993). Muutelõppude ilmumine ühe eesti lapse keelde vanuses 1;5–2;5 [The emergence of inflectional endings in the language of one Estonian child aged 1;5–2;5]. Undergraduate thesis, Finno-Ugric Languages Department, Tartu University.
Savinainen-Makkonen, T. (2000). Word initial consonant omissions – a developmental process in children learning Finnish. First Language, 20(2), 161–85.
Savinainen-Makkonen, T. (2001). Suomalainen lapsi fonologiaa omaksumassa [Finnish children acquiring phonology]. Publications of the Department of Phonetics 42. Helsinki: Department of Phonetics, University of Helsinki.
Schwartz, R. G. (1988). Phonological factors in early lexical acquisition. In M. D. Smith and J. L. Locke (eds.), The emergent lexicon: the child’s development of a linguistic vocabulary, pp. 185–222. New York: Academic Press.
Smith, K. D. (1979). Sedang grammar (Pacific Linguistics B-50). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Stager, C. L. and Werker, J. F. (1997). Infants listen for more phonetic detail in speech perception than in word-learning tasks. Nature, 388, 381–2.
Stemberger, J. P. (1988). Between-word processes in child phonology. Journal of Child Language, 15(1), 39–62.
Stoel-Gammon, C. and Cooper, J. A. (1984). Patterns of early lexical and phonological development. Journal of Child Language, 11(2), 247–71.
Studdert-Kennedy, M. and Goodell, E. W. (1995). Gestures, features and segments in early child speech. In B. de Gelder and J. Morais (eds.), Speech and reading, pp. 65–88. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Tomasello, M. (1992). First verbs. Cambridge University Press.
Treiman, R., Kessler, B., Knewasser, S., Tincoff, R., and Bowman, M. (2000). English speakers’ sensitivity to phonotactic patterns. In M. Broe and J. B. Pierrehumbert (eds.), Papers in laboratory phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon, pp. 269–82. Cambridge University Press.
Vihman, M. M. (1976). From prespeech to speech: on early phonology. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 12, 230–44.
Vihman, M. M. (1978). Consonant harmony: its scope and function in child language. In J. H. Greenberg (ed.), Universals of human language, pp. 281–334. Stanford University Press.
Vihman, M. M. (1981). Phonology and the development of the lexicon: evidence from children’s errors. Journal of Child Language, 8(2), 239–64.
Vihman, M. M. (1992). Early syllables and the construction of phonology. In C. A. Ferguson, L. Menn, and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: models, research, implications, pp. 393–422. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Vihman, M. M. (1993). Variable paths to early word production. Journal of Phonetics, 21(1/2), 61–82.
Vihman, M. M. (1996). Phonological development: the origins of language in the child. Oxford: Blackwell.
Vihman, M. M. (2002a). Getting started without a system: from phonetics to phonology in bilingual development. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6(3), 239–54.
Vihman, M. M. (2002b). The role of mirror neurons in the ontogeny of speech. In M. Stamenov and V. Gallese (eds.), Mirror neurons and the evolution of brain and language, pp. 305–14. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Vihman, M. M. and DePaolis, R. A. (2000). Prosodic development: a cross-linguistic analysis of the first word period. End of award report, Economic and Social Research Council Award R000237087.
Vihman, M. M., DePaolis, R. A., and Davis, B. L. (1998). Is there a “trochaic bias” in early word learning? Evidence from English and French. Child Development, 69(4), 933–47.
Vihman, M. M., Kay, E., Boysson-Bardies, B. de, Durand, C., and Sundberg, U. (1994a). External sources of individual differences? A cross-linguistic analysis of the phonetics of mothers’ speech to one-year-old children. Developmental Psychology, 30(5), 652–63.
Vihman, M. M., Macken, M. A., Miller, R., Simmons, H., and Miller, J. (1985). From babbling to speech: a re-assessment of the continuity issue. Language, 61(2), 397–445.
Vihman, M. M. and Miller, R. (1988). Words and babble at the threshold of lexical acquisition. In M. D. Smith and J. L. Locke (eds.), The emergent lexicon: the child’s development of a linguistic vocabulary, pp. 151–83. New York: Academic Press.
Vihman, M. M. and Nakai, S. (2003). Experimental evidence for an effect of vocal experience on infant speech perception. In M. J. Solé, D. Recasens, and J. Romero (eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, pp. 1017–20. Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
Vihman, M. M., Nakai, S., and DePaolis, R. A. (2006). Getting the rhythm right: a cross-linguistic study of segmental duration in babbling and first words. In L. Goldstein, K. Best, D. Whalen, and S. Anderson (eds.), Papers in laboratory phonology VIII: Varieties of phonological competence, pp. 341–66. Cambridge University Press.
Vihman, M. M. and Velleman, S. L. (1989). Phonological reorganization: a case study. Language and Speech, 32(2), 149–70. Reprinted in this volume as Chapter 8.
Vihman, M. M. and Velleman, S. L. (2000). The construction of a first phonology. Phonetica, 57(2–4), 255–66.
Vihman, M. M., Velleman, S. L., and McCune, L. (1994b). How abstract is child phonology? In M. Yavas (ed.), First and second language phonology, pp. 9–44. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group. Reprinted in this volume as Chapter 9.
Vitevich, M. S., and Luce, P. A. (1998). When words compete: levels of processing in the perception of spoken words. Psychological Science, 9, 325–9.
Vitevich, M. S., and Luce, P. A. (1999). Probabilistic phonotactics and neighborhood activation in spoken word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 374–408.
Vitevich, M. S., Luce, P. A., Charles-Luce, J., and Kemmerer, D. (1997). Phonotactics and syllable stress: implications for the processing of spoken nonsense words. Language and Speech, 40, 47–62.
Waterson, N. (1971). Child phonology: a prosodic view. Journal of Linguistics, 7, 179–211. Reprinted in this volume as Chapter 3.
Waterson, N. (1987). Prosodic phonology: the theory and its application to language acquisition and speech processing. Newcastle upon Tyne: Grevatt & Grevatt.
Weeks, T. E. (1974). The slow speech development of a bright child. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Werker, J. F., Fennell, C. T., Corcoran, K. M., and Stager, C. L. (2002). Infants’ ability to learn phonetically similar words: effects of age and vocabulary size. Infancy, 3(1), 1–30.