Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: December 2009

Assessment of pain

from General considerations


1. Phillips D. JCAHO pain management standards are unveiled. JAMA. 2000; 284:428–429.
2.Anonymous. American Pain Society Quality of Care Committee: quality improvement guidelines for the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. JAMA. 1995;274:1874–1880.
3. Silka P, Roth M, Moreno G. Pain scores improve analgesic administration patterns for trauma patients in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:264–270.
4. Nelson B, Cohen D, Lander O. Mandated pain scales improve frequency of ED analgesic administration. Am J Emerg Med. 2004;22:582–585.
5. Thomas S, Andruskiewicz L. Ongoing visual analog score display improves ED care. J Emerg Med. 2004;26:389–394.
6. Taksande A, Vilhekar K, Jain M, et al. Pain response of neonates to venipuncture. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:751–753.
7.Anonymous. Prevention and management of pain and stress in the neonate. American Academy of Pediatrics and Canadian Pediatric Society. Pediatrics. 2000;105:454–461.
8. Marco CA, Plewa MC, Buderer N, et al. Self-reported pain scores in the emergency department: lack of association with vital signs. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:974–979.
9. Craig K, Whitfield M, Grunau R, et al. Pain in the preterm neonate: behavioral and physiological indices. Pain. 1993;52:287–299.
10. Payen J, Bru O, Bosson J, et al. Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioral pain scale. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:2258–2263.
11. Wears R. Patient satisfaction and the curse of Kelvin. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;46:11–12.
12. Feinstein A. On exorcising the ghost of Gauss and the curse of Kelvin. In Feinstein A (ed.) Clinical Biostatistics. St. Louis: CV Mosby, 1977:235.
13. Campbell T, Hughes J, Girder S. Relationship of ethnicity, gender, and ambulatory blood pressure to pain sensitivity: effects of individualized pain rating scales. J Pain. 2004;5:183–191.
14. Logan H, Gedney J, Sheffield D. Stress influences the level of negative affectivity after forehead cold pressor pain. J Pain. 2003;4:520–529.
15. Saastamoinen P, Leino-Arjas P, Laaksonen M, et al. Socio-economic differences in the prevalence of acute, chronic and disabling chronic pain among ageing employees. Pain. 2005;114:364–371.
16. Rosseland L, Stubhaug A. Gender is a confounding factor in pain trials: women report more pain than men after arthroscopic surgery. Pain. 2004;112:248–253.
17. Hobara M. Beliefs about appropriate pain behavior: cross-cultural and sex differences between Japanese and Euro-Americans. Eur J Pain. 2005;9:389–393.
18. Marco C, Marco A, Plewa M, et al. The Verbal Numeric Pain Scale: effects of patient education on self-reports of pain. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:853–859.
19. Marco CA, Plewa MC, Buderer N, et al. Comparison of oxycodone and hydrocodone for the treatment of acute pain associated with fractures: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:282–288.
20. Thomas SH, Borczuk P, Shackelford J, et al. Patient and physician agreement on abdominal pain severity and need for opioid analgesia. Am J Emerg Med. 1999;17:586–590.
21. Singer A, Richman P, Kowalska A. Comparison of patient and practitioner assessmsents of pain for commonly performed emergency department procedures. Ann Emerg Med. 1999;33:652–658.
22. Singer A, Gulla J, Thode H. Parents and practitioners are poor judges of young children’s pain severity. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9:609–612.
23. Labus J, Keefe F, Jensen M. Self-reports of pain intensity and direct observations of pain behavior: When are they correlated? Pain. 2003;102:109–124.
24. Bijur PE, Latimer CT, Gallagher EJ. Validation of a verbally administered numerical rating scale of acute pain for use in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10:390–392.
25. Palos G, Mendoza T, Mobley B. Asking the community about cutpoints used to describe mild, moderate, and severe pain. J Pain. 2006;7:49–56.
26. Bailey B, Bergeron S, Gravel J, et al. Comparison of four pain scales in children with acute abdominal pain in a pediatric emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;50:379–383, 383, e371–372.
27. Gordon M, Greenfield E, Marvin J, et al. Use of pain assessment tools: is there a preference? J Burn Care Rehabil. 1998;19:451–454.
28. Choiniere M, Auger F, Latarjet J. Visual analogue thermometer: a valid and useful instrument for measuring pain in burned patients. Burns. 1994;20:229–235.
29. Boureau F, Doubrere J, Luu M. Study of verbal description in neuropathic pain. Pain. 1990;42:145–152.
30. Maio R, Garrison H, Spaite D, et al. Emergency Medical Services Outcomes Project (EMSOP) IV: pain assessment in out-of-hospital outcomes research. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;40:172–179.
31. Garron D, Leavitt F. Psychological and social correlates of the back pain classification scale. J Pers Assess. 1983;47:60–65.
32. Tammaro S, Berggren U, Bergenholtz G. Representation of verbal pain descriptors on a visual analogue scale by dental patients and dental students. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997;105:207–212.
33. Melzack R. The McGill Pain Questionnaire: major properties and scoring methods. Pain. 1975;1:277–299.
34. Gagliese L, Weizblit W, Chan V. The measurement of postoperative pain: a comparison of intensity scales in younger and older surgical patients. Pain. 2005;117:412–420.
35. Bieri D. The Faces Pain Scale for the self-assessment of the severity of pain experienced by children: development, initial validation, and preliminary investigation for the ratio scale properties. Pain. 1990;41:139–150.
36. Wong D, Baker C. Pain in children: comparison of assessment scales. Pediatr Nurs. 1988;14:901–907.
37. Voepel-Lewis SMT, Shayevitz J, Malviya S. The FLACC: a behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children. Pediatr Nurs. 1997;23:293–297.
38. Willis M, Merkel S, Voepel-Lewis T, et al. FLACC behavioral pain assessment scale: a comparison with the child’s self-report. Pediatr Nurs. 2003;29:195–198.
39. Voelpel-Lewis T, Merkel S, Tait A. The reliability and validity of the FLACC observational tool as a measure of pain in children with cognitive impairment. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1224–1229.
40. Ambuel B, Hamlett K, Marx C, et al. Assessing distress in pediatric intensive care environments: the COMFORT scale. J Pediatr Psychol. 1992;17:95–109.
41. Tarbell S, Cohen I, Marsh J. The Toddler–Preschooler Postoperative Pain Scale: an observational scale for measuring postoperative pain in children aged 1–5. Pain. 1992;50:273–280.
42. Taylor L, Harris J, Epps C, et al. Psychometric evaluation of selected pain intensity scales for use with cognitively impaired and cognitively intact older adults. Rehab Nurs. 2005;30:55–61.
43. Warden V, Hurley A, Volicer L. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) Scale. JAMDA. 2003: 4(1) 9–15.