Skip to main content
×
Home
From War to Democracy
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 44
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ghais, Chahine 2018. Post-Conflict Power-Sharing Agreements. p. 23.

    Walsh, Dawn and Doyle, John 2017. External Actors in Consociational Settlements: A Re-examination of Lijphart’s Negative Assumptions. Ethnopolitics, p. 1.


    O’Rourke, Lindsey A. 2017. Covert calamities: American-backed covert regime changes and civil war. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 232.


    Barma, Naazneen H. Levy, Naomi and Piombo, Jessica 2017. Disentangling aid dynamics in statebuilding and peacebuilding: a causal framework. International Peacekeeping, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 187.


    Keels, Eric 2017. Electoral Reforms and Peace Duration Following Negotiated Settlements. International Interactions, p. 1.


    Kostić, Roland 2017. Shadow peacebuilders and diplomatic counterinsurgencies: informal networks, knowledge production and the art of policy-shaping. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 120.


    Sjöstedt, Roxanna Kovacs, Mimmi Söderberg and Themnér, Anders 2017. Demagogues of hate or shepherds of peace? Examining the threat construction processes of warlord democrats in Sierra Leone and Liberia. Journal of International Relations and Development,


    Mvukiyehe, Eric 2017. Promoting Political Participation in War-torn Countries. Journal of Conflict Resolution, p. 002200271769801.


    Dresden, Jennifer Raymond 2017. From combatants to candidates: Electoral competition and the legacy of armed conflict. Conflict Management and Peace Science, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 240.


    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi and Hatz, Sophia 2016. Rebel-to-party transformations in civil war peace processes 1975–2011. Democratization, Vol. 23, Issue. 6, p. 990.


    Söderström, Johanna 2016. The resilient, the remobilized and the removed: party mobilization among former M19 combatants. Civil Wars, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 214.


    Lyons, Terrence 2016. Victorious rebels and postwar politics. Civil Wars, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 160.


    Aeby, Michael 2016. Making an impact from the margins? Civil society groups in Zimbabwe's interim power-sharing process. The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 54, Issue. 04, p. 703.


    Manning, Carrie and Smith, Ian 2016. Political party formation by former armed opposition groups after civil war. Democratization, Vol. 23, Issue. 6, p. 972.


    Ottmann, Martin and Vüllers, Johannes 2015. The Power-Sharing Event Dataset (PSED): A new dataset on the promises and practices of power-sharing in post-conflict countries. Conflict Management and Peace Science, Vol. 32, Issue. 3, p. 327.


    Groß, Lisa 2015. The journey from global to local: norm promotion, contestation and localisation in post-war Kosovo. Journal of International Relations and Development, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 311.


    Dyrstad, Karin Ellingsen, Tanja and Rød, Jan Ketil 2015. Ethnonationalism in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo The effects of local violence and ethnic composition. International Area Studies Review, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 4.


    Hirblinger, Andreas T and Simons, Claudia 2015. The good, the bad, and the powerful: Representations of the ‘local’ in peacebuilding. Security Dialogue, Vol. 46, Issue. 5, p. 422.


    Salehyan, Idean and Linebarger, Christopher 2015. Elections and Social Conflict in Africa, 1990–2009. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 50, Issue. 1, p. 23.


    Steinert, Janina Isabel and Grimm, Sonja 2015. Too good to be true? United Nations peacebuilding and the democratization of war-torn states. Conflict Management and Peace Science, Vol. 32, Issue. 5, p. 513.


    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    From War to Democracy
    • Online ISBN: 9780511755859
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511755859
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Attempts to introduce democracy in the wake of civil war face a critical problem: how can war-torn societies move towards peace and democracy when competitive politics and hard-fought elections exacerbate social and political conflict? Through a study of six themes (peacekeeping, management of violence, power sharing, political party transformation, elections, civil society and international reactions to democratization crises) this volume considers the dilemmas that arise in pursuing peace after civil war through processes of democratization. The contributors' research highlights the complex relationship between democratization, which is competitive, and peacebuilding or efforts to achieve reconciliation. The book offers insights into more effective action in peacebuilding in light of the short-term negative effects that democratization can introduce. It is a thought-provoking work that seeks both to advance theory and to provide policy-relevant findings to facilitate more effective and durable transitions from war to democracy.

Reviews

‘This is an excellent and thought-provoking book that addresses many of the dilemmas inherent to peacemaking and peacebuilding. It nicely marries theory with practice, and should help policy-makers formulate more integrated strategies for future operations.’

Karin Von Hippel - Co-Director, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Project, Center for Strategic and International Studies

'Can building peace after civil war conflict with building democracy? If so, when does it happen and what should be done about it? The theory of intervention by the "international community" assumes that this doesn't happen, but there have always been doubters. This well focused group of essays is the best available treatment of this critical (and often overlooked) issue. Individual chapters focus on particular aspects of the problem, and the editors tie it together with a useful conceptual framework and some helpful conclusions.'

Roy Licklider - Rutgers University

‘This book offers a rich collection of essays on the fascinating, complex, and often troubled relationship between the promotion of democracy and peace in countries emerging from war.’

Roland Paris - Associate Professor of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

'From War to Democracy is an important reminder that not all good things necessarily go together. Democracy and peace are two laudable goals, but the efforts to promote peace and stability may not always promote democracy, and vice versa. This analytical, thought-provoking work tackles one of the most serious international issues of our age: how societies shattered by war can move toward peace and democracy. It recognizes that practitioners, at times, face the choice between promoting democratization and peacebuilding. The book provides policy-relevant findings, based on peace processes from all over the world, on how to avoid or manage dilemmas in improving international peace operations.'

Jan Eliasson - Special Envoy of the United Nations Secretary-General for Darfur

'… this volume considers the dilemmas that arise in pursuing peace after civil war … The book offers insights into more effective action in peace-building …'

Source: Oxfam: Development Resources Review

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
References
Abbink Jon, and Hesseling Gerti, eds. 1999. Election Observation and Democratization in Africa. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
Andersson Andreas. 2000. “Democracies and UN Peacekeeping Operations, 1990–1996.” International Peacekeeping 7 (2): 1–22.
Arato Andrew. 1981. “Civil Society vs. the State: Poland 1980–81.” Telos 47: 23–47.
Archer Dane, and Gartner Rosemary. 1976. “Violent Acts and Violent Times: A Comparative Approach to Postwar Homicide Rates.” American Sociological Review 41 (6): 937–963.
Arzt Donna E. 2006. “Views on the Ground: The Local Perception of International Criminal Tribunals in the Former Yugoslavia and Sierra Leone.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 603 (1): 226–239.
Atlas Pierre M., and Licklider Roy. 1999. “Conflict Among Former Allies after Civil War Settlement: Sudan, Zimbabwe, Chad and Lebanon.” Journal of Peace Research 36 (1): 35–54.
Baker, Pauline. 2001. “Conflict Resolution versus Democratic Governance: Divergent Paths to Peace?” In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, ed. Hampson Fen O., Crocker Chester A. and Aall Pamela. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press (753–764).
Baldwin Clive. 2006. Minority Rights in Kosovo under International Rule. London: Minority Rights Group International.
Ballentine Karen, and Sherman Jake, eds. 2003. The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Bangura Yusuf. 2000. “Strategic Policy Failure and Governance in Sierra Leone.” Journal of Modern African Studies 38 (4): 551–577.
Barnes Catherine. 2002. Owning the Process: Mechanisms for Political Participation of the Public in Peacemaking. London: Conciliation Resources.
Barnett Michael. 2006. “Building a Republican Peace.” International Security 30 (4) (Spring): 87–112.
Barro Robert J. 1999. “Determinants of Democracy.” Journal of Political Economy 107: 158–183.
Bartolini, Stefano, and Peter Mair. 2001. “Challenges to Contemporary Political Parties.” In Political Parties and Democracy, ed. Diamond Larry and Gunther Richard. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press (327–343).
Belloni, Roberto. 2007. “Shades of Orange and Green: Civil Society and the Peace Process in Northern Ireland.” Paper presented at the 48th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Chicago, February 27.
Belloni Roberto. 2004. “Peacebuilding and Consociational Electoral Engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina.” International Peacekeeping 11 (2): 334–353.
Belloni Roberto. 2001. “Civil Society and Peacebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina.” Journal of Peace Research 38 (2): 163–180.
Belloni Roberto, and Deane Shelley. 2005. “From Belfast to Bosnia: Piecemeal Peacemaking and the Role of Institutional Learning.” Civil Wars 7 (3): 219–243.
Bentley Kristina A., and Southall Roger. 2005. An African Peace Process: Mandela, South Africa and Burundi. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council.
Berdal Mats, and Malone David M., eds. 2000. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Berman Sheri. 1997. “Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic.” World Politics 49 (3): 401–429.
Bertram Eva. 1995. “Reinventing Governments: The Promise and Perils of United Nations Peace Building.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 39 (5): 387–418.
Bieber, Florian. 2003. “The Other Civil Society in Serbia: Non-Governmental Nationalism – The Case of the Serbian Resistance Movement.” In Uncivil Society? Contentious Politics in Post-Communist Europe, ed. Kopecky Petr and Muddes Cass. London and New York: Routledge (19–36).
Bjornlund Eric. 2004. Beyond Free and Fair: Monitoring Elections and Building Democracy. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bojicic-Dzelilovic, Vesna. 2006. “War Veterans' Associations in Bosnia and Herzegovina.” In Challenges to Peacebuilding: Managing Spoilers During Conflict Resolution, ed. Newman Edward and Richmond Oliver. Tokyo, New York, and Paris: United Nations University Press (200–218).
Brass Paul R. 1991. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison. New Delhi, Newsbury Park and London: Sage Publications.
Brown, Frederick Z. 1998. “Cambodia's Rocky Venture in Democracy.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization & International Assistance, ed. Kumar Krishna. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (87–110).
Brown Michael E., Lynn-Jones Sean M., and Miller Steven E., eds. 1996. Debating the Democratic Peace. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Bueno de Mesquita Bruce and Downs George W.. 2006. “Intervention and Democracy.” International Organization 60 (3): 627–650.
Burkhart Ross E., and Michael S. Lewis-Beck. 1994. “Comparative Democracy: The Economic Development Thesis.” American Political Science Review 88: 903–910.
Burnell Peter. 2005. “Political Strategies of External Support for Democratization.” Foreign Policy Analysis 1: 361–384.
Call Charles T. 2003. “Democratisation, War and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35: 827–862.
Call Charles T., and Cook Susan E.. 2003. “On Democratization and Peacebuilding.” Global Governance 9: 233–246.
Call, Charles T., and William Stanley. 2003. “Military and Police Reform after Civil War.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby J. and Ginty R. Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (212–223).
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. 1998. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Washington, DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Available at wwics.si.edu/subsites/ccpdc/pubs/rept97/finfr.htm.
Carothers Thomas. 2004. Critical Mission: Essays on Democracy Promotion. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carothers Thomas. 1999. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Cawthra Gavin, and Luckham Robin. 2003. Governing Insecurity: Democratic Control of Military and Security Establishments in Transitional Democracies. London: Zed Books.
Cerdas Cruz, Rodolfo. 1998. “Political Parties and Party Systems.” In Guatemala after the Peace Accords, ed. Sieder Rachel. London: Institute of Latin American Studies (15–54).
Chandler David. 2004. “The Responsibility to Protect? Imposing the ‘Liberal Peace’.” International Peacekeeping 11 (1): 59–81.
Chandler David. 1999. Bosnia. Faking Democracy after Dayton. London: Pluto Press.
Chandra Kanchan. 2004. Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Headcounts in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chesterman Simon. 2004. You, The People: The United Nations, Transition Administration, and State-Building. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chesterman Simon, Ignatieff Michael, and Thakur Ramesh. 2004. Making States Work: From State Failure to State Building. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Chesterman, Simon, Tom Farer, and Timothy Sisk. 2003. “Competing Claims: Self-Determination, Security, and the United Nations.” A report of the project on “Self-Determination, Security, and the United Nations,” Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver, and the International Peace Academy. Available at www.ipacademy.org/Publications/Reports/Research/PublRepoReseCompClaims_body.htm.
Clapham, Christopher, and John A. Wiseman. 1995. “Conclusions: Assessing the Prospects for the Consolidation of Democracy.” In Democracy and Political Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. Wiseman J. A.. London: Routledge (220–232).
Colletta, Nat J., Markus Kostner, and Ingo Wiederhofer. 2004. “Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration: Lessons and Liabilities in Reconstruction.” In When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, ed. Rotberg Robert. Princeton: Princeton University Press (170–181).
Colletta Nat J. and Cullen Michelle L.. 2000. Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala, and Somalia. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Collier Paul, Elliot V. L., Hegre Håvard, Hoeffler Anke, Reynal-Querol Marta, and Sambanis Nicholas, eds. 2003. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
Collin Marks Susan. 2000. Watching the Wind: Conflict Resolution during South Africa's Transition to Democracy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Collins Kathleen. 2006. The Logic of Clan Politics in Central Asia: The Impact on Regime Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Commission on Global Governance. 1995. Our Global Neighbourhood. The Report of the Commission on Global Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cousens, Elizabeth M. 2001a. “Building Peace in Bosnia.” In Peacebuilding as Politics: Cultivating Peace in Fragile Societies, ed. Cousens Elizabeth M. and Kumar Chetan. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (113–152).
Cousens, Elizabeth M.2001b. “Introduction.” In Peacebuilding as Politics, ed. Cousens Elizabeth M. and Kumar Chetan. Boulder Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (1–20).
Cowen Michael, and Laakso Liisa. 1997. “An Overview of Election Studies in Africa.” Journal of Modern African Studies 35 (4): 717–744.
Dahl Robert A. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Damm, Darlene. 2003. Managing Election Violence in Cambodia: New Strategies for the International Donor Community. Draft Report 1 December 2003. Johns Hopkins University: International Donor Community Cambodia Steering Committee. Available at www.sais-jhu.edu/bwelsh/DarlenePolicyPaper.pdf.
Darby John. 2006. Violence and Reconstruction. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.
Darby John. 2001. The Effect of Violence on Peace Processes. Washington DC: USIP Press.
Darby John. 1986. Intimidation and Control of Conflict in Northern Ireland. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.
Darby John, and Ginty Roger Mac, eds. 2000. The Management of Peace Processes. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
de Nevers, Renée. 1993. “Democratization and Ethnic Conflict.” In Ethnic Conflict and International Security, ed. Brown Michael. Princeton: Princeton University Press (61–78).
DeVotta Neil. 2004. Blowback: Linguistic Nationalism, Institutional Decay, and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Zeeuw Jeroen. 2005. “Projects Do Not Create Institutions: The Record of Democracy Assistance in Post-Conflict Societies.” Democratization 12 (4): 481–504.
du Toit Pierre. 2003. “Why Post-settlement Settlements?Journal of Democracy 14 (3): 104–118.
Diamond Larry. 2005. Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq. New York: Time Books.
Diamond, Larry.1999a. “Toward Democratic Consolidation.” In The Global Resurgence of Democracy, ed. Diamond Larry and Platter Marc F.. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (227–240).
Diamond Larry. 1999b. Developing Democracy: Towards Consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diamond, Larry.1997a. “Promoting Democracy in the 1990s: Actors, Instruments, and Issues.” In Democracy's Victory and Crisis, ed. Hadenius Axel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (311–370).
Diamond, Larry.1997b. “Introduction: In Search of Consolidation.” In Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives, ed. Diamond Larry, Plattner Marc F., Chu Yun-han, and Tien Hung-mao. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (xiii–xlvii).
Diamond Larry, Linz Juan J., and Lipset Seymour Martin, eds. 1988. Democracy in Developing Countries. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Diamond Larry, Plattner Marc F., Chu Yun-han, and Tien Hung-mao, eds. 1997. Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dorussen Han. 2001. “Mixing Carrots with Sticks: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Positive Incentives.” Journal of Peace Research 38 (2): 251–262.
Doyle Michael W., and Sambanis Nicholas. 2006. Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Doyle Michael W., and Sambanis Nicholas. 2000. “International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis.” American Political Science Review 94 (4): 779–802.
Druckman Daniel. 1986. “Stages, Turning Points, and Crises.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 30: 327–360.
Edwards Michael. 2004. Civil Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Eide, Espen Barth, Anja Therese Kaspersen, Randolph Kent, and Karen von Hippel. 2005. Report on Integrated Missions: Practical Perspectives and Recommendations. Independent Study for the Expanded UN ECHA Core Group.
Elklit Jørgen. 1999. “Electoral Institutional Change and Democratisation: You Can Lead a Horse to Water, but You Can't Make it Drink.” Democratisation 6 (4): 28–51.
Elklit Jørgen, and Svensson Palle. 1997. “What Makes Elections Free and Fair?Journal of Democracy 8 (3): 32–46.
Eriksson Mikael, and Wallensteen Peter. 2004. “Armed Conflict 1989–2003.” Journal of Peace Research 41 (5) (September): 625–636.
Eubank William Lee, and Weinberg Leonard. 1994. “Does Democracy Encourage Terrorism?Terrorism and Political Violence 6 (4): 417–443.
Farer, Tom J. 2004. “The Promotion of Democracy: International Law and Norms.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy. Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman Edward and Rich Roland. Tokyo: UN University Press (32–61).
Fearon James D., and Laitin David D.. 2004. “Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States.” International Security 28 (4): 5–43.
Fearon James D., and Laitin David D.. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97 (1): 75–90.
Fischer, Jeff. 2002. Electoral Conflict and Violence: A Strategy for Study and Prevention. IFES White Paper.
Fitzduff, Mari. 2004. Civil Society and Peacebuilding: The New Fifth Estate? European Center for Conflict Prevention. Available at www.gppac.net.
Foley Michael W. 1996. “Laying the Groundwork: The Struggle for Civil Society in El Salvador.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 38 (1): 67–104.
Fortna Virginia Page. 2008. Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents' Choices After Civil Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Fortna, Virginia Page.2005. “Where Have all the Victories Gone? War Outcomes in Historical Perspective.” Paper presented at International Studies Association, March, Honolulu, HI.
Fortna Virginia Page. 2004. “Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace after Civil War.” International Studies Quarterly 48 (2): 269–292.
Francis David J. 2000. “Tortuous Path to Peace: The Lomé Accord and Postwar Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone.” Security Dialogue 31 (3): 357–373.
Franck Thomas M. 1992. “The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance.” American Journal of International Law 86 (1): 46–91.
Freedom House. 2006. Freedom in the World Comparative Rankings: 1975–2005. Available at www.freedomhouse.org.
Freedom House.2002–2005a. Country Report: Cambodia: Freedom House. Available at www.freedomhouse.org.
Freedom House.2002–2005b. Country Report: East Timor: Freedom House. Available at www.freedomhouse.org.
Fukuyama Francis. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.
Gamba, Virginia. 2003. “Managing Violence: Disarmament and Demobilization.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby J. and Ginty R. Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (125–136).
Gidron Benjamin, Katz Stanley N., and Hasenfel Yeheskel. 2002. Mobilizing for Peace: Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland, Israel/Palestine, and South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gilligan Michael, and Stedman Stephen John. 2003. “Where Do the Peacekeepers Go?International Studies Review 5 (4): 37–54.
Gleditsch Nils Petter, and Hegre Håvard. 1997. “Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (2): 283–310.
Greif, Avner. 1998. “Self-Enforcing Political Systems and Economic Growth: Late Medieval Genoa.” In Analytic Narratives, ed. Bates R. H., Greif A., Levi M., Rosenthal J.-L., and Weingast B.. Princeton: Princeton University Press (23–63).
Grugel Jean. 2002. Democratization. A Critical Introduction. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Guelke Adrian. 2003. “Civil Society and the Northern Ireland Peace Process.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 14 (1): 61–78.
Gunther, Richard, and Larry Diamond. 2001. “Types and Functions of Parties.” In Political Parties and Democracy, ed. Gunther Richard and Diamond Larry. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (3–39).
Gurr Ted Robert. 2000a. Peoples Versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Gurr Ted Robert. 2000b. “Ethnic warfare on the wane.” Foreign Affairs 79 (3): 52–64.
Hadenius Axel, and Uggla Fredrik. 1996. “Making Civil Society Work, Promoting Democratic Development: What Can States and Donors Do?World Development 24 (10): 1621–1639.
Haggard, Stephan. 1997. “Democratic Institutions, Economic Policy, and Development.” In Institutions and Economic Development, ed. Clague Christopher. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (120–149).
Hammer, Peter J., and Tara Urs. 2005. “The Elusive Face of Cambodian Justice.” In Bringing the Khmer Rouge to Justice: Prosecuting Mass Violence before the Cambodian Courts, ed. Ramji Jaya and Schaack Beth. Ontario: Edwin Mellen Press (13–58).
Hampson, Dave. 2004. “It's Time to Open Up:” Ten Years After the Genocide in Rwanda. Christian Aid, March. Available at www.discover.ac.uk/socialsciences/cgi-bin/fullrecord.pl?handle=sosig1.
Hampson Fen Osler. 1996. Nurturing Peace: Why Peace Settlements Succeed or Fail. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Hann Chris, and Dunn Elizabeth, eds. 1996. Civil Society: Challenging Western Models. London: Routledge.
Haraszti Miklos. 2004. The Role of the Media in the March 2004 Events in Kosovo. Vienna: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Harbom Lotta, Högbladh Stina, and Wallensteen Peter. 2006. “Armed Conflicts and Peace Agreements.” Journal of Peace Research 43 (5): 617–631.
Harbom Lotta, and Wallensteen Peter. 2005. “Armed Conflict and Its International Dimensions, 1946–2004.” Journal of Peace Research 42 (5): 623–635.
Harris Peter, and Reilly Benjamin, eds. 1998. Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Hartlyn Jonathan. 1998. The Politics of Coalition Rule in Colombia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hartzell Caroline A., and Hoddie Matthew. 2003. “Institutionalizing Peace: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Conflict Management.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (2): 318–332.
Hearn Julie. 2000. “Aiding Democracy? Donors and Civil Society in South Africa.” Third World Quarterly 21 (5): 815–830.
Hegre Håvard, Ellingsen Tanja, Gates Scott, and Gleditsch Nils Petter. 2001. “Towards a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change and Civil War, 1816–1992.” American Political Science Review 95 (1): 33–48.
Heldt, Birger. 2007. “Peacekeeping Operations and Post-conflict Transitions to Democracy?” Paper presented at the 2007 Annual Conference by the Swedish Network of Peace, Conflict and Development Research: “The Democratization Project: Challenges and Opportunities,” Uppsala October 23–24, 2007.
Hoddie, Matthew, and Caroline A. Hartzell. 2005. “Power Sharing in Peace Settlements: Initiating the Transition from Civil War.” In Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy after Civil War, ed. Roeder Philip G. and Rothchild Donald. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press (83–106).
Hodges Tony. 2001. Angola From Afro-Stalinism to Petro-Diamond Capitalism. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Höglund Kristine. 2008. Peace Negotiations in the Shadow of Violence. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Höglund Kristine. 2005. “Violence and the Peace Process in Sri Lanka.” Civil Wars 7 (2): 156–170.
Höglund, Kristine, and I. William Zartman. 2006. “Violence by the State: Official Spoilers and their Allies.” In Violence and Reconstruction, ed. Darby J.. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press (11–31).
Hohe Tanja. 2002. “Totem Polls: Indigenous Concepts and ‘Free and Fair’ Elections in East Timor.” International Peacekeeping 9 (4): 69–88.
Holbrooke Richard. 1998. To End a War. New York: Random House.
Holm, Tor Tanke, and Eide Espen Barth. 2000. Peacebuilding and Police Reform. London: Frank Cass.
Holohan Anne. 2005. Networks of Democracy: Lessons from Kosovo for Afghanistan, Iraq, and Beyond. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Holsti Kalevi J. 1996. The State, War, and the State of War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Horowitz Donald L. 2001. The Deadly Ethnic Riot. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Horowitz Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.
Howard, Ross. 2005. “The Media's Role in War and Peacebuilding.” In Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges, ed. Junne G. and Verkoren W.. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (117–128).
Human Rights Watch. 2004. Failure to Protect: Anti-Minority Violence in Kosovo, March 2004. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century. 2005. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Huntington Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press.
Huntington Samuel P. 1957. The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
ICG. 2007a. Nepal's Constitutional Process. Asia Report No. 128. Kathmandu and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2007b. After Mecca: Engaging Hamas. Middle East Report No. 62. Amman, Jerusalem, and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2006a. Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead. Africa Report No. 106. Nairobi and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2006b. Lebanon at a Tripwire. Middle East Briefing No. 20. Beirut and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005a. Elections in Burundi: A Radical Shake-up of the Political Landscape. Africa Briefing No. 31. Nairobi and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005b. Kosovo after Haradinaj. Europe Report No. 163. Pristina and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005c. Aceh: A New Chance for Peace. Asia Briefing No. 40. Jakarta and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2005d. Liberia's Elections: Necessary but Not Sufficient. Africa Report No. 107. Dakar and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2004a. Collapse in Kosovo. Europe Report No. 155. Pristina, Belgrade, and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2004b. Tajikistan's Politics: Confrontation or Consolidation? Asia Briefing No. 33. Dushanbe and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2004c. Elections in Burundi: The Peace Wager. Africa Briefing No. 20. Nairobi and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2003. The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Promises and Pitfalls of a “New Model.” Africa Briefing No. 16. Freetown and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
ICG.2002. Sierra Leone after Elections: Politics as Usual? Africa Report No. 49. Freetown and Brussels: International Crisis Group.
Inglehart Ronald. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Jarstad Anna K. 2007. “To Share or to Divide? Negotiating the Future of Kosovo.” Civil Wars 9 (3): 227–242.
Jarstad, Anna K.2001. “Changing the Game: Consociational Theory and Ethnic Quotas in Cyprus and New Zealand.” Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Jarstad, Anna K., and Ralph Sundberg. 2007. “Peace by Pact: Data on the Implementation of Peace Agreements.” In Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace, ed. Swain Ashok, Amer Ramses, and Öjendal Joakim. London: Anthem Press (73–89).
Jeong Ho-Won. 2005. Peace building in Postconflict Societies. Strategy and Process. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Jung Dietrich, ed. 2003. Shadow Globalization, Ethnic Conflicts and New Wars: A Political Economy of Intra-State War. London and New York: Routledge.
Kandeh Jimmy D. 2003. “Sierra Leone's Post-Conflict Elections of 2002.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2): 189–216.
Kaldor Mary. 2003. Global Civil Society: An Answer to War. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kasfir, Nelson. 2004. “Civil Society, the State and Democracy in Africa.” In Civil Society in Democratization, ed. Burnell Peter and Calvert Peter. London and Portland, reg.: Frank Cass (117–142).
Katana, Gordana. 1999. “NGOs in Republika Srpska: Bashful Support of the Regime.” AIM Banja Luka, September 20. Available at www.aimpress.ch/dyn/trae/archive/data/199909/90926-002-trae-sar.htm.
Kaufmann, Chaim. 1997. “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars.” In Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict, ed. Brown Michaelet al. (265–304).
Keane John. 2004. Violence and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keane John. 1998. Civil Society: Old Images, New Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Keck Margaret, and Sikkink Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Knaus Gerald, and Martin Felix. 2003. “Travails of the European Raj.” Journal of Democracy 14 (3): 60–74.
Kohn Richard H. 1997. “How Democracies Control the Military.” Journal of Democracy 8 (4): 140–153.
Kritz, Neil J. 2001. “The Rule of Law in the Postconflict Phase: Building a Stable Peace.” In Turbulent Peace. The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, ed. Hampson Fen O., Crocker Chester A., and Aall Pamela. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press (801–820).
Krznaric Roman. 1999. “Civil and Uncivil Actors in the Guatemalan Peace Process.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 18 (1): 1–16.
Kumar, Krishna. 1998a. “Postconflict Elections and International Assistance.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (5–14).
Kumar, Krishna1998b. “After the Elections: Consequences for Democratization.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (215–227).
Kumar Krishnaed. 1998c. Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Kumar Krishnaed. 1997. Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Kydd Andrew, and Walter Barbara F.. 2002. “Sabotaging the Peace: The Politics of Extremist Violence.” International Organization 56 (2): 263–296.
Lacy, Brett. 2004. “Building Accountability, Legitimacy, and Peace: Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, and the Right to Political Participation.” IFES Occasional Paper, Washington, DC.
Lanegran Kimberly. 2001. “South Africa's 1999 Election: Consolidating a Dominant Party System.” Africa Today 48 (2): 81–102.
Lederach John Paul. 1997. Building Peace. Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Levi Margaret. 1996. Consent, Dissent, and Patriotism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Licklider, Roy. 2005. “Comparative Studies of Long Wars.” In Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict, ed. Crocker Chester A., Hampson Fen Osler, and Aall Pamela. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (33–46).
Liddle, R. William. 1997. “Coercion, Co-optation, and the Management of Ethnic Relations in Indonesia.” In Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in the Asia-Pacific, ed. Brown Michael E. and Ganguly Sumit. Cambridge and London: MIT Press (273–319).
Lijphart Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy. Government Forms and Performances in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Lijphart Arend. 1994. “Democracies: Forms, Performance, and Constitutional Engineering.” European Journal of Political Research 25: 1–17.
Lijphart, Arend.1993. “Consociational Democracy.” In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, ed. Krieger Joel. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press (188–189).
Lijphart Arend. 1985. Power-Sharing in South Africa. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California.
Lijphart Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Lijphart Arend. 1968. “Typologies of Democratic Systems.” Comparative Political Studies 1 (April): 3–44.
Linz Juan, and Stepan Alfred. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Linz Juan, and Stepan Alfred. 1992. “Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia.” Daedalus 121 (2): 123–139.
Lipset Seymour Martin. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53: 69–105.
Lithander Anna. 2000. Engendering the Peace Process: A Gender Approach to Dayton – and Beyond. Stockholm: Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation.
Londregan John B., and Poole Keith T.. 1996. “Does High Income Promote Democracy?” World Politics 49: 1–30.
López-Pintor Rafael. 2000. Electoral Management Bodies as Institutions of Governance. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
López-Pintor, Rafael1998. “Nicaragua's Measured Move to Democracy.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (39–55).
López-Pintor, Rafael1997. “Reconciliation Elections: A Post-Cold War Experience.” In Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance, ed. Kumar K.. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (43–61).
Louw Antoniette. 1997. “Surviving the Transition: Trends and Perceptions in Crime.” Social Indicators Research 41: 137–168.
Ludwig, Robin. 2004. “The UN's Electoral Assistance: Challenges, Accomplishments, Prospects.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman Edward and Rich Roland. Tokyo: UN University Press (169–187).
Lyons Terrence. 2005. Demilitarizing Politics: Elections on the Uncertain Road to Peace. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Lyons, Terrence2004. “Transforming the Institutions of War: Post-Conflict Elections and the Reconstruction of Failed States.” In When States Fail, ed. Rotberg Robert I.. Princeton: Princeton University Press (269–301).
Lyons, Terrence2002. “The Role of Postsettlement Elections.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, ed. Stedman Stephen John, Rothchild Donald, and Cousens Elisabeth M.. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (215–235).
Mac Ginty Roger. 2006. “Post-Accord Crime.” In Violence and Reconstruction, ed. Darby J.. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press (101–120).
Mac Ginty Roger, and Darby John. 2002. Guns and Government: The Management of the Northern Ireland Peace Process. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
MacGarry John, and O'Leary Brendan, eds. 2004. The Northern Ireland Conflict: Consociational Engagements. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
MacMillan John. 2003. “Beyond the Separate Democratic Peace.” Journal of Peace Research 40 (2): 233–243.
Maksymenko, Serhiy. 2005. “European Neighbourhood Policy and Post-Orange Revolution Ukraine.” In Development, Security and Conflict Prevention, ed. Mellbourn Anders. Brussels: Madariaga European Foundation Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and Gidlunds (164–174).
Malone David, ed. 2004. The Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century. Boulder, Colo. and London: International Peace Academy and Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Mani Rama. 2002. Beyond Retribution: Seeking Justice in the Shadows of War. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Mann Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Manning Carrie. 2004. “Armed Opposition Groups into Political Parties: Comparing Bosnia, Kosovo, and Mozambique.” Studies in Comparative International Development 39 (1): 54–76.
Mansfield Edward D., and Snyder Jack. 2005. Electing to Fight: Why Emerging Democracies Go to War. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Mansfield Edward D., and Snyder Jack. 2002a. “Democratic Transitions, Institutional Strength, and War.” International Organization 56 (2): 297–337.
Mansfield Edward D., and Snyder Jack. 2002b. “Incomplete Democratic Transitions and the Outbreak of Military Disputes.” International Studies Quarterly 46 (4): 529–549.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Jack Snyder.2001. “Democratic Transitions and War: From Napoleon to the Millennium's End.” In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, ed. Crocker C. A., Hampson F. O., and Aall P.. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press (113–126).
Mansfield Edward D., and Snyder Jack. 1995a. “Democratization and the Danger of War.” International Security 20 (1): 5–38.
Mansfield Edward D., and Snyder Jack. 1995b. “Democratization and War.” Foreign Affairs 74 (3): 79–97.
Maoz Zeev, and Bruce M. Russett. 1993. “Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace 1946–1986.” American Political Science Review 87 (3): 624–638.
Marshall Monty G., and Jaggers Keith. 2002. Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2002. College Park, Md.: Center for International Development and Conflict Management (CIDCM), University of Maryland.
Marten Kimberly Zisk. 2004. Enforcing the Peace: Learning from the Imperial Past. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mathie, Alison, and Gord Cunningham. 2002. From Clients to Citizens: Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Community-Driven Development. The Coady International Institute, St. Francis Xavier University, Occasional Paper.
McCoy Jennifer, Gerber Larry, and Pastor Robert. 1991. “Pollwatching and Peacemaking.” Journal of Democracy 2 (4): 102–114.
Melber Henning. 2002. “From Liberation Movements to Governments: On Political Culture in Southern Africa.” African Sociological Review 6 (1): 161–172.
Mendelson Sarah E. 2005. Barracks and Brothels: Peacekeepers and Human Trafficking in the Balkans. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Metzl Jamie F. 1997. “Information Intervention: When Switching Channel Isn't Enough.” ForeignAffairs 76 (6): 15–20.
Morrow James D. 1994. Game Theory for Political Scientists. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mukherjee Bumba. 2006. “Why Political Power-Sharing Agreements Lead to Enduring Peaceful Resolution of Some Civil Wars, But Not Others?International Studies Quarterly 50 (2): 479–504.
Mullojanov, Perviz. 2001. “Civil Society and Peacebuilding. Politics of Compromise: The Tajikistan Peace Process.” Conciliation Resources, Accord No. 10, March. Available at www.c-r.org/accord10/peacebuilding.shtml.
Museveni, Yoweri. 2005. Quoted on BBC December 21, 2005. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4549220.stm.
National Democratic Institute. 1996. Bosnia and Hercegovina (BiH): Strengthening Political Parties. Washington DC: NDI Reports.
Nelson, Sue. 1998. “Haitian Elections and the Aftermath.” In Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance, ed. Kumar Krishna. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (71–86).
Newman, Edward. 2004. “UN Democracy Promotion: Comparative Advantages and Constraints.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman Edward and Rich Roland. Tokyo: United Nations University Press (188–207).
Newman Edward, and Rich Roland, eds. 2004. The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Nilsson Desirée. 2006. In the Shadow of Settlement: Multiple Rebel Groups and Precarious Peace. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Nilsson, Desirée.2005. “Inclusive Peace Agreements: A Path to Durable Peace?” Paper presented at a review conference October 24–26, 2005 in Uppsala on the book project From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Africa 1989–2004.
Nilsson Desirée, and Söderberg Kovacs Mimmi. 2005. “Breaking the Cycle of Violence? Promises and Pitfalls of the Liberian Peace Process.” Civil Wars 7 (4): 396–414.
Oakley Robert B., Dziedzic Michael J., and Goldberg Eliot M., eds. 2002. Policing the New World Order: Peace Operations and Public Security. Washington DC: National Defence University Press.
O'Donnell Guillermo, Schmitter Philippe C., and Whitehead Lawrence, eds. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Prospects for Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ohlson Thomas. 1998. Power Politics and Peace Policies: Intra-State Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa, Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Oneal John R., Russett Bruce M., and Berbaum Michael L.. 2003. “Causes of Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, 1885–1992.” International Studies Quarterly 47 (3): 371–393.
Orjuela Camilla. 2005. “Civil Society in Civil War: The Case of Sri Lanka.” Civil Wars 7 (2): 120–137.
OSCE. 2006. “International Election Observation Mission, Bosnia and Herzegovina – General Elections, 1 October 2006.” OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission Final Report. Warsaw: OSCE.
Ottaway, Marina. 1997. “From Political Opening to Democratization?” In Democracy in Africa. The Hard Road Ahead, ed. Ottaway Marina. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers (1–14).
Ottaway Marina. 1991. “Liberation Movements and Transition to Democracy: The Case of the ANC.” Journal of Modern African Studies 29 (1): 61–82.
Paffenholz, Thania. 2001. “Designing Transformation and Intervention Processes.” In Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, ed. Bloomfield David, Fischer Martina, and Schmelzle Beatrix. Berlin: Berghof Center for Constructive Conflict Management. Available at www.berghof-handbook.net
Paffenholz, Thania, and Christoph Spurk. 2006. Civil Society, Civic Engagement, and Peacebuilding. Washington, DC: Social Development Papers, Paper No. 36, commissioned by the Social Development Department of the World Bank, October.
Papagianni, Katia. 2006. “Transitional Politics in Post-War Countries.” Paper presented at the International Symposium “State, Conflict and Democracy,” Lund, May 12–13, 2006.
Paris Roland 2004. At War's End: Building Peace after Civil Conflicts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Patrick Ian. 2001. “East Timor Emerging From Conflict: The Role of Local NGOs and International Assistance.” Disasters 25 (1): 48–66.
Pausewang Siegfried, Trondvall Kjetil, and Aalen Lovise, eds. 2002. Ethiopia since the Derg: A Decade of Democratic Pretension and Performance. London: Zed Books.
Perito Robert M. 2004. Where Is the Lone Ranger When We Need Him? America's Search for a Postconflict Stability Force. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Phillips Anne. 1998. The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pickering Jeffrey, and Peceny Mark. 2006. “Forging Democracy at Gunpoint.” International Studies Quarterly 50 (3): 539–560.
Plunkett, Mark. 2005. “Reestablishing the Rule of Law.” In Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges, ed. Junne G. and Verkoren W.. Boulder and London: Lynn Rienner Publishers (73–98).
Posen Barry R. 1993. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.” Survival 35 (1): 27–47.
Posner, Daniel N. 2004. “Civil Society and the Reconstruction of Failed States.” In When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, ed. Rotberg Robert. Princeton: Princeton University Press (237–255).
Pouligny Beatrice. 2005. “Civil Society and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Ambiguities of International Programmes Aimed at Building ‘New’ Societies.” Security Dialogue 46 (4): 495–510.
Przeworski Adam. 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Przeworski Adam, Alvarez Michael, Cheibub Jose Antonio, and Limongi Fernando. 1996. “What Makes Democracy Endure.” Journal of Democracy 7 (1): 39–55.
Przeworski Adam, and Limongi Fernando. 1997. “Modernization: Theories and Facts.” World Politics 49 (2): 155–183.
Pugh, Michael. 2000. “The Civil/Social Dimension.” In The Regeneration of War-Torn Societies, ed. Pugh Michael. London: Macmillan (112–133).
Putnam Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Putnam Robert. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rabushka Alvin, and Shepsle Kenneth. 1972. Politics in Plural Societies: A Theory of Democratic Instability. Colombus, OH: Merrill.
Randall Vicky, and Svåsand Lars. 2002. “Political Parties and Democratic Consolidation in Africa.” Democratization 9 (3): 30–52.
Rapoport David C., and Weinberg Leonard, eds. 2001a. The Democratic Experience and Political Violence. London: Frank Cass.
Rapoport, David C., and Leonard Weinberg, eds.2001b. “Elections and Violence.” In The Democratic Experience and Political Violence, ed. Rapoport D. C. and Weinberg L.. London: Frank Cass (15–20).
Rawls John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Reilly Benjamin. 2007. Democracy and Diversity: Political Engineering in the Asia-Pacific. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reilly Benjamin. 2006. “Political Engineering and Party Politics in Conflict-Prone Societies.” Democratization 13 (5): 811–827.
Reilly, Benjamin.2004. “Elections in Post-Conflict Societies.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman Edward and Richs Roland. Tokyo: United Nations University Press (113–134).
Reilly, Benjamin.2003a. “Democratic Validation.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby John and MacGinty Roger. London: Palgrave (174–183).
Reilly Benjamin. 2003b. International Electoral Assistance: A Review of Donor Activities and Lessons Learned. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendael.”
Reilly Benjamin. 2002. “Post-Conflict Elections: Constraints and Dangers.” International Peacekeeping 9 (2): 118–139.
Reilly Benjamin. 2001. Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reinicke Wolfgang H., and Deng Francis. 2000. Critical Choices: The United Nations, Networks, and the Future of Global Governance. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
Reynolds Andrew, ed. 2002. The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reynolds Andrew, Reilly Benjamin, and Ellis Andrew. 2005, Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Rich, Roland. 2004. “Crafting Security Council Mandates.” In The UN Role in Promoting Democracy: Between Ideals and Reality, ed. Newman Edward and Rich Roland. Tokyo: United Nations University Press (62–85).
Risley Paul, and Sisk D. Timothy. 2005. Democracy and United Nations Peacebuilding at the Local Level: Lessons Learned. Stockholm: International IDEA. Available at www.idea.int/publications/democracy_un/index.cfm.
Roeder Philip G., and Rothchild Donald, eds. 2005. Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy after Civil Wars. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
Rosato Sebastian. 2003. “The Flawed Logic of Democratic Peace Theory.” American Political Science Review 97 (4): 585–602.
Ross Michael L. 2001. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?” World Politics 53 (3): 325–361.
Rothchild, Donald. 2005a. “Problems in Applying Executive Power Sharing to Africa: The Impact of Sequencing on Political Consolidation.” Paper presented at 46th Annual International Studies Association Convention, 1–5 March, at Honolulu, HI.
Rothchild Donald. 2005b. “Reassuring Weaker Parties after Civil Wars: The Benefits and Costs of Executive Power-sharing Systems in Africa.” Ethnopolitics 4 (3): 247–267.
Rothchild Donald. 1997. Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.
Rothchild Donald. 1973. Racial Bargaining in Independent Kenya: A Study of Minorities and Decolonization. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Russett Bruce. 1993. Grasping the Democratic Peace. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Russett Bruce M., and Oneal John R.. 2001. Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations. New York: W. W. Norton.
Rustow Dankwart A. 1970. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model.” Comparative Politics 2 (3): 337–363.
Salih, M. A. Mohamed. 2003. “Introduction: The Evolution of African Political Parties.” In African Political Parties: Evolution, Institutionalisation and Governance, ed. Salih M. A. Mohamed. London: Pluto Press (1–33).
Salomons, Dirk. 2005. “Security: An Absolute Prerequisite.” In Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges, ed. Junne G. and Verkoren W.. Boulder Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (19–42).
Shaw Mark. 2002. Crime and Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Transforming Under Fire. Cape Town and Johannesburg: David Philip Publisher.
Shoemaker Jolynn. 2005. Conflict Prevention and Transformation: Women's Vital Contribution. Cambridge and Washington, DC: Women Waging Peace and the United Nations Foundation.
Sida. 2006. Press Statement, August 9, 2006. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
Sida.2005. Promoting Peace and Security through Development Cooperation. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
Simonsen Sven Gunnar. 2004. “Nationbuilding as Peacebuilding: Racing to Define the Kosovar.” International Peacekeeping 11 (2): 289–311.
Sisk, Timothy D. 2001. “Intrastate Violence.” In Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned, ed. Simmons P. J. and Jonge Oudraat Chantal. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (534–563).
Sisk Timothy D. 1996. Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflict. Washington, DC: Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Sisk Timothy D. 1995. Democratization in South Africa: The Elusive Social Contract. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sisk, Timothy D., and Christoph Stefes. 2005. “Power Sharing as an Interim Step in Peace Building: Lessons from South Africa.” In Sustainable Peace. Power and Democracy after Civil Wars, ed. Roeder Philip G. and Donald Rothchild. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press (293–319).
Smith Anthony L. 2004. “East Timor: Elections in the World's Newest Nation.” Journal of Democracy 15 (2): 145–159.
Snyder Jack. 2000. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York and London: W.W. Norton.
Snyder Jack, and Ballentine Karen. 1996. “Nationalism and the Marketplace of Ideas.” International Security 21 (2): 5–40.
Söderberg Kovacs Mimmi. 2007. From Rebellion to Politics: The Transformation of Rebel Groups to Political Parties in Civil War Peace Processes. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Solana, Javier. 2005. “Prevention Must Be Concrete.” In Development, Security and Conflict Prevention, ed. Mellbourn Anders. Brussels: Madariaga European Foundation (9–14).
Southall, Roger, Neo Simutanyi, and John Daniel. 2005. “Former Presidents in African Politics.” In Legacies of Power, ed. Southall Roger and Melber Henning. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute (1–25).
Spear, Joanna. 2002. “Disarmament and Demobilization.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, ed. Stedman John Stephen, Rothchild Donald, and Cousens Elizabeth M.. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (141–182).
Spears Ian S. 2000. “Understanding Inclusive Peace Agreements in Africa: The Problems of Sharing Power.” Third World Quarterly 21 (1): 105–118.
Stedman Stephen John. 1997. “Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes.” International Security 22 (2): 5–53.
Stedman Stephen John, Rothchild Donald, and Cousens Elisabeth M., eds. 2002. Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Stewart Frances. 2000. “Crisis Prevention: Tacking Horizontal Inequalities.” Oxford Development Studies 28 (3): 245–262.
Stremlau John. 1998. A House No Longer Divided: Civil Society in South Africa. Washington, DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict.
Stubbs Paul. 1999. Displaced Promises: Forced Migration, Refugees and Return in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Uppsala: Life & Peace Institute.
Tangri, Roger. 2005. “Politics and Presidential Term Limits in Uganda.” In Legacies of Power, ed. Southall Roger and Melber Henning. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute (175–196).
Temporary Media Commissioner. 2004. An Inquiry into the Performance of Kosovo-Wide Television (16–17 March 2004). Pristina: Temporary Media Commissioner.
Thompson Mark. 1994. Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. London: Article 19.
Thompson William R., and Richard Tucker. 1997. “A Tale of Two Democratic Peace Critiques.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (3): 428–454.
Tilly Charles. 1990. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1992. Cambridge Mass.: Basil Blackwell.
Tilly, Charles.1985. “War-Making and State-Making as Organized Crime.” In Bringing the State Back In, ed. Evans P., Rueschmeyer D., and Skocpol T.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (169–191).
Toft, Monica Duffy. 2003. “Peace Through Victory?” Paper presented at American Political Science Association, August 27–31, Philadelphia.
UCDP. 2007. Uppsala Conflict Data Program. [cited 24 March 2007]. Available at www.pcr.uu.se/database/.
UCDP.2006. “Sudan Conflict Summary”. Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University [cited 24 May 2006]. Available at www.pcr.uu.se/database/.
UCDP.2005. Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University [cited June 2, 2005]. Available at www.pcr.uu.se/database/.
United Nations. 2001. Letter dated 12 February 2001 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council.
Uvin Peter. 1998. Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press.
Peter Uvin, and Mironko Charles. 2003. “Western and Local Approaches to Justice in Rwanda.” Global Governance 9 (2): 129–231.
Biezen Ingrid. 2003. Political Parties in New Democracies: Party Organization in Southern and East-Central Europe. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Tongeren Paul, Brenk Malin, Hellema Marte, and Verhoeven Juliette, eds. 2005. People Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Vanberg Victor, and Buchanan James. 1989. “Interests and Theories in Constitutional Choice.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 1: 49–62.
Varshney Ashutosh. 2002. Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Varshney Ashutosh. 2001. “Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society.” World Politics 53 (April): 362–398.
Viggo Jakobsen, Peter. 2003. “Military Forces and Public Security Challenges.” In The United Nations and Regional Security: Europe and Beyond, ed. Pugh M. and Sidhu W. P. Singh. Boulder, Colo. and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers (137–153).
Vinegard, Anna. 1998. “From Guerrillas to Politicians: The Transition of the Guatemalan Revolutionary Movement in Historical and Comparative Perspective.” In Guatemala after the Peace Accords, ed. Sieder Rachel. London: Institute of Latin American Studies (207–227).
Vines Alex. 1996. Renamo: From Terrorism to Democracy in Mozambique?London: James Currey.
Wade, Christine. 2007. “El Salvador: The Electoral Success of the FMLN.” In From Soldiers to Politicians: Transforming Rebel Movements after War, ed. Zeeuw Jeroen. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (33–54).
Wallensteen Peter 2007. Understanding Conflict Resolution, 2nd edn. London: Sage; 1st edn 2002.
Wallensteen Peter 2002. Understanding Conflict Resolution. War, Peace and the Global System. London: Sage Publications.
Wallensteen Peter, and Staibano Carina, eds. 2005. International Sanctions: Between Words and Wars in the Global System. London and New York: Frank Cass.
Walter Barbara F. 2002. Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Walter Barbara F. 1999. “Designing Transitions from Civil War: Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace.” International Security 24 (1): 127–155.
Wanis-St. John, Anthony, and Darren Kew. 2006. “The Missing Link? Civil Society, Peace Negotiations: Contributions to Sustained Peace.” Paper presented at the 47th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, San Diego, March 23.
Wantchekon Leonard. 2004. “The Paradox of ‘Warlord’ Democracy: A Theoretical Investigation.” American Political Science Review 98 (1) (February): 17–33.
Wantchekon Leonard, and Neeman Zvika. 2002. “A Theory of Post-Civil War Democratization.” Journal of Theoretical Politics (14) 439–464.
Ward Michael D., and Gleditsch Kristian S.. 1998. “Democratizing for Peace.” American Political Science Review 92 (1): 51–61.
Waterman, Harvey. 1993. “Political Order and the ‘Settlement’ of Civil Wars.” In Stopping the Killing: How Civil Wars End, ed. Licklider Roy. New York: New York University Press (292–302).
Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2005. “Autonomous Recovery and International Intervention in Comparative Perspective.” Working Paper, Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
Whitehead Laurence. 2002. Democratization: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wilkinson Steven I. 2004. Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Williamson Arthur, Scott Duncan, and Halfpenny Peter. 2000. “Rebuilding Civil Society in Northern Ireland: The Community and Voluntary Sector's Contribution to the European Union's Peace and Reconciliation District Partnership Programme.” Policy & Politics 28 (1): 49–66.
Wolfsfeld Gadi. 2004. Media and the Path to Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wolfsfeld, Gadi.2003. “The Role of the News Media in Peace Negotiations: Variations over Time and Circumstance.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby J. and Ginty R. Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (87–100).
Wolfsfeld Gadi. 2001. “The News Media and Peace Processes: The Middle East and Northern Ireland.” Peaceworks (37). Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (1–55).
Woodward, Susan L. 2002. “Economic Priorities for Successful Peace Implementation.” In Ending Civil Wars. The Implementation of Peace Agreement, ed. Stedman John Stephen, Rothchild Donald and Cousens Elisabeth M.. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers (183–214).
World Bank 2003a. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Washington DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
World Bank2003b. Working Together: World Bank-Civil Society Relations. Washington, DC: IBRD/World Bank. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CSO/Resources?WorkingTogetherBrochure.pdf.
World Bank2002a. The Right to Tell: The Role of Mass Media. Washington DC: World Bank.
World Bank2002b. Local Level Institutions and Social Capital Study, vol. I, June, Washington, DC: IBRD/World Bank.
Zahar, Marie-Joëlle. 2005a. “Violence and War-to-Peace Transitions: A Second Look at the ‘Spoiler’ Debate in Light of African Case Studies.” Paper presented at 101st Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 1–4, 2005, Washington, DC.
Zahar, Marie-Joëlle.2005b. “Power Sharing in Lebanon: Foreign Protectors, Domestic Peace, and Democratic Failure.” In Sustainable Peace. Power and Democracy After Civil Wars, ed. Roeder Philip G. and Donald Rothchild. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press (219–240).
Zahar, Marie-Joëlle.2003. “Reframing the Spoiler Debate in Peace Processes.” In Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, ed. Darby John and Ginty Roger Mac. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (114–124).
Zartman I. William, ed. 1995. Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.
Zartman, I. William,1991. “Common Elements in the Analysis of a Negotiation Process.” In Negotiation Theory and Practice, ed. Breslin J. William and Rubin Jeffrey Z.. Cambridge, Mass.: Program on Negotiation, Harvard Law School (147–159).

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 1662 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 1259 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 14th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.