Simplification ofmodes of proof is notmerely an indication of advance in our knowledge of a subject, but is also the surest guarantee of readiness for further progress.
There are three timeless truths in the field of wireless communications:
• Demand for wireless throughput, both mobile and fixed, will always increase.
• The quantity of available electromagnetic spectrum will never increase, and the most desirable frequency bands that can propagate into buildings and around obstacles and that are unaffected by weather constitute only a small fraction of the entire spectrum.
• Communication theorists and engineers will always be pressured to invent or to discover breakthrough technologies that provide higher spectral efficiency.
Given the history of more than a century of wireless innovation, we must look to the physical layer for breakthrough technologies. The central assertion of this book is that Massive MIMO constitutes a breakthrough technology. It is a scalable technology whereby large numbers of terminals simultaneously communicate through the entire allocated frequency spectrum. What enables this aggressive multiplexing is, first, an excess number of service antennas compared with terminals, and, second, performing the multiplexing and de-multiplexing based on measured propagation characteristics rather than on assumed propagation characteristics. A disproportionate number of service antennas compared with active terminals makes it likely that the propagation channels are conducive to successful multiplexing, and basing the multiplexing on direct channel measurements makes the antenna array tolerances independent of the number of antennas. The activity of growing the number of antennas relative to the number of active terminals renders the simplest types of multiplexing and de-multiplexing signal processing exceedingly effective, and it permits the same quality of service with reduced radiated power. Low radiated power is conducive to frequency reuse. The combined action ofmany antennas eliminates frequency-dependent fading and simplifies power control. By virtue of the time-division duplexing operation, the propagation channel characteristics aremeasured on the uplink and used both for uplink data detection and downlink beamforming. This facilitates operation in high-mobility scenarios. Also, by performing appropriate power control, Massive MIMO yields uniformly good service to all terminals, as measured in terms of 95%-likely throughputs on both the uplink and downlink.