Skip to main content
Grassroots for Hire
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 7
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander 2017. American Employers as Political Machines. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 79, Issue. 1, p. 105.

    Jia, Nan and Mayer, Kyle 2016. Strategy Beyond Markets. Vol. 34, Issue. , p. 437.

    Pettinicchio, David 2016. On the Cross Road of Polity, Political Elites and Mobilization. Vol. 24, Issue. , p. 155.

    Christiansen, Lærke Højgaard and Kroezen, Jochem J. 2016. How Institutions Matter!. Vol. 48, Issue. , p. 101.

    Gehman, Joel Lounsbury, Michael and Greenwood, Royston 2016. How Institutions Matter!. Vol. 48, Issue. , p. 1.

    Lee, Caroline W. 2015. Participatory Practices in Organizations. Sociology Compass, Vol. 9, Issue. 4, p. 272.

    Walker, Edward T. and Rea, Christopher M. 2014. The Political Mobilization of Firms and Industries. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 40, Issue. 1, p. 281.


Book description

Although 'grassroots' conjures up images of independent citizen organizing, much mass participation today is sponsored by elite consultants working for corporations and powerful interest groups. This book pulls back the curtain to reveal a lucrative industry of consulting firms that incentivize public activism as a marketable service. Edward Walker illustrates how, spurred by the post-sixties advocacy explosion and rising business political engagement, elite consultants have deployed new technologies to commercialize mass participation. Using evidence from interviews, surveys and public records, Grassroots for Hire paints a detailed portrait of these consultants and their clients. Today, Fortune 500 firms hire them to counter-mobilize against regulation, protest or controversy. Ironically, some advocacy groups now outsource organizing to them. Walker also finds that consultants are reshaping both participation and policymaking, but unethical 'astroturf' strategies are often ineffective. This pathbreaking book calls for a rethinking of interactions between corporations, advocacy groups, and elites in politics.


'Using a mix of sociological and political science literature and sophisticated methodology, Walker provides numerous cases studies and empirical evidence that many seemingly citizen-initiated campaigns are really orchestrated by funding from corporations and interest groups seeking to benefit … The examples and data are current and help 'pull back the curtain' to expose a political marketplace in which many ideas and measurements of support receive significant subsidies. The next time an advocate says 'the people have spoken', some skepticism should emerge … Summing up: recommended.'Endorsements - A New History

S. E. Frantzich Source: Choice

'Walker’s focus on a specific set of actors playing a specific role in the political process enables him to make meaningful policy assessments and recommendations. His advice on how to strengthen and enforce existing laws, especially those related to financial disclosure are both insightful and practical, not to mention possible if citizens can press their legislators to adopt them. In this way, his book deploys solid empirical social science in a way that contributes constructively to political discourse. In an age of big money campaigns and facile political cynicism, Walker’s book offers a refreshing reminder that citizens still have an important role to play.'

Source: Mobilization

‘This book offers an important theoretical contribution to social movement theory and political sociology more generally.’

Brayden G. King Source: Social Forces

'Walker’s book is a must-read for anyone interested in changing patterns of collective action in the twenty-first century.'

Source: Interest Groups and Advocacy

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Public documents referenced
Abbott, Andrew. 1988. The System of Professions. University of Chicago Press.
Aguirre, B. E. 1984. “The Conventionalization of Collective Behavior in Cuba.” American Journal of Sociology 90: 541–566.
Akard, Patrick. 1992. “Corporate Mobilization and Political Power: The Transformation of US Economic Policy in the 1970s.” American Sociological Review 57: 597–615.
Aldrich, Daniel. 2010. Site Fights. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Aldrich, Howard, and Herker, Diane. 1977. “Boundary Spanning Roles and Organization Structure.” Academy of Management Review 2: 217–230.
Almond, Gabriel A., and Verba, Sidney. 1963. The Civic Culture. Princeton University Press.
Amenta, Edwin, Carruthers, Bruce G., and Zylan, Yvonne. 1992. “A Hero for the Aged? The Townsend Movement, the Political Mediation Model, and US Old-Age Policy, 1934–1950.” American Journal of Sociology 98(2): 308–339.
Amenta, Edwin, Caren, Neal, Chiarello, Elizabeth, and Su, Yang. 2010. “The Political Consequences of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 36: 287–307.
Andrews, Kenneth T., and Edwards, Bob. 2004. “Advocacy Organizations in the US Political Process.”Annual Review of Sociology 30: 479–506.
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., and Bernstein, Mary. 2008. “Culture, Power, and Institutions: A Multi-Institutional Politics Approach to Social Movements.” Sociological Theory 26: 74–99.
Barley, Stephen R. 2007. “Corporations, Democracy, and the Public Good.” Journal of Management Inquiry 16: 201–215.
Barley, Stephen R. 2010. “Building an Institutional Field to Corral a Government: A Case to Set an Agenda for Organization Studies.” Organization Studies 31: 777–805.
Bartholomew, Susan, and Smith, Anne D.. 2006. “Improving Survey Response Rates from Chief Executive Officers in Small Firms: The Importance of Social Networks.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30: 83–96.
Bartley, Tim. 2007. “Institutional Emergence in an Era of Globalization: The Rise of Transnational Private Regulation of Labor and Environmental Conditions.” American Journal of Sociology 113: 297–351.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 1989. “Independent and Politicized Policy Communities: Education and Nuclear Energy in France and in the United States.” Governance 2(1): 42–66.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Jones, Bryan D.. 1993. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. University of Chicago Press.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Leech, Beth L.. 2001. “Interest Niches and Policy Bandwagons: Patterns of Interest Group Involvement in National Politics.” Journal of Politics 63: 1191–1213.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Berry, Jeffrey M., Hojnacki, Marie, Kimball, David C., and Leech, Beth L.. 2009. Lobbying and Policy Change. University of Chicago Press.
Beder, Sharon. 1998. Global Spin. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green.
Bellah, Robert, Madsen, Richard, Sullivan, William M., Swidler, Ann, and Tipton, Steven M.. 1985. Habits of the Heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Benford, Robert D., and Snow, David A.. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26: 611–639.
Benford, Robert D., Moore, Helen A., and Williams, J. Allen. 1993. “In Whose Backyard? Concern about Siting a Nuclear Waste Facility.” Sociological Inquiry 63: 30–48.
Berry, Jeffrey M. 1977. Lobbying for the People. Princeton University Press.
Berry, Jeffrey M. 1997. The Interest Group Society, 3rd edn. New York: Longman.
Berry, Jeffrey M. 1999. “The Rise of Citizen Groups.” Pp. 367–393 in Skocpol, Theda and Fiorina, Morris P. (eds.), Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Berry, Jeffrey M., and Arons, David F.. 2003. A Voice for Nonprofits. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Bimber, Bruce. 1998. “The Internet and Political Transformation: Populism, Community, and Accelerated Pluralism.” Polity 31: 133–160.
Bingham, Lisa Blomgren, Nabatchi, Tina, and O’Leary, Rosemary. 2005. “The New Governance: Practices and Processes for Stakeholder and Citizen Participation in the Work of Government.” Public Administration Review 65: 547–558.
Bodensteiner, Carol A. 1997. “Special Interest Group Coalitions: Ethical Standards for Broad-Based Support Efforts.” Public Relations Review 23(1): 31–46.
Boltanski, Luc, and Chiapello, Eve. 2005. The New Spirit of Capitalism. London: Verso.
Bosso, Christopher J. 2005. Environment, Inc. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1979. “Public Opinion Does Not Exist.” Pp. 124–130 in Mattelart, Armand and Siegelaub, Seth (eds.), Communication and Class Struggle. New York: International General.
Bowler, Shaun, Donovan, Todd, and Fernandez, Ken. 1996. “The Growth of the Political Marketing Industry and the California Initiative Process.” European Journal of Marketing 30: 166–178.
Bowler, Shaun, Donovan, Todd, and Happ, Trudi. 1992. “Ballot Propositions and Information Costs: Direct Democracy and the Fatigued Voter.” Western Political Quarterly 45: 559–568.
Boyte, Harry. 1980. The Backyard Revolution. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Brady, Henry E., Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Verba, Sidney. 1999. “Prospecting for Participants: Rational Expectations and the Recruitment of Political Activists.” American Political Science Review 93: 153–168.
Brint, Steven G. 1994. In an Age of Experts. Princeton University Press.
Briscoe, Forrest, and Safford, Sean. 2008. “The Nixon-In-China Effect: Activism, Imitation, and the Institutionalization of Contentious Practices.” Administrative Science Quarterly 53: 460–491.
Broder, David. 2000. Democracy Derailed. New York: Harcourt.
Browne, William P. 1995. “Organized Interests, Grassroots Confidants, and Congress.” Pp. 281–297 in Cigler, Allan J. and Loomis, Burdett A. (eds.), Interest Group Politics, 4th edn. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Brulle, Robert J., Carmichael, Jason, and Jenkins, J. Craig. 2012. “Shifting Public Opinion on Climate Change: An Empirical Assessment of Factors Influencing Concern over Climate Change in the US, 2002–2010.” Climatic Change 114(2): 169–188.
Burns, Nancy, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Verba, Sidney. 2001. The Private Roots of Public Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burstein, Paul. 1998. “Interest Organizations, Political Parties, and the Study of Democratic Politics.” Pp. 39–56 in Costain, Anne and McFarland, Andrew (eds.), Social Movements and American Political Institutions. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Caldeira, Gregory A., and Wright, John R.. 1998. “Lobbying for Justice: Organized Interests, Supreme Court Nominations, and United States Senate.” American Journal of Political Science 42: 499–523.
Calhoun, Craig. 1992. “Introduction: Habermas and the Public Sphere.” Pp. 1–48 in Calhoun, Craig (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carpenter, Daniel P., Esterling, Kevin M., and Lazer, David M. J.. 1998. “The Strength of Weak Ties in Lobbying Networks.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 10: 417–444.
Carpenter, Daniel P., Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline, Moffitt, Susan, and Nall, Clayton. 2012. “The Complications of Controlling Agency Time Discretion: FDA Review Deadlines and Postmarket Drug Safety.” American Journal of Political Science 56: 98–114.
Carroll, Glenn R., and Wheaton, Dennis Ray. 2009. “The Organizational Construction of Authenticity: An Examination of Contemporary Food and Dining in the US.” Research in Organizational Behavior 29: 255–282.
Cater, Douglas. 1964. Power in Washington. New York: Random House.
Chicago Tribune. 2012. Playing with Fire. Evanston, IL: Agate Digital.
Cidell, Julie. 2012. “Fear of a Foreign Railroad: Transnationalism, Trainspace, and (Im)mobility in the Chicago Suburbs.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 37: 593–608.
Cigler, Allan J., and Loomis, Burdett A.. 1995. “Contemporary Interest Group Politics: More than ‘More of the Same.’” Pp. 393–406 in Cigler, Allan J. and Loomis, Burdett A. (eds.), Interest Group Politics, 4th edn. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Clark, Peter B., and Wilson, James Q.. 1961. “Incentive Systems: A Theory of Organizations.” Administrative Science Quarterly 6(2): 129–166.
Clawson, Dan, and Clawson, Mary Ann. 1999. “What Has Happened to the US Labor Movement? Union Decline and Renewal.” Annual Review of Sociology 25: 95–119.
Clawson, Dan, and Neustadtl, Alan. 1989. “Interlocks, PACs, and Corporate Conservatism.” American Journal of Sociology 94(4): 749–773.
Clemens, Elisabeth S. 1993. “Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women’s Groups and the Transformation of US Politics, 1890–1920.” American Journal of Sociology 98: 755–798.
Clemens, Elisabeth S. 1997. The People’s Lobby. University of Chicago Press.
Crenson, Matthew A., and Ginsberg, Benjamin. 2004. Downsizing Democracy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Culpepper, Pepper D. 2011. Quiet Politics and Business Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cummins, Steven, and Macintyre, Sally. 2002. “‘Food Deserts’ – Evidence and Assumption in Health Policy Making.” BMJ 325: 436–438.
Davis, Gerald F., and Stout, Suzanne. 1992. “Organization Theory and the Market for Corporate Control: A Dynamic Analysis of the Characteristics of Large Takeover Targets, 1980–90.” Administrative Science Quarterly 37: 605–608.
Deegan, Denise. 2001. Managing Activists: A Guide to Dealing with Activists and Pressure Groups. London: Kogan Page.
Denison, Daniel R., and Mishra, Aneil K.. 1995. “Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness.” Organization Science 6: 204–223.
Dewey, John. 1922. “Public Opinion.” The New Republic 30 (May 3): 286–288.
DiMaggio, Paul J., and Powell, Walter W.. 1983. “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review 48(2): 147–160.
Dobbin, Frank, and Kelly, Erin L.. 2007. “How to Stop Harassment: Professional Construction of Legal Compliance in Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 112(4): 1203–1243.
Donato, Katharine M. 1990. “Keepers of the Corporate Image: Women in Public Relations.” Pp. 129–144 in Reskin, Barbara F. and Roos, Patricia A. (eds.), Job Queues, Gender Queues. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Douglas, Mary. 1986. How Institutions Think. Syracuse University Press.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.
Dulio, David. 2003. “Inside the War Room: Political Consultants in Modern Campaigns.” Pp. 17–30 in Watson, Robert and Campbell, Colton (eds.), Campaigns and Elections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Singh, Harbir. 1998. “The Relational View: Cooperative Strategy and Sources of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage.” Academy of Management Review 23: 660–679.
Earl, Jennifer, Martin, Andrew, McCarthy, John D., and Soule, Sarah A.. 2004. “The Use of Newspaper Data in the Study of Collective Action.” Annual Review of Sociology 30: 65–80.
Edelman, Lauren, Uggen, Christopher, and Erlanger, Howard S.. 1999. “The Endogeneity of Legal Regulation: Grievance Procedures as Rational Myth.” American Journal of Sociology 105(2): 406–454.
Evans, Trish. 2010. “We Are All in PR Now.” British Journalism Review 21(2): 31–36.
Ewen, Stuart. 1996. PR!New York: Basic Books.
Farrell, David M., Kolodny, Robin, and Medvic, Stephen. 2001. “Parties and Campaign Professionals in a Digital Age: Political Consultants in the United States and Their Counterparts Overseas.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 6(4): 11–30.
Fisher, Dana. 2006. Activism, Inc. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fisher, William F. 1997. “Doing Good? The Politics and Antipolitics of NGO Practices.” Annual Review of Anthropology 26: 439–464.
Fishkin, James S. 1992. The Dialogue of Justice. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Fishman, Charles. 2006. The Wal-Mart Effect. New York: Penguin.
Fitch, Brad, and Goldschmidt, Kathy. 2005. Communicating with Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Management Foundation.
Fitzpatrick, Kathy R., and Palenchar, Michael J.. 2006. “Disclosing Special Interests: Constitutional Restrictions on Front Groups.” Journal of Public Relations Research 18: 203–224.
Fleisher, Craig S. 2002. “Analysis and Analytical Tools for Managing Corporate Public Affairs.” Journal of Public Affairs 2: 167–172.
Friedenberg, Robert V. 1997. Communication Consultants in Political Campaigns. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Friedland, Roger, and Alford, Robert. 1991. “Bringing Society Back In: Symbols, Practices, and Institutional Contradictions.” Pp. 232–263 in Powell, Walter W. and DiMaggio, Paul (eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. University of Chicago Press.
Frumkin, Peter. 2002. On Being Nonprofit. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fryxell, Gerald E., and Wang, Jia. 1994. “The Fortune Corporate ‘Reputation’ Index: Reputation for What?Journal of Management 20: 1–14.
Fung, Archon, Graham, Mary, and Weil, David. 2007. Full Disclosure. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Galaskiewicz, Joseph, and Colman, Michelle Sinclair. 2006. “Collaboration Between Corporations and Nonprofit Organizations.” Pp. 180–204 in Powell, Walter W. and Steinberg, Richard (eds.), The Nonprofit Sector, 2nd edn. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Gamson, William A. 1990. The Strategy of Social Protest. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ganz, Marshall. 2000. “Resources and Resourcefulness: Strategic Capacity in the Unionization of California Agriculture, 1959–1966.” American Journal of Sociology 105: 1003–1062.
Getz, Kathleen. 2002. “Public Affairs and Political Strategy: Theoretical Foundations.” Journal of Public Affairs 1: 305–329.
Ginsberg, Benjamin. 1984. “Money and Power: The New Political Economy of American Elections.” Pp. 163–179 in Ferguson, Thomas and Rogers, Joel (eds.), The Political Economy. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Givel, Michael. 2007. “Consent and Counter-Mobilization: The Case of the National Smokers Alliance.” Journal of Health Communication 12: 339–357.
Gladwell, Malcolm. 2000. The Tipping Point. New York: Little, Brown.
Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Goldschmidt, Kathy, and Ochreiter, Leslie. 2008. Communicating with Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Management Foundation.
Goldstein, Kenneth M. 1999. Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gramsci, Antonio. 1959. The Modern Prince and Other Writings. New York: International Publishers.
Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
Greenwood, Royston. 2008. “Focusing the Asteroid Belt of Organizations.” Journal of Management Inquiry 17: 152–156.
Greenwood, Royston, Suddaby, Roy, and McDougald, Megan. 2006. “Introduction.” Research in the Sociology of Organizations 24: 1–16.
Grefe, Edward. 2000. “Global Grassroots Is a Reality.” Pp. 265–275 in Kramer, Tony (ed.), Winning at the Grassroots. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Council.
Grefe, Edward, and Linsky, Marty. 1995. The New Corporate Activism. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Greider, William. 1992. Who Will Tell the People. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Grier, Kevin B., Munger, Michael C., and Roberts, Brian E.. 1994. “The Determinants of Industry Political Activity, 1978–1986.” American Political Science Review 88: 911–926.
Griffin, Jennifer J., and Dunn, Paul. 2004. “Corporate Public Affairs: Commitment, Resources, and Structure.” Business and Society 43: 196–220.
Grossmann, Matt. 2009. “Going Pro? Political Campaign Consulting and the Professional Model.” Journal of Political Marketing 8: 81–104.
Habermas, Jürgen. 1987. The Theory of Communicative Action. 2 vols. Volume II: The Critique of Functionalist Reason. Cambridge: Polity.
Habermas, Jürgen. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Habermas, Jürgen. 1996. Between Facts and Norms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Han, Hahrie. 2009. “Does the Content of Political Appeals Matter in Motivating Participation? A Field Experiment on Self-Disclosure in Political Appeals.” Political Behavior 31: 103–116.
Harrison, E. Bruce. 1993. Going Green. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin.
Hart, David M. 2004. “‘Business’ is Not an Interest Group: On the Study of Companies in American National Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 7: 47–69.
Harvey, Richard B. 1970. The Dynamics of California Government and Politics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Haydu, Jeffrey. 1999. “Counter Action Frames: Employer Repertoires and the Union Menace in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Social Problems 46: 313–331.
Heath, Robert L., Douglas, William, and Russell, Michael. 1995. “Constituency Building: Determining Employees’ Willingness To Participate in Corporate Political Activities.” Journal of Public Relations Research 7: 273–288.
Heitshusen, Valerie. 2000. “Interest Group Lobbying and US House Decentralization: Linking Informational Focus to Committee Hearing Appearances.” Political Research Quarterly 53: 151–176.
Hillman, Amy J., and Hitt, Michael A.. 1999. “Corporate Political Strategy Formulation: A Model of Approach, Participation, and Strategy Decisions.” Academy of Management Review 24: 825–842.
Hillman, Amy J., Keim, Gerald D., and Schuler, Douglas. 2004. “Corporate Political Activity: A Review and Research Agenda.” Journal of Management 30: 837–857.
Hojnacki, Marie, Kimball, David C., Baumgartner, Frank R., Berry, Jeffrey M., and Leech, Beth L.. 2012. “Studying Organizational Advocacy and Influence: Reexamining Interest Group Research.” Annual Review of Political Science 15(1): 379–399.
Howard, Philip. 2006. New Media Campaigns and the Managed Citizen. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Igo, Sarah E. 2007. The Averaged American. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Imig, Douglas R. 1996. Poverty and Power. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Ingram, Paul, Yue, Lori Qingyuan, and Rao, Hayagreeva. 2010. “Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal-Mart, 1998–2007.” American Journal of Sociology 116: 53–92.
Issenberg, Sasha. 2012. The Victory Lab. New York: Crown.
Jasper, James M. 2006. Getting Your Way. University of Chicago Press.
Jenkins, J. Craig. 2006. “Nonprofit Organizations and Political Advocacy.” Pp. 307–332 in Powell, Walter W. and Steinberg, Richard (eds.), The Nonprofit Sector, 2nd edn. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Jenkins, J. Craig, and Eckert, Craig M.. 1986. “Channeling Black Insurgency: Elite Patronage and Professional Social Movement Organizations in the Development of the Black Movement.” American Sociological Review 51(6): 812–829.
Jenkins, J. Craig, and Halcli, Abigail. 1999. “Grassrooting the System? Recent Trends in Social Movement Philanthropy, 1953–1990.” Pp. 277–299 in Condliffe-Lageman, Ellen (ed.), Studying Philanthropic Foundations. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
Johnson, Dennis W. 2002. “Perspectives on Political Consulting.” Journal of Political Marketing 1: 7–21.
Jordan, Grant, and Maloney, William A.. 1997. The Protest Business? Mobilizing Campaign Groups. Manchester University Press.
Katz, Elihu, and Lazarsfeld, Paul. 1955. Personal Influence. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Keim, Gerry. 2005. “Managing Business Political Advocacy in the United States.” Pp. 418–433 in Harris, Phil and Fleisher, Craig (eds.), Handbook of Public Affairs. London: Sage.
Keim, Gerry, and Baysinger, Barry. 1988. “The Efficacy of Business Political Activity.” Journal of Management 14: 163–180.
Kelley, Stanley. 1956. Professional Public Relations and Political Power. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.
Khan, Shamus R. 2012. “The Sociology of Elites.” Annual Review of Sociology 38: 361–377.
King, Brayden G. 2008. “A Political Mediation Model of Corporate Response to Social Movement Activism.” Administrative Science Quarterly 53: 395–421.
King, Brayden G., and McDonnell, Mary-Hunter. 2012. “Good Firms, Good Targets: The Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation, and Activist Targeting.” Unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University.
King, Brayden G., and Soule, Sarah A.. 2007. “Social Movements as Extra-Institutional Entrepreneurs: The Effect of Protests on Stock Price Returns.” Administrative Science Quarterly 52: 413–442.
King, Brayden G., and Whetten, David A. 2008. “Rethinking the Relationship Between Reputation and Legitimacy: A Social Actor Conceptualization.” Corporate Reputation Review 11(3): 192–207.
King, Gary, and Zeng, Langche. 2001. “Logistic Regression in Rare Events Data.” Political Analysis 9(2): 137–163.
Kingdon, John W. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
Klandermans, Bert. 1984. “Mobilization and Participation: Social-Psychological Expansions of Resource Mobilization Theory.” American Sociological Review 49(5): 583–600.
Knoke, David. 1988. “Incentives in Collective Action Organizations.” American Sociological Review 53: 311–329.
Kollman, Ken. 1998. Outside Lobbying. Princeton University Press.
Kolodny, Robin. 2000. “Electoral Partnerships: Political Consultants and Political Parties.” Pp. 110–132 in Thurber, James and Nelson, Candice (eds.), Campaign Warriors. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Kreiss, Daniel. 2012. Taking Our Country Back. New York: Oxford University Press.
Larson, Magali S. 1977. The Rise of Professionalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lathrop, Douglas A. 2003. The Campaign Continues. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lazarus, Simon. 1974. The Genteel Populists. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Leighley, Jan. 1996. “Group Membership and the Mobilization of Political Participation.” Journal of Politics 58: 447–463.
Lerbinger, Otto. 2006. Corporate Public Affairs. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.
Lessig, Lawrence. 2011. Republic, Lost. New York: Twelve.
Lichterman, Paul. 2006. “Social Capital or Group Style? Rescuing Tocqueville’s Insights on Civic Engagement.” Theory and Society 35: 529–563.
Lincoln, James R., and Kalleberg, Arne L.. 1985. “Work Organization and Workforce Commitment: A Study of Plants and Employees in the US and Japan.” American Sociological Review 50(6): 738–760.
Lippman, Walter. 1922. Public Opinion. New York: Classic Books America.
Liston-Heyes, Catherine, and Ceton, Gwen C.. 2007. “Corporate Social Performance and Politics.” Journal of Corporate Citizenship 25: 95–108.
Lord, Michael D. 2000a. “Constituency-Based Lobbying as Corporate Political Strategy: Testing an Agency Theory Perspective.” Business and Politics 2: 289–308.
Lord, Michael D. 2000b. “Corporate Political Strategy and Legislative Decision Making.” Business and Society 39: 76–93.
Lord, Michael D. 2001. Growing Broad and Deep Grassroots. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Council.
Lord, Michael D. 2003. “Constituency Building as the Foundation for Corporate Political Strategy.” Academy of Management Executive 17: 112–124.
Love, E. Geoffrey, and Kraatz, Matthew. 2009. “Character, Conformity, or the Bottom Line? How and Why Downsizing Affected Corporate Reputation.” Academy of Management Journal 52(2): 314–335.
Luneburg, William, Susman, Thomas, and Gordon, Rebecca (eds.). 2009. The Lobbying Manual, 4th edn. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Lyon, Thomas P., and Maxwell, John W.. 2004. “Astroturf: Interest Group Lobbying and Corporate Strategy.” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 13: 561–597.
Magleby, David B., and Patterson, Kelly D.. 1998. “Consultants and Direct Democracy.” PS 31(2): 160–169.
Malhotra, Namrata, Morris, Timothy, and Hinings, C. R.. 2006. “Variation in Organizational Form among Professional Service Organizations.” Research in the Sociology of Organizations 24: 171–202.
Manheim, Jarol B. 2000. The Death of a Thousand Cuts. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.
Mansbridge, Jane. 2012. “Conflict and Commonality in Habermas’s Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere.” Political Theory 40(6): 789–801.
Marcus, Alfred A., and Irion, Mark S.. 1987. “The Continued Growth of the Corporate Public Affairs Function.” Academy of Management Executive 1: 247–250.
Markoff, John. 1997. “Peasants Help Destroy an Old Regime and Defy a New One: Some Lessons from (and for) the Study of Social Movements.” American Journal of Sociology 102(4): 1113–1142.
Marquis, Christopher, Glynn, Mary Ann, and Davis, Gerald F.. 2007. “Community Isomorphism and Corporate Social Action.” Academy of Management Review 32: 925–945.
Martin, Andrew W. 2008. “The Institutional Logic of Union Organizing and the Effectiveness of Social Movement Repertoires.” American Journal of Sociology 113(4): 1067–1103.
Martin, Isaac. 2013. Rich People’s Movements. New York: Oxford University Press.
Marwell, Nicole P. 2004. “Privatizing the Welfare State: Nonprofit Community-Based Organizations as Political Actors.” American Sociological Review 69(2): 265–291.
McAdam, Doug. 1983. “Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency.” American Sociological Review 48: 735–754.
McAdam, Doug, and Boudet, Hilary. 2012. Putting Social Movements in Their Place. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D., Olzak, Susan, and Soule, Sarah. 2009. “Dynamics of Collective Protest in the US, 1960–1995: Manual for Microfilm Copying and Event Coding.” Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.
McCarthy, John D. 2005a. “Velcro Triangles: Elite Mobilization of Local Antidrug Issue Coalitions.” Pp. 87–115 in Meyer, David S., Jenness, Valerie, and Ingram, Helen (eds.), Routing the Opposition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
McCarthy, John D. 2005b. “Persistence and Change among Nationally Federated Social Movements.” Pp. 193–225 in Davis, Gerald F., McAdam, Doug, Scott, W. Richard, and Zald, Mayer N. (eds.), Social Movements and Organization Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N.. 1973. The Trend of Social Movements in America. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 82: 1212–1241.
McFarland, Andrew S. 2007. “Neopluralism.” Annual Review of Political Science 10: 45–66.
McNutt, John, and Boland, Katherine. 2007. “AstroTurf, Technology and the Future of Community Mobilization: Implications for Nonprofit Theory.” Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 34: 165.
Medvetz, Thomas. 2012. Think Tanks in America. University of Chicago Press.
Medvic, Stephen. 2003. “Campaign Pollsters and Polling: Manipulating the Voter or Taking the Electorate’s Pulse.” Pp. 31–46 in Watson, Robert and Campbell, Colton (eds.), Campaigns and Elections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Meyer, David S. 2004. “Protest and Political Opportunities.” Annual Review of Sociology 30: 125–145.
Meyer, David S., and Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1996. “Movements, Countermovements, and the Structure of Political Opportunity.” American Journal of Sociology 101: 1628–1660.
Meyer, David S., and Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. “A Movement Society: Contentious Politics for a New Century.” Pp. 1–28 in Meyer, David S. and Tarrow, Sidney (eds.), The Social Movement Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Meyer, John W., and Rowan, Brian. 1977. “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.” American Journal of Sociology 83: 340–363.
Meznar, Martin B., and Nigh, Douglas. 1995. “Buffer or Bridge? Environmental and Organizational Determinants of Public Affairs Activities in American Firms.” Academy of Management Journal 38: 975–996.
Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
Minkoff, Debra C. 1995. Organizing for Equality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Minkoff, Debra C. 1997. “Producing Social Capital: National Social Movements and Civil Society.” American Behavioral Scientist 40(5): 606–619.
Minkoff, Debra C., and Powell, Walter W.. 2006. “Nonprofit Mission: Constancy, Responsiveness, or Deflection.” Pp. 591–611 in Powell, Walter W. and Steinberg, Richard (eds.), The Nonprofit Sector, 2nd edn. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Minkoff, Debra C., Aisenbrey, Silke, and Agnone, Jon. 2008. “Organizational Diversity in the US Advocacy Sector.” Social Problems 55(4): 525–548.
Morone, James A. 2011. “Big Ideas, Broken Institutions, and the Wrath at the Grass Roots.” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 36(3): 375–385.
Myers, Daniel J., and Caniglia, Beth Schaefer. 2004. “All the Rioting That’s Fit to Print: Selection Effects in National Newspaper Coverage of Civil Disorders, 1968–1969.” American Sociological Review 69: 519–543.
Nielsen, Rasmus. 2012. Ground Wars. Princeton University Press.
Oberschall, Anthony. 1973. Social Conflict and Social Movements. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Oliver, Christine. 1991. “Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes.” Academy of Management Review 16: 145–179.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Oppenheimer, Bruce I. 1980. “Policy Effects of U.S. House Reform: Decentralization and the Capacity to Resolve Energy Issues.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 5: 5–30.
Ortiz, David G., Myers, Daniel J., Walls, Eugene N., and Diaz, Maria-Elena D.. 2005. “Where Do We Stand with Newspaper Data?Mobilization 10: 397–419.
Perrin, Andrew J. 2006. Citizen Speak. University of Chicago Press.
Pertschuk, Michael. 1982. Revolt against Regulation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Peschek, Joseph G. 1987. Policy-Planning Organizations. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Peterson, Mark A. 1992. “The Presidency and Organized Interests: White House Patterns of Interest Group Liaison.” American Political Science Review 86: 612–625.
Pieczka, Magda. 2002. “Public Relations Expertise Deconstructed.” Media, Culture and Society 24: 301–323.
Pitchell, Robert J. 1958. “The Influence of Professional Campaign Management Firms in Partisan Elections in California.” Western Political Quarterly 11(2): 278–300.
Pittman, Russell. 1977. “Market Structure and Campaign Contributions.” Public Choice 31(1): 37–52.
Plotke, David. 1992. “The Political Mobilization of Business.” Pp. 175–198 in Petracca, Mark P. (ed.), The Politics of Interests. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Prakash, Aseem, and Gugerty, Mary Kay. 2010. Advocacy Organizations and Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pring, George W., and Canan, Penelope. 1996. SLAPPs. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Putnam, Robert D. 1995. “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital.” Journal of Democracy 6: 65–78.
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Quadagno, Jill. 2005. One Nation, Uninsured. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rao, Hayagreeva. 1998. “Caveat Emptor: The Construction of Nonprofit Consumer Watchdog Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 103: 912–961.
Rao, Hayagreeva. 2008. Market Rebels. Princeton University Press.
Rao, Hayagreeva, Morrill, Calvin, and Zald, Mayer N.. 2000. “Power Plays: How Social Movements and Collective Action Create New Organizational Forms.” Research in Organizational Behavior 22: 237–282.
Rao, Hayagreeva, Yue, Lori Qingyuan, and Ingram, Paul. 2011. “Laws of Attraction: Regulatory Arbitrage in the Face of Activism in Right-to-Work States.” American Sociological Review 76: 365–385.
Ratkiewicz, Jacob et al. 2011. “Truthy: Mapping the Spread of Astroturf in Microblog Streams.” Pp. 249–252 in Proceedings of the 20th International Conference Companion on World Wide Web. New York: ACM.
Reed, Michael I. 2012. “Masters of the Universe: Power and Elites in Organization Studies.” Organization Studies 33(2): 203–221.
Riesman, David, Glazer, Nathan, and Denney, Reuel. 1950. The Lonely Crowd. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Roscigno, Vincent J. 2011. “Power, Revisited.” Social Forces 90(2): 349–374.
Rosenstone, Steven J., and Hansen, John Mark. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.
Rossman, Gabriel. 2012. Climbing the Charts. Princeton University Press.
Rothman, Sheila M., Raveis, Victoria H., Friedman, Anne, and Rothman, David J.. 2011. “Health Advocacy Organizations and the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Analysis of Disclosure Practices.” American Journal of Public Health 101(4): 602–609.
Ryan, Charlotte, and Gamson, William A.. 2006. “The Art of Reframing Political Debates.” Contexts 5(1): 13–18.
Sabato, Larry. 1981. The Rise of Political Consultants. New York: Basic Books.
Safire, William. 1978. Safire’s Political Dictionary. New York: Random House.
Salisbury, Robert H., Johnson, Paul, Heinz, John P., Laumann, Edward O., and Nelson, Robert L.. 1989. “Who You Know versus What You Know: The Uses of Government Experience for Washington Lobbyists.” American Journal of Political Science 33(1): 175–195.
Scammell, Margaret. 1998. “The Wisdom of the War Room: US Campaigning and Americanization.” Media, Culture and Society 20: 251–275.
Schattschneider, E. E. 1960. The Semisovereign People. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Schier, Steven E. 2000. By Invitation Only. University of Pittsburgh Press.
Schlozman, Key Lehman, and Tierney, John T.. 1986. Organized Interests and American Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
Schlozman, Key Lehman, Verba, Sidney, and Brady, Henry E.. 2012. The Unheavenly Chorus. Princeton University Press.
Schudson, Michael. 1998. The Good Citizen. New York: Martin Kessler Books.
Schuler, Doug A. 2002. “Public Affairs, Issues Management and Political Strategy: Methodological Approaches that Count.” Journal of Public Affairs 1: 336–355.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Schussman, Alan, and Soule, Sarah. 2005. “Protest and Process: Accounting for Individual Protest Participation.” Social Forces 84: 1083–1108.
Sennett, Richard. 1977. The Fall of Public Man. New York: Knopf.
Shaiko, Ronald G. 1999. Voices and Echoes for the Environment. New York: Columbia University Press.
Shipan, Charles R. 2004. “Regulatory Regimes, Agency Actions, and the Conditional Nature of Congressional Influence.” American Political Science Review 98: 467–480.
Shulman, Stuart. 2006. “Whither Deliberation? Mass E-mail Campaigns and US Regulatory Rulemaking.” Journal of E-Government 3: 41–64.
Shulman, Stuart. 2009. “The Case against Mass E-mails: Perverse Incentives and Low Quality Public Participation in US Federal Rulemaking.” Policy and Internet 1: 23–53.
Silverstein, Ken. 1998. Washington on $10 Million a Day. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.
Skocpol, Theda. 1997. Boomerang. New York: W.W. Norton.
Skocpol, Theda. 1999. “Advocates Without Members: The Recent Transformation of American Civic Life.” Pp. 461–509 in Skopol, Theda and Fiorina, Morris (eds.), Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Skocpol, Theda. 2003. Diminished Democracy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Skocpol, Theda. 2007. “Government Activism and the Reorganization of American Civic Democracy.” Pp. 39–67 in Pierson, Paul and Skocpol, Theda (eds.), The Transformation of American Politics. Princeton University Press.
Skocpol, Theda, and Williamson, Vanessa. 2011. The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Skocpol, Theda, Ganz, Marshall, and Munson, Ziad. 2000. “A Nation of Organizers: The Institutional Origins of Civic Voluntarism in the United States.” American Political Science Review 94: 527–546.
Smith, David H. 1997. “The Rest of the Nonprofit Sector: Grassroots Associations as the Dark Matter Ignored in Prevailing ‘Flat Earth’ Maps of the Sector.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26: 114–131.
Smith, Mark A. 2000. American Business and Political Power. University of Chicago Press.
Snow, David A., and Benford, Robert D.. 1988. “Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization.” International Social Movement Research 1: 197–217.
Snow, David A., and Soule, Sarah A.. 2010. A Primer on Social Movements. New York: W.W. Norton.
Snow, David A., Rochford, E. Burke, Worden, Steven K., and Benford, Robert D.. 1986. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation.” American Sociological Review 51(4): 464–481.
Sobieraj, Sarah. 2006. “The Implications of Transitions in the Voluntary Sector for Civic Engagement: A Case Study of Association Mobilization around the 2000 Presidential Campaign.” Sociological Inquiry 76: 52–80.
Soule, Sarah. 2009. Contention and Corporate Social Responsibility. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Soule, Sarah, and King, Brayden G.. 2008. “Competition and Resource Partitioning in Three Social Movement Industries.” American Journal of Sociology 113(6): 1568–1610.
Staber, Udo, and Aldrich, Howard. 1982. “Trade Association Stability and Public Policy.” Pp. 163–178 in Hall, Richard H. and Quinn, Robert E. (eds.), Organizational Theory and Public Policy. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Starr, Paul. 1982. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books.
Stauber, John C., and Rampton, Sheldon. 1995. Toxic Sludge is Good for You. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.
Stinchcombe, Arthur. 1965. “Social Structure and Organizations.” Pp. 153–193 in March, James (ed.), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Swidler, Ann. 1986. “Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies.” American Sociological Review 51: 273–286.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1993. “Modular Collective Action and the Rise of the Social Movement: Why the French Revolution Was Not Enough.” Politics and Society 21: 69–90.
Teles, Steven M. 2010. The Rise of the Conservative Legal Movement. Princeton University Press.
Thurber, James A. 1998. “The Study of Campaign Consultants: A Subfield in Search of Theory.” PS 31: 145–149.
Tilly, Charles. 1995. Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758–1834. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
de Tocqueville, Alexis. 1839. Democracy in America. New York: George Adlard.
Tolbert, Pamela S., and Zucker, Lynne G.. 1983. “Institutional Sources of Change in the Formal Structure of Organizations: The Diffusion of Civil Service Reform, 1880–1935.” Administrative Science Quarterly 28: 22–39.
Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald, Leiter, Jeffrey, and Thompson, Shealy. 1994. “Organizational Survey Nonresponse.” Administrative Science Quarterly 39(3): 439–457.
Useem, Bert, and Zald, Mayer N.. 1982. “From Pressure Group to Social Movement: Organizational Dilemmas of the Effort to Promote Nuclear Power.” Social Problems 30: 144–156.
Vallas, Steven P. 2003. “The Adventures of Managerial Hegemony: Teamwork, Ideology, and Worker Resistance.” Social Problems 50: 204–225.
Van Dyke, Nella, and McCammon, Holly J.. 2010. Strategic Alliances. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Verba, Sidney. 2003. “Would the Dream of Political Equality Turn out to Be a Nightmare?Perspectives on Politics 1(04): 663–679.
Verba, Sidney, and Nie, Norman H.. 1972. Participation in America. New York: Harper & Row.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E.. 1995. Voice and Equality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vernick, Jon S. 1999. “Lobbying and Advocacy for the Public’s Health: What Are the Limits for Nonprofit Organizations?American Journal of Public Health 89: 1425–1429.
Viguerie, Richard A. 1981. The New Right. Falls Church, VA: Viguerie Co.
Vladeck, David. 2009. “Special Consideration for Lobbying by Nonprofit Organizations.” Pp. 401–424 in Luneburg, William, Susman, Thomas, and Gordon, Rebecca (eds.), The Lobbying Manual, 4th edn. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Vogel, David. 1975. “The Corporation as Government.” Polity 8: 5–37.
Vogel, David. 1989. Fluctuating Fortunes. New York: Basic Books.
Vogel, David. 2005. The Market for Virtue. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Volokh, E. 2012. “Private Employees’ Speech and Political Activity: Statutory Protection against Employer Retaliation.” Texas Review of Law and Politics 16: 295–367.
Wal-Mart. 2005. Vested Interest: 2005 Annual Report. Bentonville, AR: Wal-Mart.
Wal-Mart. 2006. Building Smiles: 2006 Annual Report. Bentonville, AR: Wal-Mart.
Walder, Andrew. 2009. “Political Sociology and Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 35: 393–412.
Walker, Edward T. 2008. “Contingent Pathways from Joiner to Activist: The Indirect Effect of Participation in Voluntary Associations on Civic Engagement.” Sociological Forum 23: 116–143.
Walker, Edward T. 2009. “Privatizing Participation: Civic Change and the Organizational Dynamics of Grassroots Lobbying Firms.” American Sociological Review 74: 83–105.
Walker, Edward T. 2010. “Industry-Driven Activism.” Contexts 9(2): 44–49.
Walker, Edward T. 2012a. “Putting a Face on the Issue: Corporate Stakeholder Mobilization in Professional Grassroots Lobbying Campaigns.” Business and Society 51(4): 619–659.
Walker, Edward T. 2012b. “Social Movements, Organizations, and Fields: A Decade of Theoretical Integration.” Contemporary Sociology 41(5): 576–587.
Walker, Edward T. 2012c. “Grass-roots Mobilization, by Corporate America.” New York Times, August 11.
Walker, Edward T. Forthcoming. “Global Corporate Resistance to Public Pressures: Corporate Stakeholder Mobilization in the US, Norway, Germany, and France.” In Tsutsui, Kiyoteru and Lim, Alwyn (eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalizing World.
Walker, Edward T., and McCarthy, John D.. 2010. “Legitimacy, Strategy, and Resources in the Survival of Community-Based Organizations.” Social Problems 57(3): 315–340.
Walker, Edward T., Martin, Andrew W., and McCarthy, John D.. 2008. “Confronting the State, the Corporation, and the Academy: The Influence of Institutional Targets on Social Movement Repertoires.” American Journal of Sociology 114: 35–76.
Walker, Edward T., McCarthy, John D., and Baumgartner, Frank R.. 2011. “Replacing Members with Managers? Mutualism among Membership and Non-Membership Advocacy Organizations in the US.” American Journal of Sociology 116(4): 1284–1337.
Walker, Jack L. 1991. Mobilizing Interest Groups in America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Watts, Duncan J., and Dodds, Peter Sheridan. 2007. “Influentials, Networks, and Public Opinion Formation.” Journal of Consumer Research 34: 441–458.
Weber, Klaus, Rao, Hayagreeva, and Thomas, L. G.. 2009. “From Streets to Suites: How the Anti-Biotech Movement Affected German Pharmaceutical Firms.” American Sociological Review 74(1): 106–127.
Weber, Max. 1946. “Politics as a Vocation.” Pp. 77–128 in Gerth, H. H. and Mills, C. Wright (eds.), From Max Weber. New York: Oxford University Press.
Weir, Margaret, and Ganz, Marshall. 1997. “Reconnecting People and Politics.” Pp. 149–171 in Greenberg, Stanley and Skocpol, Theda (eds.), The New Majority. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Whipple, Mark. 2005. “The Dewey–Lippmann Debate Today: Communication Distortions, Reflective Agency, and Participatory Democracy.” Sociological Theory 23(2): 156–178.
Winik, Daniel. 2010. “Citizens Informed: Broader Disclosure and Disclaimer for Corporate Electoral Advocacy in the Wake of Citizens United.” Yale Law Journal 120: 622–666.
Wittenberg, Ernest, and Wittenberg, Elisabeth. 1989. How to Win in Washington. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wuthnow, Robert. 2002. Loose Connections. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Yandle, Bruce. 1983. “Bootleggers and Baptists: The Education of a Regulatory Economist.” Regulation 7: 12.
Yaziji, Michael, and Doh, Jonathan. 2009. NGOs and Corporations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zald, Mayer N., and Ash, Roberta. 1966. “Social Movement Organizations: Growth, Decay and Change.” Social Forces 44(3): 327–341.
Zald, Mayer N., and Berger, Michael A.. 1978. “Social Movements in Organizations: Coup d’Etat, Insurgency, and Mass Movements.” American Journal of Sociology 83(4): 823–861.
Zald, Mayer N., and Lounsbury, Michael. 2010. “The Wizards of Oz: Towards an Institutional Approach to Elites, Expertise and Command Posts.” Organization Studies 31(7): 963–996.
Zavestoski, Stephen, Shulman, Stuart, and Schlosberg, David. 2006. “Democracy and the Environment on the Internet: Electronic Citizen Participation in Regulatory Rulemaking.” Science, Technology and Human Values 31: 383–408.
Zellner, Jonathan C. 2010. “Artificial Grassroots Advocacy and the Constitutionality of Legislative Identification and Control Measures.” Connecticut Law Review 43: 357–400.
AFX International Focus. 2006a. “Wal-Mart, Critics Slam Each Other on the Web.” AFX International Focus, July 18.
AFX International Focus 2006b. “Filmmaker Quits Wal-Mart Boosters.” AFX International Focus, October 11.
AFX International Focus 2007a. “2 Wal-Mart Critics Leave Group.” AFX International Focus, July 6.
AFX International Focus 2007b. “Wal-Mart-Funded Group Suspends Web Site.” AFX International Focus, March 31.
Allen, Mike. 2008. “Should MyPoints Award Points for Political Action?” ReveNews, June 13.
Arellano, Kristi. 2006. “Wal-Mart Boosters Rev Up Lobbying Campaign.” Knight-Ridder Tribune Business, March 1.
Armour, Stephanie. 2005. “Growing Opposition Frowns on Wal-Mart.” USA Today, December 5.
Associated Press. 2005. “New Pro-Wal-Mart Group Has Help from Former White House Spokesman.” Associated Press, December 22.
Armour, Stephanie 2007. “Canadian National to Acquire a Majority of Elgin, Joliet, and Eastern Railway Co. for $300M.” Associated Press, September 26.
Armour, Stephanie 2008a. “Some Indiana Officials Are Worried Canadian National Railway’s Purchase May Cause Problems.” Associated Press, January 17.
Armour, Stephanie 2008b. “Fed Court Denies Expedited Ruling on CN Request.” Associated Press, November 11.
Associated Press State & Local Wire. 2008a. “Canadian National Wants to Divert Freight Traffic around Chicago.” Associated Press State & Local Wire, February 29.
Avery Dennison Corp. 2010. Sustainability Report. Pasadena, CA: Avery Dennison.
Barbaro, Michael. 2005. “Coughlin Says Cash Helped Wal-Mart.” Washington Post, April 8.
Barbaro, Michael 2006a. “Wal-Mart Vendors Feeling Pressured.” New York Times, May 12.
Barbaro, Michael 2006b. “Public Relations Consultant Joins Wal-Mart.” New York Times, July 25.
Barbaro, Michael 2008. “Citing Progress, Wal-Mart Critics Lower the Heat.” New York Times, June 5.
Boyd, John. 2008. “CN Acquisition Meets Resistance.” Journal of Commerce, March 31.
Boyle, Christina. 2011. “Wal-Mart’s Not All That Bad: Poll of New Yorkers.” New York Daily News, March 19, p. 18.
Brooks, Chad. 2007a. “Residents Can Have Say on the Sale of Railway.” Chicago Daily Herald, December 28.
Brooks, Chad 2007b. “Barrington Leaders Keep Eye on Rail Sale.” Chicago Daily Herald, November 13.
Brooks, Chad 2008a. “Pains, Trains, & Complaints.” Chicago Daily Herald, January 10.
Brooks, Chad 2008b. “Railway Deal Slowed by Environmental Study.” Chicago Daily Herald, April 30.
Brooks, Chad 2008c. “Suburban Leaders Try to Deliver EJ&E Views.” Chicago Daily Herald, April 23.
Brooks, Chad 2008d. “CN Heads to Court for EJ&E Sale.” Chicago Daily Herald, August 7.
Brown, DeNeen. 2004. “In the Boreal Forest, a Developing Storm.” Washington Post, December 12, p. D01.
Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. 2008 “EJ&E Debate Ignores Benefits to City Neighborhoods.” Crain’s Chicago Business, August 25.
Carpenter, Amanda. 2009. “Tea Party Bias.” Washington Times, April 17.
Caruso, Lisa. 2007. “Turf Battle.” National Journal, March 31.
Census Bureau. 2007. “Industry Statistics: NAICS 541820 (Public Relations Agencies).” Available: .
Cochran, John. 2006. “Grassroots Advocacy: A New Medium for the Message.” CQ Weekly, March 13, p. 652.
Collins, Lauren. 2010. “King Kong vs Godzilla.” New Yorker, January 11, p. 24.
Connolly, Daniel. 2006. “Poll Says Most Americans Like Wal-Mart, Union Group Claims Bias.” Associated Press, January 4.
Crossroads Campaign Solutions. 2012. “Clients.” Available: .
Democracy Partners. 2012. “Partners.” Available: .
Deveau, Scott. 2007. “CNR Touts Benefits of Railway Acquisition.” Financial Post, December 21.
Deveau, Scott 2008a. “CN Rail Says EJ&E Controversy Overblown.” Financial Post, March 18.
Deveau, Scott 2008b. “CN Rail Urges US Board to Set Deadline on Railroad’s Planned $300M Purchase.” Financial Post, May 15.
Deveau, Scott 2008c. “Obama Opposes CN Acquisition in US.” Canwest News Service, May 19.
Eckholm, Erik. 2012. “Frank Schubert and the Fight against Gay Marriage.” New York Times, October 9.
Elk, Mike. 2010. “Why Are Progressives Fighting Student Loan Reform?” American Prospect, October 5.
Engelberg, Stephen. 1993. “A New Breed of Hired Hands Cultivates Grassroots Anger.” New York Times, March 17, p. A1.
Esparza, Christina. 2006. “Wal-Mart Gains in Recall Defeat.” Whittier Daily News, September 20.
Faucheux, Ron. 1995. “The Grassroots Explosion.” Campaigns and Elections, December/January, pp. 20ff.
Ferrar, Rebecca. 2006. “Greenpeace Protests at Kimberly-Clark.” Knoxville News-Sentinel, March 1.
Field, Kelly. 2010. “For-Profits Spend Heavily to Fend off New Rule.” Chronicle of Higher Education, September 5.
Foley, Stephen. 2008a. “From Zero to Hero?” The Independent, June 6.
Foley, Stephen 2008b. “Public Relations Gains Boost Wal-Mart’s Bottom Line.” Canberra Times, June 9.
Frank, John N. 2005. “Wal-Mart Seeks to Improve Its Image in NY.” PR Week, July 25, p. 3.
Geewax, Marilyn. 2006a. “The Three Faces of Andy.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, April 30.
Geewax, Marilyn 2006b. “Shoppers Become Unwitting Warriors in PR Battle.” Cox News Service, April 3.
Geewax, Marilyn 2006c. “Critics Say Wal-Mart Has ‘Moral Responsibilities.’” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 24.
Geewax, Marilyn 2006d. “GOP Consultant Behind Attack Ad Resigns from Wal-Mart Post.” Cox News Service, October 27.
Geewax, Marilyn 2006e. “Dueling PR Groups Wrestle Over Wal-Mart Policies.” Cox News Service, November 20.
Giasone, Barbara. 2008. “Police Cite Four Protestors; Greenpeace Members Demonstrate at Kimberly-Clark’s Fullerton Office.” Orange County Register, July 28, p. BB.
Gill Report. 2012. “The Sure Thing with Craig Shirley.” Available: .
Gittlitz, A. M. 2013. “I Was a Political Astroturfer.” Salon, April 14.
Globe & Mail. 2007. “CN Pitches Chicagoans on Merits of Rail Plans.” Globe & Mail, December 21.
Globe & Mail. 2008. “CN Will Have to Wait for US Ruling on EJ&E.” Globe & Mail, July 26.
Gogoi, Pallavi. 2006. “Wal-Mart’s Jim and Laura: The Real Story.” Business Week, October 9.
Goh, Leslie. 2007. “The Business of Getting Others to Praise Yours.” Straits Times, August 7.
Goldberg, Jeffrey. 2007. “Selling Wal-Mart: Can the Company Co-Opt Liberals?” New Yorker, April 2.
Gorski, Eric. 2010. “Lobbyists Aid For-Profit College Student Group.” Huffington Post, June 14.
Greenhouse, Steven. 2005a. “Developer Drops Plan for City’s First Wal-Mart.” New York Times, February 24.
Greenhouse, Steven 2005b. “Foiled Once in City, Wal-Mart Turns on the Charm for S.I.” New York Times, August 22.
Greenhouse, Steven 2006. “Proposal to Build a Wal-Mart in Southern S.I. is Scrapped.” New York Times, August 25.
Greenhouse, Steven, and Barbaro, Michael. 2005. “Wal-Mart Memo Suggests Ways to Cut Employee Benefit Costs.” New York Times, October 26.
Greenpeace. 2008. Kleercut Action Pack. Amsterdam: Greenpeace.
Greenpeace. 2011. “Kleercut.Net: The Archive of the Greenpeace Kleercut Campaign 2004–2009.” Available: .
GSPM. 2012. “The Ethics of Grassroots Advocacy.” Available: .
Hallman, Mark. 1995. “Shares of Privatized CN Could Be on Track for a Big Spike.” Financial Post, September 9.
Hansell, Saul. 2005. “Wal-Mart Ends Online Video Rentals and Promotes Netflix.” New York Times, May 20.
Harrah’s Entertainment. 2006. “You Have the Power.” Available: . Accessed July 22, 2010.
Harris, Elizabeth A. 2011. “Wal-Mart Tries a Refined Path into New York.” New York Times, March 26, p. A1.
Heilemann, John. 2005. “Unstoppable: Think Wal-Mart is Just Going to Pack Up Its Box and Go Home? Think Again.” New York Magazine, August 15.
Heller, Laura. 2010. “Wal-Mart Winning Over Chicago.” Newstex, June 22.
Hernandez, Javier. 2011. “As it Seeks Store, Wal-Mart Gives $4 Million for Youths.” New York Times, July 6, p. A17.
Herszenhorn, David M., and Calmes, Jackie. 2010. “Tax Deal Suggests New Path for Obama.” New York Times, December 6.
Higgins, Sean. 2005. “Wal-Mart Goes to Washington to Win Friends on Capitol Hill.” Investor’s Business Daily, May 24.
Hopey, Don. 2004. “Boreal Forest.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 24, p. A-8.
Hudson, Kris. 2006. “Behind the Scenes, PR Firm Remakes Wal-Mart’s Image.” Wall Street Journal, December 7.
Internet Archive. 2011. “Wal-Mart Community Action Network.” Available: .
Jalonick, Mary C. 2003. “Consultant Q&A: Grassroots Lobbying.” Campaigns and Elections 24: 45–52.
Jang, Brent. 2007. “CN Deal Sidetracked by US Regulators.” Globe & Mail, November 28.
Jang, Brent 2008a. “CN Confident Despite Economic Turmoil.” Globe & Mail, January 23.
Jang, Brent 2008b. “US Railway Heavyweights Back CN Plan.” Globe & Mail, April 21.
Kabel, Marcus. 2005. “Pro-Wal-Mart Group Forms to Tout Company’s Benefits.” AP Worldstream, December 19.
Kabel, Marcus 2006a. “Andrew Young to Head Pro-Wal-Mart Group.” Associated Press Financial Wire, February 26.
Kabel, Marcus 2006b. “Wal-Mart Adopts Tougher Defense with New Communications Exec.” Associated Press, July 25.
Kabel, Marcus 2007. “Wal-Mart Revamps Advocacy Group in Public Relations Battle with Unions.” Associated Press, December 20.
Karkaria, Urvaksh. 2005. “Representative Calls Wal-Mart a Good Neighbor.” Florida Times-Union, December 28.
KLD Analytics. 2006. KLD Stats [Data File]. Boston, MA: KLD Research & Analytics.
KLD Analytics. 2010. “Methodology.” Available: .
Kmitch, Justin. 2008. “Residents Rise for CN Fight.” Chicago Daily Herald, July 24.
Koenig, Sarah. 2009. “Who Would Win in a Fight Between a Polar Bear and an Insurance Company?” This American Life (radio broadcast), October 10.
Komperda, Jack. 2008. “DuPage Crowd Speaks out against Rail Sale.” Chicago Daily Herald, January 18.
Krishnamurthy, Madhu. 2008. “Lake Zurich Opposes EJ&E Sale.” Chicago Daily Herald, January 22.
Kurtz, Howard. 2006. “Post Photographer Repays Group for Trip Expenses.” Washington Post, October 12.
LaFollette, Robert 1948. “Some Lobbies Are Good.” New York Times, May 16, p. SM15.
Lefkowitz, Melanie. 2011. “The Wal-Mart War.” Newsday, April 25, p. A34.
Lepore, Jill. 2012. “The Lie Factory.” New Yorker, September 24.
Lewin, Tamar. 2012. “Judge Strikes Main Element of For-Profit College Rules.” New York Times, July 2.
Lichtblau, Eric. 2011. “With Lobbying Blitz, For-Profit Colleges Diluted New Rules.” New York Times, December 9.
Malloy, Daniel. 2012. “For-Profit Schools Are at Center of Disputes.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 29.
Market News Publishing. 2005. “CN Celebrates 10th Anniversary of Privatization and IPO.” Market News Publishing, November 17.
Miller, Leslie. 2006. “Washington Post Photographer Anonymously Promoted Wal-Mart.” Associated Press, October 11.
Milyo, Jeffrey. 2010. Mowing Down the Grassroots. Arlington, VA: Institute for Justice.
Mitchell, Alison. 1998. “A New Form of Lobbying Puts Public Face on Private Interest.” New York Times, September 30, p. A1.
Mohr, Charles. 1978. “Business Using Grass-Roots Lobby.” New York Times, April 17, p. A1.
Monterey County Herald. 2011. “Editorial: Marina Coast Will Need Good PR to Justify PR Firm.” Monterey County Herald, August 11.
Mui, Ylan Q. 2007. “Wal-Mart Antagonists Set to Join Edwards.” Washington Post, July 7.
Naziri, Jessica. 2011. “Wal-Mart, Unions Reach Tentative Deal for Possible NYC Stores.”, February 3.
NCSL. 2013. “50 State Chart: Contingency Fees.” Available: .
Network Solutions. 2012. “Domain Registration for” Available: .
New York Times. 2009. “Greenpeace and Kimberly-Clark Settle Feud.” New York Times Green Blog, August 5.
Newmyer, Tory. 2007. “Efforts Intensify on House Lobby Bill.” Roll Call, February 28.
Olivo, Antonio. 2004. “Wal-Mart Wages Grass-Roots Campaign to Crack Chicago.” Chicago Tribune, May 23.
Otis, Ginger Adams, and Cahalan, Susannah. 2010. “Who’s Afraid of Wal-Mart? Brooklyn Residents Can’t Understand Why Politicians Are ‘Protecting’ Them from Jobs.” New York Post, June 27, p. 23.
Painter, Steve. 2009. “Wal-Mart Expands where it Once Wasn’t Wanted.” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, February 23.
Parks, Jessica. 2012. “‘Fracktivists’ Protest at Shale-Gas Conference in Philadelphia.” Philadelphia Inquirer, September 21.
Poole, Shelia 2006. “Wal-Mart Defender Lashes Out.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, August 24.
PR Newswire. 2006a. “Hypocrisy? Yes: Union Groups Stepped up Campaign Contributions to Maryland Legislators in Advance of Vote on Anti-Wal-Mart Legislation, Says Working Families for Wal-Mart.” PR Newswire, February 14.
PR Newswire.2006b. “Working Families for Wal-Mart Announces Michigan Steering Committee.” PR Newswire, July 7.
PR Newswire.2006c. “Community Leaders Form California Steering Committee of Working Families for Wal-Mart.” PR Newswire, August 10.
PR Newswire.2006d. “Community Leaders in Ohio Form Local Working Families for Wal-Mart Steering Committee.” PR Newswire, September 29.
PR Newswire.2006e. “Community Leaders in Indiana Form Local Working Families for Wal-Mart Steering Committee.” PR Newswire, November 1.
PR Newswire.2006f. “Wal-Mart Begins Voter Education to Its 18,000 Iowa Associates.” PR Newswire, August 15.
PR Newswire.2006g. “ Statement on the Resignation of Ambassador Andrew Young.” PR Newswire, August 18.
PR Newswire.2006h. “Sen. John Kerry and Congresswoman DeLaura Respond to Wal-Mart Front Group’s Attacks Referring to Democrats as Hezbollah.” PR Newswire, August 23.
PR Newswire.2006i. “Working Families for Wal-Mart Launches Wal-Marting Across America RV Tour.” PR Newswire, September 29.
PR Newswire.2009. “Wal-Mart Watch Joins to Hold America’s Largest Private Employer Accountable for Promises Made.” PR Newswire, July 31.
PR Newswire.2011. “Gotham Government Relations Continues to Fight NYC Wal-Mart Invasion; Forms Anti-Wal-Mart Group: New York Neighborhood Alliance.” PR Newswire, February 2.
PriceWaterhouseCoopers 2009. Global Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry Survey: 2009 Edition – Survey of 2008 Results. New York: PriceWaterhouseCoopers.
Public Affairs Council. 1998. “Public Affairs: Its Origin, Its Present, and Its Trends.” Available: . Accessed July 22, 2010.
Public Affairs Council. 2008. Grassroots Benchmarking Report. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Council.
Public Affairs Council. 2010a. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Available . Accessed January 10, 2010.
Public Affairs Council. 2010b. “2010 Grassroots Innovation Award Winners.” Available: .
Public Affairs Council. 2012. O Momento Mágico: Managing Public Affairs in Brazil. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Council.
Pyke, Marni. 2008a. “Forums Begin on Railway Purchase.” Chicago Daily Herald, January 9.
Pyke, Marni 2008b. “Transportation Department Wants CN Merger Decision.” Chicago Daily Herald, October 31.
Pyke, Marni 2008c. “CN Gets Positive Report.” Chicago Daily Herald, December 6.
Rubin, Daniel. 2006. “Marketing Ploy for Wal-Mart Gets Egg on PR Firm’s Smiley Face.” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 21.
Sager, Ryan. 2009. “Keep off the Astroturf.” New York Times, August 18.
Sanchez, Samantha. 2001. “How the West is Won: Astroturf Lobbying and the Wise Use Movement.” American Prospect, November 19.
Saporta, Maria. 2006. “Young Goes to Bat for Embattled Wal-Mart.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, February 26.
SBPA. 2010. “No Tax Deal with Obama.” Available: .
SBPA. 2011a. “‘Reset Act’ Gains Steam on Capitol Hill as Anniversary Draws Near.” Available: .
SBPA. 2011b. “Let Freedom Ring.” Available: .
SBPA. 2011c. “Club for Growth.” Available: .
Selvam, Ashok. 2008. “EJ&E Plan a Tough Sell for This Crowd.” Chicago Daily Herald, January 29.
Showalter, Amy, and Rhoads, Kelton. 2010. “Mistrust Unavoidable in Grassroots Efforts.” Roll Call, May 11.
Silvestri, Peter. 2008. “Letter to the Editor: We Are All in This Together.” Edison-Norwood Times Review, July 10.
Snyder, Jim. 2009. “Firm Knew Its Climate Letters Were Fakes.” The Hill, October 30.
Snyder, Jim, and Brush, Silla. 2009. “Employees Become Lobbyists.” The Hill, October 28.
Spence, Timothy. 2005. “Wal-Mart Foes Take Union Fight Online.” The Gazette, April 24.
States News Service. 2008a. “Durbin Asks STB to Take a Close Look at Impact of Pending EJ&E Sale on Rail Service.” States News Service, February 15.
States News Service.2008b. “Biggert Urges Caution on EJ&E Merger.” States News Service, February 18.
States News Service.2008c. “Forest District Comes Out Swinging against Railway Purchase.” States News Service, March 4.
States News Service.2008d. “Durbin, Bean: STB Should Reject CN Fast-Track.” States News Service, May 16.
States News Service.2008e. “Durbin Statement on Proposed Canadian National Acquisition Draft Environmental Report.” States News Service, July 25.
States News Service.2008f. “US Rep. Judy Biggert Reacts to House Vote on Bill to Restrict Rail Mergers Like CN–EJ&E.” States News Service, September 27.
States News Service.2008g. “US Rep. Judy Biggert Reacts to STB Decision on CN–EJ&E Rail Merger.” States News Service, December 24.
States News Service.2010. “Students Rally for Their Education Rights.” States News Service, September 29.
Stone, Peter H. 1994. “Learning from Nader.” National Journal, June 11, pp. 1342–1344.
Students for Academic Choice. 2011. “Student Statement of Support.” Available: .
Students for Academic Choice. 2012. “Mission Statement.” Available: .
Surface Transportation Board. 2008. “Decision: STB Finance Docket No. 350817. Canadian National Railway Company and Grand Trunk Corporation – Control – EJ&E West Company.” Available: .
Thompson, Ginger, and Lipton, Eric. 2010. “Lobbyist’s Client List Puts Him on the Defensive.” New York Times, December 30.
Tita, Bob. 2007. “Rail Deal Offers City a Remedy.” Crain’s Chicago Business, September 10.
Wal-Mart. 2011a. “Community Action Network.” Available: .
Wal-Mart. 2011b. “New York Walmart – New Yorkers Comment in Favor of Walmart.” Available: .
Wal-Mart. 2011c. “Rally at City Hall.” Available: .
Woodberry, Warren. 2005. “Wal-Mart Opens Doors on PR Blitz.” New York Daily News, August 3, p. 4.
Zimmerman, Ann. 2006. “Wal-Mart’s Enemies Bicker with Each Other.”Wall Street Journal, January 11.