Skip to main content Accessibility help
Imaging Dopamine
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Since its discovery 50 years ago, brain dopamine has been implicated in the control of movement and cognition, and is concerned with diverse brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. This book is an illustrated biography of the dopamine molecule, from its synthesis in the brain to its signalling mechanisms and ultimately to its metabolic breakdown. Using colour illustrations of positron emission tomography (PET) scans, each chapter presents a specific stage in the biochemical pathway for dopamine. Writing for researchers and graduate students, Paul Cumming presents a compilation of all that has been learned about dopamine through molecular imaging, a technology which allows the measurement of formerly invisible processes in the living brain. He reviews current technical controversies in the interpretation of dopamine imaging, and presents key results illuminating brain dopamine in illness and health.

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Aalto, S., Hirvonen, J., Kajander, J., Scheinin, H., Nagren, K., Vilkman, H., Gustafsson, L., Syvalahti, E., & Hietala, J. 2002, “Ketamine does not decrease striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in man”, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 401–406.
Abdolmaleky, H. M., Cheng, K. H., Faraone, S. V., Wilcox, M., Glatt, S. J., Gao, F., Smith, C. L., Shafa, R., Aeali, B., Carnevale, J., Pan, H., Papageorgis, P., Ponte, J. F., Sivaraman, V., Tsuang, M. T., & Thiagalingam, S. 2006, “Hypomethylation of MB-COMT promoter is a major risk factor for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder”, Hum. Mol. Genet., vol. 15, no. 21, pp. 3132–3145.
Abe, K., Hosoi, R., Momosaki, S., Kobayashi, K., Ibii, N., & Inoue, O. 2002, “Increment of in vivo binding of [3H]SCH 23390, a dopamine D1 receptor ligand, induced by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in rat brain”, Brain Res., vol. 952, no. 2, pp. 211–217.
Abi-Dargham, A., Gandelman, M. S., DeErausquin, G. A., Zea-Ponce, Y., Zoghbi, S. S., Baldwin, R. M., Laruelle, M., Charney, D. S., Hoffer, P. B., Neumeyer, J. L., & Innis, R. B. 1996, “SPECT imaging of dopamine transporters in human brain with iodine-123-fluoroalkyl analogs of beta-CIT”, J. Nucl. Med., vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1129–1133.
Abi-Dargham, A., Kegeles, L. S., Zea-Ponce, Y., Mawlawi, O., Martinez, D., Mitropoulou, V., O'Flynn, K., Koenigsberg, H. W., Heertum, R., Cooper, T., Laruelle, M., & Siever, L. J. 2004, “Striatal amphetamine-induced dopamine release in patients with schizotypal personality disorder studied with single photon emission computed tomography and [123I]iodobenzamide”, Biol.Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1001–1006.
Abi-Dargham, A., Mawlawi, O., Lombardo, I., Gil, R., Martinez, D., Huang, Y., Hwang, D. R., Keilp, J., Kochan, L., Heertum, R., Gorman, J. M., & Laruelle, M. 2002, “Prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors and working memory in schizophrenia”, J. Neurosci., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 3708–3719.
Abi-Dargham, A., Rodenhiser, J., Printz, D., Zea-Ponce, Y., Gil, R., Kegeles, L. S., Weiss, R., Cooper, T. B., Mann, J. J., Heertum, R. L., Gorman, J. M., & Laruelle, M. 2000, “Increased baseline occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 97, no. 14, pp. 8104–8109.
Abi-Dargham, A., Simpson, N., Kegeles, L., Parsey, R., Hwang, D. R., Anjilvel, S., Zea-Ponce, Y., Lombardo, I., Heertum, R., Mann, J. J., Foged, C., Halldin, C., & Laruelle, M. 1999, “PET studies of binding competition between endogenous dopamine and the D1 radiotracer [11C]NNC 756”, Synapse, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 93–109.
Adams, F., Schwarting, R. K., Boix, F., & Huston, J. P. 1991, “Lateralized changes in behavior and striatal dopamine release following unilateral tactile stimulation of the perioral region: a microdialysis study”, Brain Res., vol. 553, no. 2, pp. 318–322.
Adams, J. R., Netten, N. H., Schulzer, M., Mak, E., Mckenzie, J., Strongosky, A., Sossi, V., Ruth, T. J., Lee, C. S., Farrer, M., Gasser, T., Uitti, R. J., Calne, D. B., Wszolek, Z. K., & Stoessl, A. J. 2005, “PET in LRRK2 mutations: comparison to sporadic Parkinson's disease and evidence for presymptomatic compensation”, Brain, vol. 128 (Pt 12), pp. 2777–2785.
Adell, A. & Myers, R. D. 1995, “Synthesis of dopamine and 5-HT in anatomical regions of the rat's brain is unaffected by sustained infusion of amperozide”, Pharmacol. Toxicol., vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 341–345.
Agnati, L. F., Ferre, S., Burioni, R., Woods, A., Genedani, S., Franco, R., & Fuxe, K. 2005, “Existence and theoretical aspects of homomeric and heteromeric dopamine receptor complexes and their relevance for neurological diseases”, Neuromolecular. Med., vol. 7, no. 1–2, pp. 61–78.
Ahlenius, S., Ericson, E., & Wijkstrom, A. 1993, “Stimulation of brain dopamine autoreceptors by remoxipride administration in reserpine-treated male rats”, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 237–239.
Ahlenius, S. & Salmi, P. 1994, “Behavioral and biochemical effects of the dopamine D3 receptor-selective ligand, 7-OH-DPAT, in the normal and the reserpine-treated rat”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 260, no. 2–3, pp. 177–181.
Ahnert-Hilger, G., Nurnberg, B., Exner, T., Schafer, T., & Jahn, R. 1998, “The heterotrimeric G protein Go2 regulates catecholamine uptake by secretory vesicles”, EMBO J., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 406–413.
Aiso, M., Shigematsu, K., Kebabian, J. W., Potter, W. Z., Cruciani, R. A., & Saavedra, J. M. 1987, “Dopamine D1 receptor in rat brain: a quantitative autoradiographic study with 125I-SCH 23982”, Brain Res., vol. 408, no. 1–2, pp. 281–285.
Albert, K. A., Helmer-Matyjek, E., Nairn, A. C., Muller, T. H., Haycock, J. W., Greene, L. A., Goldstein, M., & Greengard, P. 1984, “Calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) phosphorylates and activates tyrosine hydroxylase”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 81, no. 24, pp. 7713–7717.
Albert, K. A., Hemmings, H. C.., Adamo, A. I., Potkin, S. G., Akbarian, S., Sandman, C. A., Cotman, C. W., Bunney, W. E.., & Greengard, P. 2002, “Evidence for decreased DARPP-32 in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia”, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 705–712.
Albert, P. R., Neve, K. A., Bunzow, J. R., & Civelli, O. 1990, “Coupling of a cloned rat dopamine-D2 receptor to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and prolactin secretion”, J. Biol. Chem., vol. 265, no. 4, pp. 2098–2104.
Albert, V. R., Allen, J. M., & Joh, T. H. 1987, “A single gene codes for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues”, J. Biol. Chem., vol. 262, no. 19, pp. 9404–9411.
Albert, V. R., Lee, M. R., Bolden, A. H., Wurzburger, R. J., & Aguanno, A. 1992, “Distinct promoters direct neuronal and nonneuronal expression of rat aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 89, no. 24, pp. 12053–12057.
Albin, R. L., Koeppe, R. A., Bohnen, N. I., Nichols, T. E., Meyer, P., Wernette, K., Minoshima, S., Kilbourn, M. R., & Frey, K. A. 2003, “Increased ventral striatal monoaminergic innervation in Tourette syndrome”, Neurology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 310–315.
Alexander, G. E. & Crutcher, M. D. 1990, “Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing”, Trends Neurosci., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 266–271.
Alia-Klein, N., Goldstein, R. Z., Kriplani, A., Logan, J., Tomasi, D., Williams, B., Telang, F., Shumay, E., Biegon, A., Craig, I. W., Henn, F., Wang, G. J., Volkow, N. D., & Fowler, J. S. 2008, “Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression”, J. Neurosci., vol. 28, no. 19, pp. 5099–5104.
Almas, B., Bourdelles, B., Flatmark, T., Mallet, J., & Haavik, J. 1992, “Regulation of recombinant human tyrosine hydroxylase isozymes by catecholamine binding and phosphorylation. Structure/activity studies and mechanistic implications”, Eur. J. Biochem., vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 249–255.
Altar, C. A. & Marien, M. R. 1987, “Picomolar affinity of 125I-SCH 23982 for D1 receptors in brain demonstrated with digital subtraction autoradiography”, J. Neurosci., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 213–222.
Amsterdam, J. D. & Newberg, A. B. 2007, “A preliminary study of dopamine transporter binding in bipolar and unipolar depressed patients and healthy controls”, Neuropsychobiology, vol. 55, no. 3–4, pp. 167–170.
Anand, A., Verhoeff, P., Seneca, N., Zoghbi, S. S., Seibyl, J. P., Charney, D. S., & Innis, R. B. 2000, “Brain SPECT imaging of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in euthymic bipolar disorder patients”, Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 7, pp. 1108–1114.
Anastasiadis, P. Z., Kuhn, D. M., & Levine, R. A. 1994, “Tetrahydrobiopterin uptake into rat brain synaptosomes, cultured PC12 cells, and rat striatum”, Brain Res., vol. 665, no. 1, pp. 77–84.
Anden, N. E., Rubenson, A., Fuxe, K., & Hokfelt, T. 1967, “Evidence for dopamine receptor stimulation by apomorphine”, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 627–629.
Andersen, P. H. & Braestrup, C. 1986, “Evidence for different states of the dopamine D1 receptor: clozapine and fluperlapine may preferentially label an adenylate cyclase-coupled state of the D1 receptor”, J. Neurochem., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1822–1831.
Andrews, T. C., Weeks, R. A., Turjanski, N., Gunn, R. N., Watkins, L. H., Sahakian, B., Hodges, J. R., Rosser, A. E., Wood, N. W., & Brooks, D. J. 1999, “Huntington's disease progression. PET and clinical observations”, Brain, vol. 122 (Pt 12), pp. 2353–2363.
Anstrom, K. K. & Woodward, D. J. 2005, “Restraint increases dopaminergic burst firing in awake rats”, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1832–1840.
Antonini, A., Leenders, K. L., Reist, H., Thomann, R., Beer, H. F., & Locher, J. 1993, “Effect of age on D2 dopamine receptors in normal human brain measured by positron emission tomography and 11C-raclopride”, Arch. Neurol., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 474–480.
Antonini, A., Schwarz, J., Oertel, W. H., Beer, H. F., Madeja, U. D., & Leenders, K. L. 1994, “[11C]raclopride and positron emission tomography in previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease: influence of L-dopa and lisuride therapy on striatal dopamine D2-receptors”, Neurology, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1325–1329.
Antonini, A., Schwarz, J., Oertel, W. H., Pogarell, O., & Leenders, K. L. 1997, “Long-term changes of striatal dopamine D2 receptors in patients with Parkinson's disease: a study with positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride”, Mov. Disord., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 33–38.
Apud, J. A. & Weinberger, D. R. 2007, “Treatment of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia: potential role of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors”, CNS Drugs, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 535–557.
Arai, R., Karasawa, N., Geffard, M., Nagatsu, T., & Nagatsu, I. 1994, “Immunohistochemical evidence that central serotonin neurons produce dopamine from exogenous L-DOPA in the rat, with reference to the involvement of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase”, Brain Res., vol. 667, no. 2, pp. 295–299.
Arai, R., Kimura, H., & Maeda, T. 1986, “Topographic atlas of monoamine oxidase-containing neurons in the rat brain studied by an improved histochemical method”, Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 905–925.
Araki, T., Tanji, H., Kato, H., Imai, Y., Mizugaki, M., & Itoyama, Y. 2000, “Temporal changes of dopaminergic and glutamatergic receptors in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rat brain”, Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 365–375.
Ariano, M. A., Sortwell, C. E., Ray, M., Altemus, K. L., Sibley, D. R., & Levine, M. S. 1997, “Agonist-induced morphologic decrease in cellular D1A dopamine receptor staining”, Synapse, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 313–321.
Arias-Montano, J. A., Martinez-Fong, D., & Aceves, J. 1991, “Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAB) receptor-mediated inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the striatum of rat”, Neuropharmacology, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1047–1051.
Arias-Montano, J. A., Martinez-Fong, D., & Aceves, J. 1992, “GABAB receptor activation partially inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated tyrosine hydroxylase stimulation in rat striatal slices”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 218, no. 2–3, pp. 335–338.
Arnett, C. D., Fowler, J. S., MacGregor, R. R., Schlyer, D. J., Wolf, A. P., Langstrom, B., & Halldin, C. 1987, “Turnover of brain monoamine oxidase measured in vivo by positron emission tomography using L-[11C]deprenyl”, J. Neurochem., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 522–527.
Asanuma, K., Ma, Y., Okulski, J., Dhawan, V., Chaly, T., Carbon, M., Bressman, S. B., & Eidelberg, D. 2005, “Decreased striatal D2 receptor binding in non-manifesting carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation”, Neurology, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 347–349.
Asselin, M. C., Montgomery, A. J., Grasby, P. M., & Hume, S. P. 2007, “Quantification of PET studies with the very high-affinity dopamine D2/D3 receptor ligand [11C]FLB 457: re-evaluation of the validity of using a cerebellar reference region”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 378–392.
Atkinson, J., Richtand, N., Schworer, C., Kuczenski, R., & Soderling, T. 1987, “Phosphorylation of purified rat striatal tyrosine hydroxylase by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: effect of an activator protein”, J. Neurochem., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1241–1249.
Atsumi, M., Kawakami, J., Sugiyama, E., Kotaki, H., Sawada, Y., Sato, H., Yamada, Y., & Iga, T. 2003, “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses, based on dopamine D2-receptor occupancy of bromocriptine, of bromocriptine-induced contralateral rotations in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats”, Synapse, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 110–116.
Aubert, I., Ghorayeb, I., Normand, E., & Bloch, B. 2000, “Phenotypical characterization of the neurons expressing the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the monkey striatum”, J. Comp. Neurol., vol. 418, no. 1, pp. 22–32.
Axelrod, J. & Tomchick, R. 1958, “Enzymatic O-methylation of epinephrine and other catechols”, J. Biol. Chem., vol. 233, no. 3, pp. 702–705.
Azzaro, A. J., King, J., Kotzuk, J., Schoepp, D. D., Frost, J., & Schochet, S. 1985, “Guinea pig striatum as a model of human dopamine deamination: the role of monoamine oxidase isozyme ratio, localization, and affinity for substrate in synaptic dopamine metabolism”, J. Neurochem., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 949–956.
Bach, A. W., Lan, N. C., Johnson, D. L., Abell, C. W., Bembenek, M. E., Kwan, S. W., Seeburg, P. H., & Shih, J. C. 1988, “cDNA cloning of human liver monoamine oxidase A and B: molecular basis of differences in enzymatic properties”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 85, no. 13, pp. 4934–4938.
Backman, L., Ginovart, N., Dixon, R. A., Wahlin, T. B., Wahlin, A., Halldin, C., & Farde, L. 2000, “Age-related cognitive deficits mediated by changes in the striatal dopamine system”, Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 635–637.
Badgaiyan, R. D., Fischman, A. J., & Alpert, N. M. 2003, “Striatal dopamine release during unrewarded motor task in human volunteers”, Neuroreport, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1421–1424.
Badgaiyan, R. D., Fischman, A. J., & Alpert, N. M. 2007, “Striatal dopamine release in sequential learning”, Neuroimage, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 549–556.
Badgaiyan, R. D., Fischman, A. J., & Alpert, N. M. 2008, “Explicit motor memory activates the striatal dopamine system”, Neuroreport, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 409–412.
Ballesteros, J., Maeztu, A. I., Callado, L. F., Meana, J. J., & Gutiérrez, M. 2008, “Specific binding of [3H]Ro 19-6327 (lazabemide) to monoamine oxidase B is increased in frontal cortex of suicide victims after controlling for age at death”, Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 55–61.
Bancroft, G. N., Morgan, K. A., Flietstra, R. J., & Levant, B. 1998, “Binding of [3H]PD 128907, a putatively selective ligand for the D3 dopamine receptor, in rat brain: a receptor binding and quantitative autoradiographic study”, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 305–316.
Bannon, M. J. & Roth, R. H. 1983, “Pharmacology of mesocortical dopamine neurons”, Pharmacol. Rev., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 53–68.
Bantick, R. A., Vries, M. H., & Grasby, P. M. 2005, “The effect of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist on striatal dopamine release”, Synapse, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 67–75.
Baran, H. & Jellinger, K. 1992, “Human brain phenolsulfotransferase. Regional distribution in Parkinson's disease”, J. Neural. Transm. Park. Dis. Dement. Sect., vol. 4, pp. 267–276.
Barbeau, A., Sourkes, T. L., & Murphy, G. F. 1962, “[Les catécholamines dans la maladie to Parkinson],” in Monoamines et système nerveux central, Ajuriaguerra, J., ed., Georg & Cie SA, Geneva, pp. 247–262.
Barbier, P., Colelli, A., Maggio, R., Bravi, D., & Corsini, G. U. 1997, “Pergolide binds tightly to dopamine D2 short receptors and induces receptor sequestration”, J. Neural. Transm., vol. 104, no. 8–9, pp. 867–874.
Barnes, J. M., Barnes, N. M., Costall, B., & Naylor, R. J. 1990, “The actions of (-)N-n-propylnorapomorphine and selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists to modify the release of [3H]dopamine from the rat nucleus accumbens”, Neuropharmacology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 327–336.
Baron, J. C., Maziere, B., Loc'h, C., Cambon, H., Sgouropoulos, P., Bonnet, A. M., & Agid, Y. 1986, “Loss of striatal [76Br]bromospiperone binding sites demonstrated by positron tomography in progressive supranuclear palsy”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 131–136.
Barrett, S. P., Boileau, I., Okker, J., Pihl, R. O., & Dagher, A. 2004, “The hedonic response to cigarette smoking is proportional to dopamine release in the human striatum as measured by positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride”, Synapse, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 65–71.
Barrio, J. R., Huang, S. C., & Phelps, M. E. 1997, “Biological imaging and the molecular basis of dopaminergic diseases”, Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 341–348.
Bart, J., Willemsen, A. T., Groen, H. J., Graaf, W. T., Wegman, T. D., Vaalburg, W., Vries, E. G., & Hendrikse, N. H. 2003, “Quantitative assessment of P-glycoprotein function in the rat blood-brain barrier by distribution volume of [11C]verapamil measured with PET”, Neuroimage, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1775–1782.
Baumann, M. H., Raley, T. J., Partilla, J. S., & Rothman, R. B. 1993, “Biosynthesis of dopamine and serotonin in the rat brain after repeated cocaine injections: a microdissection mapping study”, Synapse, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 40–50.
Bean, A. J., Shepard, P. D., Bunney, B. S., Nestler, E. J., & Roth, R. H. 1988, “The effects of pertussis toxin on autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum”, Mol. Pharmacol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 715–718.
Bench, C. J., Price, G. W., Lammertsma, A. A., Cremer, J. C., Luthra, S. K., Turton, D., Dolan, R. J., Kettler, R., Dingemanse, J., Da Prada, M., et al. 1991, “Measurement of human cerebral monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity with positron emission tomography (PET): a dose ranging study with the reversible inhibitor Ro 19-6327”, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 169–173.
Bendayan, R., Ronaldson, P. T., Gingras, D., & Bendayan, M. 2006, “In situ localization of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in human and rat brain”, J. Histochem. Cytochem., vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1159–1167.
Bennett, B. A. & Freed, C. R. 1986, “Mobilization of storage pool dopamine and late ipsilateral augmentation of striatal dopamine synthesis in the trained circling rat”, J. Neurochem., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 472–476.
Benveniste, H., Hansen, A. J., & Ottosen, N. S. 1989, “Determination of brain interstitial concentrations by microdialysis”, J. Neurochem., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1741–1750.
Benwell, M. E. & Balfour, D. J. 1992, “The effects of acute and repeated nicotine treatment on nucleus accumbens dopamine and locomotor activity”, Br. J. Pharmacol., vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 849–856.
Berding, G., Brucke, T., Odin, P., Brooks, D. J., Kolbe, H., Gielow, P., Harke, H., Knoop, B. O., Dengler, R., & Knapp, W. H. 2003, “[123I]beta-CIT SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy”, Nuklearmedizin, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 31–38.
Bergstrom, M., Kumlien, E., Lilja, A., Tyrefors, N., Westerberg, G., & Langstrom, B. 1998, “Temporal lobe epilepsy visualized with PET with 11C-L-deuterium-deprenyl – analysis of kinetic data”, Acta Neurol. Scand., vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 224–231.
Bergstrom, M., Westerberg, G., & Langstrom, B. 1997, “11C-harmine as a tracer for monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A): in vitro and in vivo studies”, Nucl. Med. Biol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 287–293.
Bergstrom, M., Westerberg, G., Nemeth, G., Traut, M., Gross, G., Greger, G., Muller-Peltzer, H., Safer, A., Eckernas, S. A., Grahner, A., & Langstrom, B. 1997, “MAO-A inhibition in brain after dosing with esuprone, moclobemide and placebo in healthy volunteers: in vivo studies with positron emission tomography”, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 121–128.
Berretta, S., Sachs, Z., & Graybiel, A. M. 1999, “Cortically driven Fos induction in the striatum is amplified by local dopamine D2-class receptor blockade”, Eur. J. Neurosci., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 4309–4319.
Best, S. E., Sarrel, P. M., Malison, R. T., Laruelle, M., Zoghbi, S. S., Baldwin, R. M., Seibyl, J. P., Innis, R. B., & Dyck, C. H. 2005, “Striatal dopamine transporter availability with [123I]beta-CIT SPECT is unrelated to gender or menstrual cycle”, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 181–189.
Bezin, L., Marcel, D., Garcia, C., Blum, D., Lafargue, P., Lellouche, J. P., Pujol, J. F., & Weissmann, D. 2000, “In situ examination of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the rat locus coeruleus using (3',5')-[(3)H(2)]-alpha-fluoromethyl-tyrosine as substrate of the enzyme”, Synapse, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 201–211.
Bibb, J. A., Snyder, G. L., Nishi, A., Yan, Z., Meijer, L., Fienberg, A. A., Tsai, L. H., Kwon, Y. T., Girault, J. A., Czernik, A. J., Huganir, R. L., Hemmings, H. C.., Nairn, A. C., & Greengard, P. 1999, “Phosphorylation of DARPP-32 by Cdk5 modulates dopamine signalling in neurons”, Nature, vol. 402, no. 6762, pp. 669–671.
Birrell, C. E. & Balfour, D. J. 1998, “The influence of nicotine pretreatment on mesoaccumbens dopamine overflow and locomotor responses to D-amphetamine”, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 142–149.
Biswas, B. & Carlsson, A. 1978, “On the mode of action of diazepam on brain catecholamine metabolism”, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol., vol. 303, no. 1, pp. 73–78.
Blennow, K., Wallin, A., Gottfries, C. G., Karlsson, I., Mansson, J. E., Skoog, I., Wikkelso, C., & Svennerholm, L. 1993, “Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in 114 healthy individuals 18–88 years of age”, Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 55–61.
Blomqvist, O., Engel, J. A., Nissbrandt, H., & Soderpalm, B. 1993, “The mesolimbic dopamine-activating properties of ethanol are antagonized by mecamylamine”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 249, no. 2, pp. 207–213.
Bohnen, N. I., Albin, R. L., Frey, K. A., & Fink, J. K. 1999, “(+)-alpha-[11C]dihydrotetrabenazine PET imaging in familial paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis”, Neurology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1067–1069.
Bohnen, N. I., Albin, R. L., Koeppe, R. A., Wernette, K. A., Kilbourn, M. R., Minoshima, S., & Frey, K. A. 2006, “Positron emission tomography of monoaminergic vesicular binding in aging and Parkinson disease”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1198–1212.
Bohnen, N. I., Koeppe, R. A., Meyer, P., Ficaro, E., Wernette, K., Kilbourn, M. R., Kuhl, D. E., Frey, K. A., & Albin, R. L. 2000, “Decreased striatal monoaminergic terminals in Huntington disease”, Neurology, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1753–1759.
Bohnen, N. I., Kuwabara, H., Constantine, G. M., Mathis, C. A., & Moore, R. Y. 2007, “Grooved pegboard test as a biomarker of nigrostriatal denervation in Parkinson's disease”, Neurosci. Lett., vol. 424, no. 3, pp. 185–189.
Boileau, I., Assaad, J. M., Pihl, R. O., Benkelfat, C., Leyton, M., Diksic, M., Tremblay, R. E., & Dagher, A. 2003, “Alcohol promotes dopamine release in the human nucleus accumbens”, Synapse, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 226–231.
Boileau, I., Dagher, A., Leyton, M., Gunn, R. N., Baker, G. B., Diksic, M., & Benkelfat, C. 2006, “Modeling sensitization to stimulants in humans: an [11C]raclopride/positron emission tomography study in healthy men”, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 1386–1395.
Boileau, I., Dagher, A., Leyton, M., Welfeld, K., Booij, L., Diksic, M., & Benkelfat, C. 2007, “Conditioned dopamine release in humans: a positron emission tomography [11C]raclopride study with amphetamine”, J. Neurosci., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3998–4003.
Booij, J., Bergmans, P., Winogrodzka, A., Speelman, J. D., & Wolters, E. C. 2001, “Imaging of dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT SPECT does not suggest a significant effect of age on the symptomatic threshold of disease in Parkinson's disease”, Synapse, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 101–108.
Booij, J., Bruin, K., & Gunning, W. B. 2006, “Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study”, Nucl. Med. Biol., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 409–411.
Booij, J., Jong, J., Bruin, K., Knol, R., Win, M. M., & Eck-Smit, B. L. 2007, “Quantification of striatal dopamine transporters with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT is influenced by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy control subjects”, J. Nucl. Med., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 359–366.
Borbely, K., Brooks, R. A., Wong, D. F., Burns, R. S., Cumming, P., Gjedde, A., & Di, C. G. 1999, “NMSP binding to dopamine and serotonin receptors in MPTP-induced parkinsonism: relation to dopa therapy”, Acta Neurol. Scand., vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 42–52.
Borghammer, P., Kumakura, Y., & Cumming, P. 2005, “Fluorodopa F 18 positron emission tomography and the progression of Parkinson disease”, Arch. Neurol., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 1480–1481.
Bottlaender, M., Dolle, F., Guenther, I., Roumenov, D., Fuseau, C., Bramoulle, Y., Curet, O., Jegham, J., Pinquier, J. L., George, P., & Valette, H. 2003, “Mapping the cerebral monoamine oxidase type A: positron emission tomography characterization of the reversible selective inhibitor [11C]befloxatone”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 305, no. 2, pp. 467–473.
Bouchard, S. & Roberge, A. G. 1979, “Biochemical properties and kinetic parameters of dihydroxyphenylalanine – 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase in brain, liver, and adrenals of cat”, Can. J. Biochem., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1014–1018.
Boulton, A. A. & Juorio, A. V. 1983, “Cerebral decarboxylation of meta- and para-tyrosine”, Experientia, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 130–134.
Bouthenet, M. L., Souil, E., Martres, M. P., Sokoloff, P., Giros, B., & Schwartz, J. C. 1991, “Localization of dopamine D3 receptor mRNA in the rat brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry: comparison with dopamine D2 receptor mRNA”, Brain Res., vol. 564, no. 2, pp. 203–219.
Bowers, M. B.., Heninger, G. R., & Gerbode, F. 1969, “Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in psychiatric patients”, Int. J. Neuropharmacol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 255–262.
Boyes, B. E., Cumming, P., Martin, W. R., & McGeer, E. G. 1986, “Determination of plasma [18F]-6-fluorodopa during positron emission tomography: elimination and metabolism in carbidopa treated subjects”, Life Sci., vol. 39, no. 23, pp. 2243–2252.
Bracha, H. S., Seitz, D. J., Otemaa, J., & Glick, S. D. 1987, “Rotational movement (circling) in normal humans: sex difference and relationship to hand, foot and eye preference”, Brain Res., vol. 411, no. 2, pp. 231–235.
Brake, W. G., Zhang, T. Y., Diorio, J., Meaney, M. J., & Gratton, A. 2004, “Influence of early postnatal rearing conditions on mesocorticolimbic dopamine and behavioural responses to psychostimulants and stressors in adult rats”, Eur. J. Neurosci., vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1863–1874.
Breier, A., Kestler, L., Adler, C., Elman, I., Wiesenfeld, N., Malhotra, A., & Pickar, D. 1998, “Dopamine D2 receptor density and personal detachment in healthy subjects”, Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 10, pp. 1440–1442.
Breier, A., Su, T. P., Saunders, R., Carson, R. E., Kolachana, B. S., Bartolomeis, A., Weinberger, D. R., Weisenfeld, N., Malhotra, A. K., Eckelman, W. C., & Pickar, D. 1997, “Schizophrenia is associated with elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations: evidence from a novel positron emission tomography method”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 2569–2574.
Bressan, R. A., Erlandsson, K., Jones, H. M., Mulligan, R., Flanagan, R. J., Ell, P. J., & Pilowsky, L. S. 2003, “Is regionally selective D2/D3 dopamine occupancy sufficient for atypical antipsychotic effect? An in vivo quantitative [123I]epidepride SPET study of amisulpride-treated patients”, Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 8, pp. 1413–1420.
Brodie, B. B., Costa, E., Dlabac, A., Neff, N. H., & Smookler, H. H. 1966, “Application of steady state kinetics to the estimation of synthesis rate and turnover time of tissue catecholamines”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 493–498.
Brody, A. L., Mandelkern, M. A., Olmstead, R. E., Allen-Martinez, Z., Scheibal, D., Abrams, A. L., Costello, M. R., Farahi, J., Saxena, S., Monterosso, J., & London, E. D. 2008, “Ventral striatal dopamine release in response to smoking a regular vs a denicotinized cigarette”, Neuropsychopharmacology [Epub ahead of print].
Brody, A. L., Mandelkern, M. A., Olmstead, R. E., Scheibal, D., Hahn, E., Shiraga, S., Zamora-Paja, E., Farahi, J., Saxena, S., London, E. D., & McCracken, J. T. 2006, “Gene variants of brain dopamine pathways and smoking-induced dopamine release in the ventral caudate/nucleus accumbens”, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 808–816.
Brody, A. L., Olmstead, R. E., London, E. D., Farahi, J., Meyer, J. H., Grossman, P., Lee, G. S., Huang, J., Hahn, E. L., & Mandelkern, M. A. 2004, “Smoking-induced ventral striatum dopamine release”, Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 7, pp. 1211–1218.
Broussolle, E., Dentresangle, C., Landais, P., Garcia-Larrea, L., Pollak, P., Croisile, B., Hibert, O., Bonnefoi, F., Galy, G., Froment, J. C., & Comar, D. 1999, “The relation of putamen and caudate nucleus 18F-Dopa uptake to motor and cognitive performances in Parkinson's disease”, J. Neurol. Sci., vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 141–151.
Brown, E. E., Damsma, G., Cumming, P., & Fibiger, H. C. 1991, “Interstitial 3-methoxytyramine reflects striatal dopamine release: an in vivo microdialysis study”, J. Neurochem., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 701–707.
Brown, W. D., DeJesus, O. T., Pyzalski, R. W., Malischke, L., Roberts, A. D., Shelton, S. E., Uno, H., Houser, W. D., Nickles, R. J., & Holden, J. E. 1999, “Localization of trapping of 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, an aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase tracer for PET”, Synapse, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 111–123.
Bruck, A., Aalto, S., Nurmi, E., Bergman, J., & Rinne, J. O. 2005, “Cortical 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa uptake and frontal cognitive functions in early Parkinson's disease”, Neurobiol. Aging, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 891–898.
Bruck, A., Aalto, S., Nurmi, E., Vahlberg, T., Bergman, J., & Rinne, J. O. 2006, “Striatal subregional 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa uptake in early Parkinson's disease: a two-year follow-up study”, Mov. Disord., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 958–963.
Brunswick, D. J., Amsterdam, J. D., Mozley, P. D., & Newberg, A. 2003, “Greater availability of brain dopamine transporters in major depression shown by [99m Tc]TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging”, Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 10, pp. 1836–1841.
Buckland, P. R., Spurlock, G., & McGuffin, P. 1996, “Amphetamine and vigabatrin down regulate aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA levels”, Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., vol. 35, no. 1–2, pp. 69–76.
Budygin, E. A., Brodie, M. S., Sotnikova, T. D., Mateo, Y., John, C. E., Cyr, M., Gainetdinov, R. R., & Jones, S. R. 2004, “Dissociation of rewarding and dopamine transporter-mediated properties of amphetamine”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 101, no. 20, pp. 7781–7786.
Budygin, E. A., Gainetdinov, R. R., Kilpatrick, M. R., Rayevsky, K. S., Mannisto, P. T., & Wightman, R. M. 1999, “Effect of tolcapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, on striatal dopaminergic transmission during blockade of dopamine uptake”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 370, no. 2, pp. 125–131.
Budygin, E. A., John, C. E., Mateo, Y., & Jones, S. R. 2002, “Lack of cocaine effect on dopamine clearance in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens of dopamine transporter knock-out mice”, J. Neurosci., vol. 22, no. 10, p. RC222.
Bullard, W. P. & Capson, T. L. 1983, “Steady-state kinetics of bovine striatal tyrosine hydroxylase”, Mol. Pharmacol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 104–111.
Bunney, B. S., Aghajanian, G. K., & Roth, R. H. 1973, “Comparison of effects of L-dopa, amphetamine and apomorphine on firing rate of rat dopaminergic neurones”, Nat. New Biol., vol. 245, no. 143, pp. 123–125.
Burger, L. Y. & Martin-Iverson, M. T. 1994, “Increased occupation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors accompanies cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization”, Brain Res., vol. 639, no. 2, pp. 228–232.
Burns, R. S., Chiueh, C. C., Markey, S. P., Ebert, M. H., Jacobowitz, D. M., & Kopin, I. J. 1983, “A primate model of parkinsonism: selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 80, no. 14, pp. 4546–4550.
Buu, N. T. 1989, “Vesicular accumulation of dopamine following L-DOPA administration”, Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1787–1792.
Buyukuysal, R. L. & Mogol, E. 2000, “Synthesis and release of dopamine in rat striatal slices: requirement for exogenous tyrosine in the medium”, Neurochem. Res., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 533–540.
Cabello, C. R., Thune, J. J., Pakkenberg, H., & Pakkenberg, B. 2002, “Ageing of substantia nigra in humans: cell loss may be compensated by hypertrophy”, Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 283–291.
Cadoni, C., Solinas, M., & Di Chiara, G. 2000, “Psychostimulant sensitization: differential changes in accumbal shell and core dopamine”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 388, no. 1, pp. 69–76.
Campbell, I. C., Murphy, D. L., Walker, M. N., Lovenberg, W., & Robinson, D. S. 1980, “Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) increase rat brain aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity”, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 431–432.
Canesi, M., Benti, R., Marotta, G., Cilia, R., Isaias, I. U., Gerundini, P., Pezzoli, G., & Antonini, A. 2007, “Striatal dopamine transporter binding in patients with Parkinson's disease and severe occupational hydrocarbon exposure”, Eur. J. Neurol., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 297–299.
Cardenas, L., Houle, S., Kapur, S., & Busto, U. E. 2004, “Oral D-amphetamine causes prolonged displacement of [11C]raclopride as measured by PET”, Synapse, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 27–31.
Carey, M. P., Diewald, L. M., Esposito, F. J., Pellicano, M. P., Gironi Carnevale, U. A., Sergeant, J. A., Papa, M., & Sadile, A. G. 1998, “Differential distribution, affinity and plasticity of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in the target sites of the mesolimbic system in an animal model of ADHD”, Behav.Brain Res., vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 173–185.
Carlsson, A. 1966, “Physiological and pharmacological release of monoamines in the central nervous system,” in Mechanisms of Release of Biogenic Amines, Euler, U. S., Rosell, S., & Unyäs, B., eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 331–346.
Carlsson, A., Davis, J. N., Kehr, W., Lindqvist, M., & Atack, C. V. 1972, “Simultaneous measurement of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylase activities in brain in vivo using an inhibitor of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase”, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol., vol. 275, no. 2, pp. 153–168.
Carlsson, A., Falck, B., & Hillarp, N. A. 1962, “Cellular localization of brain monoamines”, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl., vol. 56, no. 196, pp. 1–28.
Carlsson, A., Kehr, W., & Lindqvist, M. 1976, “The role of intraneuronal amine levels in the feedback control of dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in rat brain”, J. Neural Transm., vol. 39, no. 1–2, pp. 1–19.
Carlsson, A., Kehr, W., & Lindqvist, M. 1977, “Agonist – antagonist interaction on dopamine receptors in brain, as reflected in the rates of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylation”, J. Neural Transm., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 99–113.
Carlsson, A. & Lindqvist, M. 1963, “Effect of chlorpromazine or haloperidol on formation of 3methoxytyramine and normetanephrine in mouse brain”, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. (Copenh), vol. 20, pp. 140–144.
Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M., & Magnusson, T. 1957, “3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists”, Nature, vol. 180, no. 4596, p. 1200.
Carson, R. E., Breier, A., Bartolomeis, A., Saunders, R. C., Su, T. P., Schmall, B., Der, M. G., Pickar, D., & Eckelman, W. C. 1997, “Quantification of amphetamine-induced changes in [11C]raclopride binding with continuous infusion”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 437–447.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Cannon, M., McClay, J., Murray, R., Harrington, H., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., Williams, B., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., & Craig, I. W. 2005, “Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction”, Biol. Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1117–1127.
Cassel, G. & Persson, S. A. 1992, “Effects of acute lethal cyanide intoxication on central dopaminergic pathways”, Pharmacol. Toxicol., vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 148–151.
Caviness, J. N. & Wightman, R. M. 1982, “Use of rapid superfusion to differentiate the release of dopamine from striatal tissue induced by sympathomimetic amines from release induced by potassium”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 223, no. 1, pp. 90–96.
Centonze, D., Gubellini, P., Bernardi, G., & Calabresi, P. 1999, “Permissive role of interneurons in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity”, Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1–5.
Cervenka, S., Bäckman, L., Cselényi, Z., Halldin, C., & Farde, L. 2008, “Associations between dopamine D2-receptor binding and cognitive performance indicate functional compartmentalization of the human striatum”, Neuroimage, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 1287–1295.
Cervenka, S., Palhagen, S. E., Comley, R. A., Panagiotidis, G., Cselenyi, Z., Matthews, J. C., Lai, R. Y., Halldin, C., & Farde, L. 2006, “Support for dopaminergic hypoactivity in restless legs syndrome: a PET study on D2-receptor binding”, Brain, vol. 129 (Pt 8), pp. 2017–2028.
Chalon, S., Emond, P., Bodard, S., Vilar, M. P., Thiercelin, C., Besnard, J. C., & Guilloteau, D. 1999, “Time course of changes in striatal dopamine transporters and D2 receptors with specific iodinated markers in a rat model of Parkinson's disease”, Synapse, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 134–139.
Chalon, S., Hall, H., Saba, W., Garreau, L., Dolle, F., Halldin, C., Emond, P., Bottlaender, M., Deloye, J. B., Helfenbein, J., Madelmont, J. C., Bodard, S., Mincheva, Z., Besnard, J. C., & Guilloteau, D. 2006, “Pharmacological characterization of (E)-N-(4-fluorobut-2-enyl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-tolyl)nortropane (LBT-999) as a highly promising fluorinated ligand for the dopamine transporter”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 317, no. 1, pp. 147–152.
Chan, G. L., Holden, J. E., Stoessl, A. J., Samii, A., Doudet, D. J., Dobko, T., Morrison, K. S., Adam, M., Schulzer, M., Calne, D. B., & Ruth, T. J. 1999, “Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects”, J. Nucl. Med., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 283–289.
Checkoway, H., Powers, K., Smith-Weller, T., Franklin, G. M., Longstreth, W. T.., & Swanson, P. D. 2002, “Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake”, Am. J. Epidemiol., vol. 155, no. 8, pp. 732–738.
Chen, G. & Ewing, A. G. 1995, “Multiple classes of catecholamine vesicles observed during exocytosis from the Planorbis cell body”, Brain Res., vol. 701, no. 1–2, pp. 167–174.
Chen, L., He, M., Sibille, E., Thompson, A., Sarnyai, Z., Baker, H., Shippenberg, T., & Toth, M. 1999, “Adaptive changes in postsynaptic dopamine receptors despite unaltered dopamine dynamics in mice lacking monoamine oxidase B”, J. Neurochem., vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 647–655.
Chen, M. K., Lee, J. S., McGlothan, J. L., Furukawa, E., Adams, R. J., Alexander, M., Wong, D. F., & Guilarte, T. R. 2006, “Acute manganese administration alters dopamine transporter levels in the non-human primate striatum”, Neurotoxicology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 229–236.
Chen, N. H., Lai, Y. J., & Pan, W. H. 1997, “Effects of different perfusion medium on the extracellular basal concentration of dopamine in striatum and medial prefrontal cortex: a zero-net flux microdialysis study”, Neurosci. Lett., vol. 225, no. 3, pp. 197–200.
Chen, Y., Hillefors-Berglund, M., Herrera-Marschitz, M., Bjelke, B., Gross, J., Andersson, K., & Euler, G. 1997, “Perinatal asphyxia induces long-term changes in dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptor binding in the rat brain”, Exp.Neurol., vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 74–80.
Cheon, K. A., Ryu, Y. H., Kim, Y. K., Namkoong, K., Kim, C. H., & Lee, J. D. 2003, “Dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia assessed with [123I]IPT SPET in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”, Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 306–311.
Cheon, K. A., Ryu, Y. H., Namkoong, K., Kim, C. H., Kim, J. J., & Lee, J. D. 2004, “Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with [123I]IPT SPECT in drug-naive children with Tourette's disorder”, Psychiatry Res., vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 85–95.
Chien, J. B., Wallingford, R. A., & Ewing, A. G. 1990, “Estimation of free dopamine in the cytoplasm of the giant dopamine cell of Planorbis corneus by voltammetry and capillary electrophoresis”, J. Neurochem., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 633–638.
Chiodo, L. A., Bannon, M. J., Grace, A. A., Roth, R. H., & Bunney, B. S. 1984, “Evidence for the absence of impulse-regulating somatodendritic and synthesis-modulating nerve terminal autoreceptors on subpopulations of mesocortical dopamine neurons”, Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–16.
Cho, S., Duchemin, A. M., Neff, N. H., & Hadjiconstantinou, M. 1996, “Modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase after inhibiting monoamine oxidase-A”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 314, no. 1–2, pp. 51–59.
Chou, Y. H., Karlsson, P., Halldin, C., Olsson, H., & Farde, L. 1999, “A PET study of D(1)-like dopamine receptor ligand binding during altered endogenous dopamine levels in the primate brain”, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 220–227.
Christenson, J. G., Dairman, W., & Udenfriend, S. 1970, “Preparation and properties of a homogeneous aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase from hog kidney”, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 356–367.
Chugani, D. C., Ackermann, R. F., & Phelps, M. E. 1988, “In vivo [3H]spiperone binding: evidence for accumulation in corpus striatum by agonist-mediated receptor internalization”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 291–303.
Ciliax, B. J., Nash, N., Heilman, C., Sunahara, R., Hartney, A., Tiberi, M., Rye, D. B., Caron, M. G., Niznik, H. B., & Levey, A. I. 2000, “Dopamine D(5) receptor immunolocalization in rat and monkey brain”, Synapse, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 125–145.
Clarke, P. B. & Pert, A. 1985, “Autoradiographic evidence for nicotine receptors on nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons”, Brain Res., vol. 348, no. 2, pp. 355–358.
Cline, E. J., Adams, C. E., Larson, G. A., Gerhardt, G. A., & Zahniser, N. R. 1995, “Medial dorsal striatum is more sensitive than lateral dorsal striatum to cocaine inhibition of exogenous dopamine clearance: relation to [3H]mazindol binding, but not striosome/matrix”, Exp. Neurol., vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 135–149.
Cohen, G., Heikkila, R. E., Allis, B., Cabbat, F., Dembiec, D., MacNamee, D., Mytilineou, C., & Winston, B. 1976, “Destruction of sympathetic nerve terminals by 6-hydroxydopamine: protection by 1-phenyl-3-(2-thiazolyl)-2-thiourea, diethyldithiocarbamate, methimazole, cysteamine, ethanol and n-butanol”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 199, no. 2, pp. 336–352.
Collins, F. A., Murphy, D. L., Reiss, A. L., Sims, K. B., Lewis, J. G., Freund, L., Karoum, F., Zhu, D., Maumenee, I. H., & Antonarakis, S. E. 1992, “Clinical, biochemical, and neuropsychiatric evaluation of a patient with a contiguous gene syndrome due to a microdeletion Xp11.3 including the Norrie disease locus and monoamine oxidase (MAOA and MAOB) genes”, Am. J. Med. Genet., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 127–134.
Commissiong, J. W. 1985, “Monoamine metabolites: their relationship and lack of relationship to monoaminergic neuronal activity”, Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1127–1131.
Cools, R., Gibbs, S. E., Miyakawa, A., Jagust, W., & D'Esposito, M. 2008, “Working memory capacity predicts dopamine synthesis capacity in the human stratum”, J. Neurosci., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1208–1212.
Copeland, B. J., Vogelsberg, V., Neff, N. H., & Hadjiconstantinou, M. 1996, “Protein kinase C activators decrease dopamine uptake into striatal synaptosomes”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 277, no. 3, pp. 1527–1532.
Corrigall, W. A., Franklin, K. B., Coen, K. M., & Clarke, P. B. 1992, “The mesolimbic dopaminergic system is implicated in the reinforcing effects of nicotine”, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol. 107, no. 2–3, pp. 285–289.
Corvol, J. C., Muriel, M. P., Valjent, E., Feger, J., Hanoun, N., Girault, J. A., Hirsch, E. C., & Herve, D. 2004, “Persistent increase in olfactory type G-protein alpha subunit levels may underlie D1 receptor functional hypersensitivity in Parkinson disease”, J. Neurosci., vol. 24, no. 31, pp. 7007–7014.
Cowell, R. M., Kantor, L., Hewlett, G. H., Frey, K. A., & Gnegy, M. E. 2000, “Dopamine transporter antagonists block phorbol ester-induced dopamine release and dopamine transporter phosphorylation in striatal synaptosomes”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 389, no. 1, pp. 59–65.
Crawford, C. A., McDougall, S. A., & Bardo, M. T. 1994, “Effects of EEDQ on the synthesis and metabolism of dopamine in preweanling and adult rats”, Neuropharmacology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1559–1565.
Crossman, A. R., Sambrook, M. A., Gergies, S. W., & Slater, P. 1977, “The neurological basis of motor asymmetry following unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine brain lesions in the rat: the effect of motor decortication”, J. Neurol. Sci., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 407–414.
Cumming, P., Ase, A., Diksic, M., Harrison, J., Jolly, D., Kuwabara, H., Laliberte, C., & Gjedde, A. 1995a, “Metabolism and blood-brain clearance of L-3,4-dihydroxy-[3H]phenylalanine ([3H]DOPA) and 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA in the rat”, Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 943–946.
Cumming, P., Ase, A., Kuwabara, H., & Gjedde, A. 1998, “[3H]DOPA formed from [3H]tyrosine in living rat brain is not committed to dopamine synthesis”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 491–499.
Cumming, P., Ase, A., Laliberte, C., Kuwabara, H., & Gjedde, A. 1997a, “In vivo regulation of DOPA decarboxylase by dopamine receptors in rat brain”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1254–1260.
Cumming, P., Boyes, B. E., Martin, W. R., Adam, M., Grierson, J., Ruth, T., & McGeer, E. G. 1987a, “The metabolism of [18F]6-fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the hooded rat”, J. Neurochem., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 601–608.
Cumming, P., Boyes, B. E., Martin, W. R., Adam, M., Ruth, T. J., & McGeer, E. G. 1987b, “Altered metabolism of [18F]-6-fluorodopa in the hooded rat following inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase with U-0521”, Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 2527–2531.
Cumming, P., Brown, E., Damsma, G., & Fibiger, H. 1992, “Formation and clearance of interstitial metabolites of dopamine and serotonin in the rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study”, J. Neurochem., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1905–1914.
Cumming, P., Danielsen, E. H., Vafaee, M., Falborg, L., Steffensen, E., Sorensen, J. C., Gillings, N., Bender, D., Marthi, K., Andersen, F., Munk, O., Smith, D., Moller, A., & Gjedde, A. 2001, “Normalization of markers for dopamine innervation in striatum of MPTP-lesioned miniature pigs with intrastriatal grafts”, Acta Neurol. Scand., vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 309–315.
Cumming, P., Gillings, N. M., Jensen, S. B., Bjarkam, C., & Gjedde, A. 2003a, “Kinetics of the uptake and distribution of the dopamine D(2,3) agonist (R)-N-[1-(11)C]n-propylnorapomorphine in brain of healthy and MPTP-treated Gottingen miniature pigs”, Nucl. Med. Biol., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 547–553.
Cumming, P. & Gjedde, A. 1998, “Compartmental analysis of dopa decarboxylation in living brain from dynamic positron emission tomograms”, Synapse, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 37–61.
Cumming, P., Hausser, M., Martin, W. R., Grierson, J., Adam, M. J., Ruth, T. J., & McGeer, E. G. 1988, “Kinetics of in vitro decarboxylation and the in vivo metabolism of 2–18F- and 6–18F-fluorodopa in the hooded rat”, Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 247–250.
Cumming, P., Kuwabara, H., Ase, A., & Gjedde, A. 1995b, “Regulation of DOPA decarboxylase activity in brain of living rat”, J. Neurochem., vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1381–1390.
Cumming, P., Kuwabara, H., & Gjedde, A. 1994, “A kinetic analysis of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine metabolism in the rat”, J. Neurochem., vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1675–1682.
Cumming, P., Leger, G. C., Kuwabara, H., & Gjedde, A. 1993, “Pharmacokinetics of plasma 6-[18F]fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F]fdopa) in humans”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 668–675.
Cumming, P., Ljubic-Thibal, V., Laliberte, C., & Diksic, M. 1997b, “The effect of unilateral neurotoxic lesions to serotonin fibres in the medial forebrain bundle on the metabolism of [3H]DOPA in the telencephalon of the living rat”, Brain Res., vol. 747, no. 1, pp. 60–69.
Cumming, P., Munk, O. L., & Doudet, D. 2001, “Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA”, Synapse, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 212–218.
Cumming, P., Rosa-Neto, P., Watanabe, H., Smith, D., Bender, D., Clarke, P. B., & Gjedde, A. 2003b, “Effects of acute nicotine on hemodynamics and binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2,3 receptors in pig brain”, Neuroimage, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1127–1136.
Cumming, P., Venkatachalam, T. K., Rajagopal, S., Diksic, M., & Gjedde, A. 1994, “Brain uptake of alpha-[14C]methyl-para-tyrosine in the rat”, Synapse, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 125–128.
Cumming, P., Wong, D. F., Gillings, N., Hilton, J., Scheffel, U., & Gjedde, A. 2002, “Specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride and N-[(3)H]propyl-norapomorphine to dopamine receptors in living mouse striatum: occupancy by endogenous dopamine and guanosine triphosphate-free G protein”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 596–604.
Cumming, P., Yokoi, F., Chen, A., Deep, P., Dagher, A., Reutens, D., Kapczinski, F., Wong, D. F., & Gjedde, A. 1999, “Pharmacokinetics of radiotracers in human plasma during positron emission tomography”, Synapse, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 124–134.
Curzon, G., Hutson, P. H., Kantamaneni, B. D., Sahakian, B. J., & Sarna, G. S. 1985, “3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethylamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in the rat: acidic metabolites in cisternal cerebrospinal fluid before and after giving probenecid”, J. Neurochem., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 508–513.
Curzon, G., Hutson, P. H., Kennett, G. A., Marcou, M., & Sarna, G. S. 1986, “Monitoring dopamine metabolism in the brain of the freely moving rat”, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 473, pp. 224–238.
Czoty, P. W., Gage, H. D., & Nader, M. A. 2005, “PET imaging of striatal dopamine D2 receptors in nonhuman primates: increases in availability produced by chronic raclopride treatment”, Synapse, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 215–219.
Dagher, A., Bleicher, C., Aston, J. A., Gunn, R. N., Clarke, P. B., & Cumming, P. 2001, “Reduced dopamine D1 receptor binding in the ventral striatum of cigarette smokers”, Synapse, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 48–53.
Dall, A. M., Danielsen, E. H., Sorensen, J. C., Andersen, F., Moller, A., Zimmer, J., Gjedde, A. H., & Cumming, P. 2002, “Quantitative [18F]fluorodopa/PET and histology of fetal mesencephalic dopaminergic grafts to the striatum of MPTP-poisoned minipigs”, Cell Transplant., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 733–746.
Dalley, J. W., Fryer, T. D., Brichard, L., Robinson, E. S., Theobald, D. E., Laane, K., Pena, Y., Murphy, E. R., Shah, Y., Probst, K., Abakumova, I., Aigbirhio, F. I., Richards, H. K., Hong, Y., Baron, J. C., Everitt, B. J., & Robbins, T. W. 2007, “Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement”, Science, vol. 315, no. 5816, pp. 1267–1270.
Daniels, A. J. & Reinhard, J. F.. 1988, “Energy-driven uptake of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium into chromaffin granules via the catecholamine transporter”, J. Biol. Chem., vol. 263, no. 11, pp. 5034–5036.
Danielsen, E. H., Smith, D. F., Gee, A. D., Venkatachalam, T. K., Hansen, S. B., Hermansen, F., Gjedde, A., & Cumming, P. 1999, “Cerebral 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) metabolism in pig studied by positron emission tomography”, Synapse, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 247–258.
Darchen, F., Masuo, Y., Vial, M., Rostene, W., & Scherman, D. 1989, “Quantitative autoradiography of the rat brain vesicular monoamine transporter using the binding of [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine and 7-amino-8-[125I]iodoketanserin”, Neuroscience, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 341–349.
Fuente-Fernandez, R., Furtado, S., Guttman, M., Furukawa, Y., Lee, C. S., Calne, D. B., Ruth, T. J., & Stoessl, A. J. 2003, “VMAT2 binding is elevated in dopa-responsive dystonia: visualizing empty vesicles by PET”, Synapse, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 20–28.
Fuente-Fernandez, R., Lim, A. S., Sossi, V., Holden, J. E., Calne, D. B., Ruth, T. J., Stoessl, A. J. 2001, “Apomorphine-induced changes in synaptic dopamine levels: positron emission tomography evidence for presynaptic inhibition”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1151–1159.
Fuente-Fernandez, R., Ruth, T. J., Sossi, V., Schulzer, M., Calne, D. B., & Stoessl, A. J. 2001, “Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease”, Science, vol. 293, no. 5532, pp. 1164–1166.
Fuente-Fernandez, Sossi, V., Huang, Z., Furtado, S., Lu, J. Q., Calne, D. B., Ruth, T. J., & Stoessl, A. J. 2004, “Levodopa-induced changes in synaptic dopamine levels increase with progression of Parkinson's disease: implications for dyskinesias”, Brain, vol. 127 (Pt 12), pp. 2747–2754.
Win, M. M., Habraken, J. B., Reneman, L., Brink, W., Heeten, G. J., & Booij, J. 2005, “Validation of [(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT to assess serotonin transporters in vivo in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram”, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 996–1005.
Decamp, E., Wade, T., & Schneider, J. S. 1999, “Differential regulation of striatal dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors in acute and chronic parkinsonian monkeys”, Brain Res., vol. 847, no. 1, pp. 134–138.
Dedek, J., Baumes, R., Tien-Duc, N., Gomeni, R., & Korf, J. 1979, “Turnover of free and conjugated (sulphonyloxy) dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in rat striatum”, J. Neurochem., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 687–695.
Dedek, J., Gomeni, R., & Korf, J. 1979, “A model of dopamine metabolism in rat brain, assessed by the influence of drugs [proceedings]”, Arch. Int. Physiol Biochim., vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 794–795.
Deep, P., Gjedde, A., & Cumming, P. 1997, “On the accuracy of an [18F]FDOPA compartmental model: evidence for vesicular storage of [18F]fluorodopamine in vivo”, J. Neurosci. Methods, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 157–165.
Deep, P., Kuwabara, H., Gjedde, A., & Cumming, P. 1997, “The kinetic behaviour of [3H]DOPA in living rat brain investigated by compartmental modelling of static autoradiograms”, J. Neurosci. Methods, vol. 78, no. 1–2, pp. 157–168.
Dekker, M. C., Eshuis, S. A., Maguire, R. P., Veenma, D. L., Pruim, J., Snijders, P. J., Oostra, B. A., Duijn, C. M., & Leenders, K. L. 2004, “PET neuroimaging and mutations in the DJ-1 gene”, J. Neural Transm., vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 1575–1581.
Del Zompo, M., Piccardi, M. P., Ruiu, S., Corsini, G. U., & Vaccari, A. 1992, “Characterization of a putatively vesicular binding site for [3H]MPP+ in mouse striatal membranes”, Brain Res., vol. 571, no. 2, pp. 354–357.
Demarest, K. T. & Moore, K. E. 1979, “Comparison of dopamine synthesis regulation in the terminals of nigrostriatal, mesolimbic, tuberoinfundibular and tuberohypophyseal neurons”, J. Neural Transm., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 263–277.
Demarest, K. T., Smith, D. J., & Azzaro, A. J. 1980, “The presence of the type A form of monoamine oxidase within nigrostriatal dopamine-containing neurons”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 215, no. 2, pp. 461–468.
Desnos, C., Laran, M. P., Langley, K., Aunis, D., & Henry, J. P. 1995, “Long term stimulation changes the vesicular monoamine transporter content of chromaffin granules”, J. Biol. Chem., vol. 270, no. 27, pp. 16030–16038.
Dewey, S. L., Brodie, J. D., Gerasimov, M., Horan, B., Gardner, E. L., & Ashby, C. R.. 1999, “A pharmacologic strategy for the treatment of nicotine addiction”, Synapse, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 76–86.
Dewey, S. L., Logan, J., Wolf, A. P., Brodie, J. D., Angrist, B., Fowler, J. S., & Volkow, N. D. 1991, “Amphetamine induced decreases in (18F)-N-methylspiroperidol binding in the baboon brain using positron emission tomography (PET)”, Synapse, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 324–327.
Dewey, S. L., Smith, G. S., Logan, J., Brodie, J. D., Yu, D. W., Ferrieri, R. A., King, P. T., MacGregor, R. R., Martin, T. P., Wolf, A. P., & et al. 1992, “GABAergic inhibition of endogenous dopamine release measured in vivo with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography”, J. Neurosci., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 3773–3780.
Di Chiara, G., Bassareo, V., Fenu, S., Luca, M. A., Spina, L., Cadoni, C., Acquas, E., Carboni, E., Valentini, V., & Lecca, D. 2004, “Dopamine and drug addiction: the nucleus accumbens shell connection”, Neuropharmacology, vol. 47 (Suppl. 1), pp. 227–241.
Di Chiara, G. & Imperato, A. 1988, “Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 85, no. 14, pp. 5274–5278.
Di Giulio, A. M., Groppetti, A., Cattabeni, F., Galli, C. L., Maggi, A., Algeri, S., & Ponzio, F. 1978, “Significance of dopamine metabolites in the evaluation of drugs acting on dopaminergic neurons”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 201–207.
Dickinson, S. D., Sabeti, J., Larson, G. A., Giardina, K., Rubinstein, M., Kelly, M. A., Grandy, D. K., Low, M. J., Gerhardt, G. A., & Zahniser, N. R. 1999, “Dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice exhibit decreased dopamine transporter function but no changes in dopamine release in dorsal striatum”, J. Neurochem., vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 148–156.
Ding, Y. S., Logan, J., Gatley, S. J., Fowler, J. S., & Volkow, N. D. 1998, “PET studies of peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase in non-human primates using [18F]Ro41-0960”, J. Neural Transm., vol. 105, no. 10–12, pp. 1199–1211.
Dluzen, D., Reddy, A., & McDermott, J. 1992, “The aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, NSD-1015, increases release of dopamine: response characteristics”, Neuropharmacology, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1223–1229.
Dominici, P., Filipponi, P., Schinina, M. E., Barra, D., & Borri, V. C. 1990, “Pig kidney dopa decarboxylase. Structure and function”, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 585, pp. 162–172.
Donaldson, I., Dolphin, A., Jenner, P., Marsden, C. D., & Pycock, C. 1976, “The roles of noradrenaline and dopamine in contraversive circling behaviour seen after unilateral electrolytic lesions of the locus coeruleus”, Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 179–191.
Doteuchi, M., Wang, C., & Costa, E. 1974, “Compartmentation of dopamine in rat striatum”, Mol. Pharmacol., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 225–234.
Doudet, D. J. & Holden, J. E. 2003, “Sequential versus nonsequential measurement of density and affinity of dopamine D2 receptors with [11C]raclopride: effect of methamphetamine”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1489–1494.
Doudet, D. J., Jivan, S., Ruth, T. J., & Wyatt, R. J. 2002, “In vivo PET studies of the dopamine D1 receptors in rhesus monkeys with long-term MPTP-induced Parkinsonism”, Synapse, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 111–115.
Doudet, D. J., Rosa-Neto, P., Munk, O. L., Ruth, T. J., Jivan, S., & Cumming, P. 2006, “Effect of age on markers for monoaminergic neurons of normal and MPTP-lesioned rhesus monkeys: a multi-tracer PET study”, Neuroimage, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 26–35.
Doudet, D. J., Ruth, T. J., & Holden, J. E. 2006, “Sequential versus nonsequential measurement of density and affinity of dopamine D2 receptors with [11C]raclopride: 2: effects of DAT inhibitors”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 28–37.
Dougherty, D. D., Bonab, A. A., Ottowitz, W. E., Livni, E., Alpert, N. M., Rauch, S. L., Fava, M., & Fischman, A. J. 2006, “Decreased striatal D1 binding as measured using PET and [11C]SCH 23,390 in patients with major depression with anger attacks”, Depress Anxiety, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 175–177.
Dresel, S., Krause, J., Krause, K. H., LaFougere, C., Brinkbaumer, K., Kung, H. F., Hahn, K., & Tatsch, K. 2000, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment”, Eur. J. Nucl. Med., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1518–1524.
Dresel, S. H., Kung, M. P., Huang, X., Plossl, K., Hou, C., Shiue, C. Y., Karp, J., & Kung, H. F. 1999, “In vivo imaging of serotonin transporters with [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in nonhuman primates”, Eur. J. Nucl. Med., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 342–347.
Drevets, W. C., Gautier, C., Price, J. C., Kupfer, D. J., Kinahan, P. E., Grace, A. A., Price, J. L., & Mathis, C. A. 2001, “Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in human ventral striatum correlates with euphoria”, Biol. Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 81–96.
Dugast, C., Brun, P., Sotty, F., Renaud, B., & Suaud-Chagny, M. F. 1997, “On the involvement of a tonic dopamine D2-autoinhibition in the regulation of pulse-to-pulse-evoked dopamine release in the rat striatum in vivo”, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol., vol. 355, no. 6, pp. 716–719.
Dumartin, B., Caille, I., Gonon, F., & Bloch, B. 1998, “Internalization of D1 dopamine receptor in striatal neurons in vivo as evidence of activation by dopamine agonists”, J. Neurosci., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1650–1661.
Durden, D. A. & Philips, S. R. 1980, “Kinetic measurements of the turnover rates of phenylethylamine and tryptamine in vivo in the rat brain”, J. Neurochem., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1725–1732.
During, M. J., Acworth, I. N., & Wurtman, R. J. 1988a, “Effects of systemic L-tyrosine on dopamine release from rat corpus striatum and nucleus accumbens”, Brain Res., vol. 452, no. 1–2, pp. 378–380.
During, M. J., Acworth, I. N., & Wurtman, R. J. 1988b, “Phenylalanine administration influences dopamine release in the rat's corpus striatum”, Neurosci. Lett., vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 91–95.
During, M. J., Acworth, I. N., & Wurtman, R. J. 1989, “Dopamine release in rat striatum: physiological coupling to tyrosine supply”, J. Neurochem., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1449–1454.
Dyck, L. E. 1987, “Effect of decarboxylase inhibitors on brain p-tyrosine levels”, Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1373–1376.
Ebadi, M. & Simonneaux, V. 1991, “Ambivalence on the multiplicity of mammalian aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase”, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., vol. 294, pp. 115–125.
Ebert, D., Feistel, H., Kaschka, W., Barocka, A., & Pirner, A. 1994, “Single photon emission computerized tomography assessment of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor blockade in depression before and after sleep deprivation – preliminary results”, Biol. Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 880–885.
Ebinger, M. & Uhr, M. 2006, “ABC drug transporter at the blood-brain barrier: effects on drug metabolism and drug response”, Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., vol. 256, no. 5, pp. 294–298.
Ehringer, H. & Hornykiewicz, O. 1960, “[Distribution of noradrenaline and dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) in the human brain and their behavior in diseases of the extrapyramidal system]”, Klin. Wochenschr., vol. 38, pp. 1236–1239.
Ekelund, J., Slifstein, M., Narendran, R., Guillin, O., Belani, H., Guo, N. N., Hwang, Y., Hwang, D. R., Abi-Dargham, A., & Laruelle, M. 2007, “In vivo DA D(1) receptor selectivity of NNC 112 and SCH 23390”, Mol. Imaging Biol., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 117–125.
Elazar, Z. & Fuchs, S. 1991, “Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase modulates agonist binding to the D2 dopamine receptor”, J. Neurochem., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 75–80.
Elghozi, J. L., Mignot, E., & Quan-Bui, K. H. 1983, “Probenecid sensitive pathway of elimination of dopamine and serotonin metabolites in CSF of the rat”, J. Neural Transm., vol. 57, no. 1–2, pp. 85–94.
Elsworth, J. D., Brittan, M. S., Taylor, J. R., Sladek, J. R.., Redmond, D. E.., Innis, R. B., Zea-Ponce, Y., & Roth, R. H. 1998, “Upregulation of striatal D2 receptors in the MPTP-treated vervet monkey is reversed by grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon: an autoradiographic study”, Brain Res., vol. 795, no. 1–2, pp. 55–62.
Elverfors, A., Pileblad, E., Lagerkvist, S., Bergquist, F., Jonason, J., & Nissbrandt, H. 1997, “3-Methoxytyramine formation following monoamine oxidase inhibition is a poor index of dendritic dopamine release in the substantia nigra”, J. Neurochem., vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 1684–1692.
Endres, C. J., Kolachana, B. S., Saunders, R. C., Su, T., Weinberger, D., Breier, A., Eckelman, W. C., & Carson, R. E. 1997a, “Kinetic modeling of [11C]raclopride: combined PET-microdialysis studies”, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 932–942.
Endres, C. J., Swaminathan, S., DeJesus, O. T., Sievert, M., Ruoho, A. E., Murali, D., Rommelfanger, S. G., & Holden, J. E. 1997b, “Affinities of dopamine analogs for monoamine granular and plasma membrane transporters: implications for PET dopamine studies”, Life Sci., vol. 60, no. 26, pp. 2399–2406.
Erickson, J. D. & Eiden, L. E. 1993, “Functional identification and molecular cloning of a human brain vesicle monoamine transporter”, J. Neurochem., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2314–2317.
Erickson, J. D., Eiden, L. E., & Hoffman, B. J. 1992, “Expression cloning of a reserpine-sensitive vesicular monoamine transporter”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 89, no. 22, pp. 10993–10997.
Ernst, M., Zametkin, A. J., Matochik, J. A., Pascualvaca, D., Jons, P. H., Hardy, K., Hankerson, J. G., Doudet, D. J., & Cohen, R. M. 1996, “Presynaptic dopaminergic deficits in Lesch-Nyhan disease”, N Engl. J. Med., vol. 334, no. 24, pp. 1568–1572.
Evans, A. H., Pavese, N., Lawrence, A. D., Tai, Y. F., Appel, S., Doder, M., Brooks, D. J., Lees, A. J., & Piccini, P. 2006, “Compulsive drug use linked to sensitized ventral striatal dopamine transmission”, Ann. Neurol., vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 852–858.
Fairbrother, I. S., Arbuthnott, G. W., Kelly, J. S., & Butcher, S. P. 1990, “In vivo mechanisms underlying dopamine release from rat nigrostriatal terminals: II. Studies using potassium and tyramine”, J. Neurochem., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1844–1851.
Falany, C. N., Vazquez, M. E., Heroux, J. A., & Roth, J. A. 1990, “Purification and characterization of human liver phenol-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase”, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., vol. 278, no. 2, pp. 312–318.
Fan, J. B., Zhang, C. S., Gu, N. F., Li, X. W., Sun, W. W., Wang, H. Y., Feng, G. Y., St, Clair, D., & He, L. 2005, “Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene Val/Met functional polymorphism and risk of schizophrenia: a large-scale association study plus meta-analysis”, Biol. Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 139–144.
Farde, L., Hall, H., Ehrin, E., & Sedvall, G. 1986, “Quantitative analysis of D2 dopamine receptor binding in the living human brain by PET”, Science, vol. 231, no. 4735, pp. 258–261.
Farde, L., Hall, H., Pauli, S., & Halldin, C. 1995, “Variability in D2-dopamine receptor density and affinity: a PET study with [11C]raclopride in man”, Synapse, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 200–208.
Farde, L., Halldin, C., Muller, L., Suhara, T., Karlsson, P., & Hall, H. 1994, “PET study of [11C]beta-CIT binding to monoamine transporters in the monkey and human brain”, Synapse, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 93–103.
Farde, L., Suhara, T., Nyberg, S., Karlsson, P., Nakashima, Y., Hietala, J., & Halldin, C. 1997, “A PET-study of [11C]FLB 457 binding to extrastriatal D2-dopamine receptors in healthy subjects and antipsychotic drug-treated patients”, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 396–404.
Farde, L., Wiesel, F. A., Stone-Elander, S., Halldin, C., Nordstrom, A. L., Hall, H., & Sedvall, G. 1990, “D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with [11C]raclopride”, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 213–219.
Fedi, M., Berkovic, S. F., Scheffer, I. E., O'Keefe, G., Marini, C., Mulligan, R., Gong, S., Tochon-Danguy, H., & Reutens, D. C. 2008, “Reduced striatal D1 receptor binding in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy”, Neurology, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 795–798.
Fernstrom, M. H., Baker, R. L., & Fernstrom, J. D. 1989, “In vivo tyrosine hydroxylation rate in retina: effects of phenylalanine and tyrosine administration in rats pretreated with p-chlorophenylalanine”, Brain Res., vol. 499, no. 2, pp. 291–298.
Ferre, S., Euler, G., Johansson, B., Fredholm, B. B., & Fuxe, K. 1991, “Stimulation of high-affinity adenosine A2 receptors decreases the affinity of dopamine D2 receptors in rat striatal membranes”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 88, no. 16, pp. 7238–7241.
Fiedler, J. & Daniels, A. J. 1984, “Uptake of magnesium by chromaffin granules in vitro: role of the proton electrochemical gradient”, J. Neurochem., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1291–1297.
Filloux, F., Wagster, M. V., Folstein, S., Price, D. L., Hedreen, J. C., Dawson, T. M., & Wamsley, J. K. 1990, “Nigral dopamine type-1 receptors are reduced in Huntington's disease: a postmortem autoradiographic study using [3H]SCH 23390 and correlation with [3H]forskolin binding”, Exp. Neurol., vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 219–227.
Fine, M. I., Masserano, J. M., & Weiner, N. 1986, “The effects of reserpine and haloperidol on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the brains of aged rats”, Life Sci., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 235–241.
Finnema, S. J., Seneca, N., Farde, L., Shchukin, E., Sovago, J., Gulyas, B., Wikstrom, H. V., Innis, R. B., Neumeyer, J. L., & Halldin, C. 2005, “A preliminary PET evaluation of the new dopamine D2 receptor agonist [11C]MNPA in cynomolgus monkey”, Nucl. Med. Biol., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 353–360.
Firnau, G., Sood, S., Chirakal, R., Nahmias, C., & Garnett, E. S. 1987, “Cerebral metabolism of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the primate”, J. Neurochem., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1077–1082.
Fischer, J. F. & Cho, A. K. 1979, “Chemical release of dopamine from striatal homogenates: evidence for an exchange diffusion model”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 203–209.
Fischman, A. J., Bonab, A. A., Babich, J. W., Livni, E., Alpert, N. M., Meltzer, P. C., & Madras, B. K. 2001, “[(11)C, (127)I] Altropane: a highly selective ligand for PET imaging of dopamine transporter sites”, Synapse, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 332–342.
Fischman, A. J., Bonab, A. A., Babich, J. W., Palmer, E. P., Alpert, N. M., Elmaleh, D. R., Callahan, R. J., Barrow, S. A., Graham, W., Meltzer, P. C., Hanson, R. N., & Madras, B. K. 1998, “Rapid detection of Parkinson's disease by SPECT with altropane: a selective ligand for dopamine transporters”, Synapse, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 128–141.
Fishburn, C. S., Elazar, Z., & Fuchs, S. 1995, “Differential glycosylation and intracellular trafficking for the long and short isoforms of the D2 dopamine receptor”, J. Biol. Chem., vol. 270, no. 50, pp. 29819–29824.
Floel, A., Garraux, G., Xu, B., Breitenstein, C., Knecht, S., Herscovitch, P., & Cohen, L. G. 2008, “Levodopa increases memory encoding and dopamine release in the striatum in the elderly”, Neurobiol. Aging., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 267–279.
Fornai, F., Chen, K., Giorgi, F. S., Gesi, M., Alessandri, M. G., & Shih, J. C. 1999, “Striatal dopamine metabolism in monoamine oxidase B-deficient mice: a brain dialysis study”, J. Neurochem., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 2434–2440.
Fowler, C. J. & Benedetti, M. S. 1983, “The metabolism of dopamine by both forms of monoamine oxidase in the rat brain and its inhibition by cimoxatone”, J. Neurochem., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1534–1541.
Fowler, C. J. & Tipton, K. F. 1982, “Deamination of 5-hydroxytryptamine by both forms of monoamine oxidase in the rat brain”, J. Neurochem., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 733–736.
Fowler, J. S., Alia-Klein, N., Kriplani, A., Logan, J., Williams, B., Zhu, W., Craig, I. W., Telang, F., Goldstein, R., Volkow, N. D., Vaska, P., & Wang, G. J. 2007, “Evidence that brain MAO A activity does not correspond to MAO A genotype in healthy male subjects”, Biol. Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 355–358.
Fowler, J. S., Logan, J., Ding, Y. S., Franceschi, D., Wang, G. J., Volkow, N. D., Pappas, N., Schlyer, D., Gatley, S. J.,