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    Glaser, Jürgen Hornung, Severin Höge, Thomas and Seubert, Christian 2018. Advances in Social & Occupational Ergonomics. Vol. 605, Issue. , p. 253.

    Evers, Arnoud T. Yamkovenko, Bogdan and Van Amersfoort, Daniël 2017. How to keep teachers healthy and growing: the influence of job demands and resources. European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 41, Issue. 8, p. 670.

    Mauno, Saija and Ruokolainen, Mervi 2017. Does Organizational Work–Family Support Benefit Temporary and Permanent Employees Equally in a Work–Family Conflict Situation in Relation to Job Satisfaction and Emotional Energy at Work and at Home?. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 38, Issue. 1, p. 124.

    de Jonge, Jan and Dormann, Christian 2017. An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology. p. 80.

    Stiglbauer, Barbara 2017. Under what conditions does job control moderate the relationship between time pressure and employee well-being? Investigating the role of match and personal control beliefs. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 38, Issue. 5, p. 730.

    Tsai, Wei-Chi and Chen, Hao-Yi 2017. A multilevel investigation of antecedents of employee positive affective displays: the roles of customer negative affective displays and employee perceived supervisory support. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 385.

    van der Doef, Margot and Verhoeven, Chris 2017. Educator Stress. p. 197.

    Mauno, Saija Ruokolainen, Mervi Kinnunen, Ulla and De Bloom, Jessica 2016. Emotional labour and work engagement among nurses: examining perceived compassion, leadership and work ethic as stress buffers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 72, Issue. 5, p. 1169.

    Bova, Nicoletta De Jonge, Jan and Guglielmi, Dina 2015. The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire: A Cross-national Validation Study. Stress and Health, Vol. 31, Issue. 3, p. 236.

    Taris, Toon W. and Schaufeli, Wilmar B. 2015. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Occupational Safety and Workplace Health. p. 155.

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève Fernet, Claude and Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle 2014. Testing and extending the triple match principle in the nursing profession: a generational perspective on job demands, job resources and strain at work. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 70, Issue. 2, p. 310.

    Boudrias, Jean-Sébastien Gaudreau, Patrick Desrumaux, Pascale Leclerc, Jean-Simon Ntsame-Sima, Murielle Savoie, André and Brunet, Luc 2014. Verification of a Predictive Model of Psychological Health at Work in Canada and France. Psychologica Belgica, Vol. 54, Issue. 1, p. 55.

    Van de Ven, Bart and Vlerick, Peter 2013. Testing the triple-match principle among technology employees. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 22, Issue. 6, p. 658.

    Niks, Irene MW de Jonge, Jan Gevers, Josette MP and Houtman, Irene LD 2013. Design of the DISCovery project: tailored work-oriented interventions to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes in hospital care. BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Elst, Tinne Vander De Cuyper, Nele and De Witte, Hans 2011. The role of perceived control in the relationship between job insecurity and psychosocial outcomes: moderator or mediator?. Stress and Health, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. e215.

    Peiró, José M. and Tetrick, Lois 2011. IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology. p. 292.

    Mauno, Saija Kinnunen, Ulla and Rantanen, Marika 2011. Work-family conflict and enrichment and perceived health: Does type of family matter?. Family Science, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Zellars, Kelly L. Hochwarter, Wayne A. Lanivich, Stephen E. Perrewé, Pamela L. and Ferris, Gerald R. 2011. Accountability for others, perceived resources, and well being: Convergent restricted non-linear results in two samples. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 84, Issue. 1, p. 95.

    van den Tooren, Marieke de Jonge, Jan Vlerick, Peter Daniels, Kevin and Van de Ven, Bart 2011. Job Resources and Matching Active Coping Styles as Moderators of the Longitudinal Relation Between Job Demands and Job Strain. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 373.

    Chrisopoulos, Sergio Dollard, Maureen F. Winefield, Anthony H. and Dormann, Christian 2010. Increasing the probability of finding an interaction in work stress research: A two-wave longitudinal test of the triple-match principle. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 83, Issue. 1, p. 17.

  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: October 2009

4 - The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation model: renewed theoretical considerations and empirical evidence


Consider a researcher who uses three measures of stressors, three measures of strains, and three measures of support. If a subset of the 27 interactions were significant, the question becomes whether the significant terms were due to Type I error? In several cases, researchers seemed to provide post hoc explanations as to why the significant terms occurred. Future research should endeavor to refine theoretical models that guide how different sources of support can be matched to particular stressors and strains.

(Viswesvaran, Sanchez, and Fisher, 1999: 328)

This chapter presents a recently developed theoretical model on job-related stress and performance, the so-called Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) model. The DISC model predicts in general that adverse health effects of high job demands can best be compensated for by matching job resources to the high demands. Furthermore, the model predicts that a well-balanced mixture of specific job demands and corresponding job resources will stimulate employee learning, growth, and performance. Not restricting ourselves to social support, which is mentioned in the quote above and which indeed represents one important resource in job stress (cf. Viswesvaran et al., 1999), we present some refined theoretical predictions on emotional, cognitive, and physical processes that guide how different kinds of job resources can be matched to particular job demands and job-related strains. The aim of this chapter is thus twofold: (1) to present a new job stress theory, and (2) to show recent empirical evidence for its basic assumptions by means of a narrative review.

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The Individual in the Changing Working Life
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