Skip to main content Accessibility help
Language and Human Relations
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 56
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The way in which people address one another is crucial to expressing social relationships and is closely linked with cultural values. In English we call some people by their first names, and others 'Mr' or 'Ms', followed by their surname. In some other languages there are different ways of saying 'you' depending on the degree of social distance. Exploring practices in the family, school, university, the workplace and in letters, this book reveals patterns in the varied ways people choose to address one another, from pronouns to first names, from honorifics to titles and last names. Examples are taken from contemporary English, French, German and Swedish, using rich data from focus group research, interviews, chat groups, and participant observation.

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Adams, George Brendan. 1985. Linguistic cross-links in phonology and grammar. In O'Baoill, S. (ed.). Papers on Irish English, 27–35. Dublin: IRAAL.
Agha, Asif. 2007. Language and Social Relations. Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language 24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ahlgren, Perry. 1978. Tilltalsordet ni. Dess semantik och användning i historiskt perspektiv. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksell.
Allensbach, . 2003. Weniger schnell per ‘du’. Allensbacher Berichte 9/2003. (last accessed 15 December 2007).
Amendt, Gerhard. 1995. Du oder Sie: 1945 – 1968 – 1995. Bremen: Ikaru-Verlag.
Ammon, Ulrichet al. 2004. Variantenwörterbuch des Deutschen. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Bakhtin, Michael. 1986. The problems of speech genres. In Emerson, Caryl and Holquist, Michael (eds.). Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Bargiela, Francesca, Boz, Corinne, Gokzadze, Lily, Hamza, Abdurrahman, Mills, Sara and Rukhadze, Nino. 2002. Ethnocentrism, politeness and naming strategies. Working Papers on the Web 3: Linguistic politeness and context. (last accessed 15 December 2007).
Barthes, Roland. 1971. Ecrivains, intellectuels, professeurs. Tel quel, 47: 1–15.
Bayer, Klaus. 1979. Die Anredepromina Du und Sie. Deutsche Sprache, 3: 212–19.
Behrens, Leila. 2007. Konservierung von Stereotypen mit Hilfe der Statistik: Geert Hofstede und sein kulturvergleichendes Modell. Arbeitspapier 51, Neue Folge. Cologne: Institut für Linguistik, Universität.
Besch, Werner. 1998. II Duzen, Siezen, Titulierem. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.
Birch, Barbara M. 1995. Quaker Plain Speech: A policy of linguistic divergence. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 116: 39–59.
Braun, Friederike. 1988. Terms of Address: Problems of patterns and usage in various languages and cultures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Brown, Penelope and Levinson, Stephen. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Roger and Gilman, Albert. 1960. The pronouns of power and solidarity. In Sebeok, T. A. (ed.). Style in Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 253–76.
Calvet, Louis-Jean. 1976. A tu et à vous. Le Français dans le Monde, 118: 14–18.
Clark, Herbert. 1996. Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clyne, Michael (ed.). 1992. Pluricentric Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Clyne, Michael. 1995. The German Language in a Changing Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clyne, Michael. 2006. Some thoughts on pragmatics, sociolinguistic variation and intercultural communication. Intercultural Pragmatics, 3: 95–105.
Clyne, Michael and Kipp, Sandra. 1999. Pluricentric Languages in an Immigrant Context. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Clyne, Michael and Kipp, Sandra. 2006. Tiles in a Multilingual Mosaic: Macedonian, Somali and Filipino in Melbourne. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Clyne, Michael, Fernandez, Sue and Muhr, Rudolf. 2003. Communicative styles in a contact situation. Journal of German Linguistics, 15: 95–154.
Clyne, Michael, Kretzenbacher, Heinz L., Norrby, Catrin and Schüpbach, Doris. 2006. Perceptions of variation and change in German and Swedish address. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 10 (3): 287–319.
Coffen, Béatrice. 2002. Histoire culturelle des pronoms d'adresse. Vers une typologie des systèmes allocutoires dans les langues romanes. Paris: Honoré Champion.
Coffen, Béatrice. 2003. Rôle attribué aux pronoms d'adresse dans la construction identitaire individuelle. Paper presented at the Colloquium Pronoms du 2e personne et formes d'adresse dans les langues d'Europe, 6–8 March 2003, Institut Cervantes, Paris.
Coupland, Nikolas. 2001. Language, situation and the relational self: Theorizing dialect-style in sociolinguistics. In Eckert, Penelope and Rickford, John R. (eds.). Style and Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 185–210.
Crowley, Terry. 2000. The Politics of Language in Ireland, 1366–1922. London: Routledge.
Crumley, Bruce. 2006. Pardon your French. Hit or miss? A formal debate forms over the correct form of address. Time Europe, 30 April.
Crystal, David. 1993. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davies, Bronwyn and Harré, Rom. 1990. Positioning: The discursive production of selves. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 20 (1): 43–63.
Eckert, Penelope and Rickford, John R. (eds.). 2001. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ehlers, Klaas-Hinrich. 2004. Zur Anrede mit Titeln in Deutschland, Österreich und Tschechien. Ergebnisse einer Fragebogenerhebung. Brücken. Germanistisches Jahrbuch Tschechien-Slowakei NF.12: 85–115.
Ervin-Tripp, Susan. 1986. On sociolinguistic rules: Alternation and co-occurrence. In Gumperz, John J. and Hymes, Dell (eds.). Directions in Sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. Reissued with corrections and additions, Oxford: Blackwell. 213–50.
Filppula, Markku. 1999. The Grammar of Irish English: Language in Hibernian style. London, New York: Routledge.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1965. Who speaks what language to whom and when? Linguistique, 2: 67–88.
Formentelli, Maicol. 2007. The vocative mate in contemporary English: A corpus based study. In Sansò, A. (ed.). Language Resources and Linguistic Theory. Milan: Franco Angeli. 180–99.
Fraser, Bruce. 1990. Perspectives on politeness. Journal of Pragmatics, 14: 219–36.
Fraser, Bruce and Nolen, William. 1981. The association of deference with linguistic form. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 27: 93–110.
Fremer, Maria. 1998. Tilltal och omtal i samtal. Språkbruk, 2: 5–10.
Folktinget, . 2003. Språkfördelningen i Svenskfinland. (last accessed 28 April 2007).
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 1991. Ni tu ni vous: principes et paradoxes dans l'emploi des pronoms d'allocution en français contemporain. Journal of French Language Studies, 1 (1): 139–55.
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 2004. Le développement historique de T/V en français et en anglais: parallélisme et divergence. Franco-British Studies 33–34 (Autumn 2003–Spring 2004). Special Issue: Second person pronouns and forms of address in the languages of contemporary Europe. 90–99.
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 2007. Tu/vous choices: An ‘Act of Identity’? In Jones, Mari and Ayres-Bennett, Wendy (eds.). The French Language and Questions of Identity. Oxford: Legenda. 106–16.
Gärtner, Detlev. 1992. Vom Sekretärsdeutsch zur Kommerzsprache. In Lerchner, Gotthard (ed.). Sprachkultur im Wandel. Anmerkungen zur Kommunikationskultur. Frankfurt: Lang. 203–62.
Giles, Howard (ed.). 1984. The dynamics of speech accommodation. Special Issue. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 46.
Giles, Howard, Coupland, Nikolas and Coupland, Justine. 1991. Accommodation theory: Communication, context and consequence. In Giles, Howard, Coupland, Nikolas and Coupland, Justine (eds.). Contexts of Accommodation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1–67.
Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Goffman, Erving. 1967. On face-work. An analysis of ritual elements in social interaction. In Goffman, Erving (ed.). Interactional Ritual: Essays on face-to-face behaviour. New York: Anchor Books. 5–45.
Graddol, David and Swan, Joan. 1989. Gender Voices. Oxford: Blackwell and Open University.
,Greater London Authority. 2006a. Greater London Demographic Review 2005. London: Date Management and Analysis Group, Greater London Authority. (last accessed 23 March 2007).
,Greater London Authority. 2006b. A Summary of Countries of Birth in London. DMAG Update.–09.pdf (last accessed 9 April 2007).
Greenbaum, Thomas L. 1998. The Handbook for Focus Group Research, second edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gumperz, John. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hällström, Charlotta and Reuter, Michael. 2000. Finlandssvensk ordbok. Helsinki: Schildts.
Halmøy, Odile. 1999. Le vouvoiement en français: forme non-marquée de la seconde personne du singulier. In Nystedt, Jane (ed.). XIV Skandinaviska Romanistkongressen. Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockhomiensis.
Harré, Rom and Langenhove, Luk. 1999. Positioning Theory: Moral contexts of interactional action. Oxford: Blackwell.
Havu, Eva. 2005. Quand les Français tutoient-ils? Paper presented at the XVIe Congrès des romanistes scandinaves, 25–27 August 2005, Copenhagen. (last accessed 15 December 2007).
Havu, Eva. 2006. L'emploi des pronoms d'adresse en français: étude sociolinguistique et comparaison avec le finnois. In Taavitsainen, Irma, Härmä, Juhani and Korhonen, Jarmo (eds.). Dialogic language use. Dimensions du dialogisme. Dialogischer Sprachgebrauch. Helsinki: Socieété Néophilologique. 225–40.
Hellmann, Manfred. 1978. Sprache zwischen Ost und West – Überlegungen zur Wortschatzdifferenzierung zwischen BRD und DDR und ihren Folgen. In Kühlwein, Wolfgang und Radden, Günter (eds.). Sprache und Kultur – Studien zu Diglossie, Gastarbeiterproblematik und kulturelle Integration. Tübingen: Narr. 15–54.
Hellmann, Manfred. 1990. Sprachgebrauch nach der Wende: eine erste Bestandaufnahme. Muttersprache, 100: 266–86.
Hickey, Leo and Stewart, Miranda (eds.). 2005. Politeness in Europe. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Hickey, Raymond. 2003. The German address system: Binary and scalar system at once. In Raavitsainen, Irma and Jucker, Andreas (eds.). Diachronic Perspectives on Address Form Systems. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 401–25.
Hill, Ben, Ide, Sachiko, Ikuta, Shoko, Kawasaki, Akiko and Ogino, Tsunao. 1986. Universals of linguistic politeness: Quantitative evidence from Japanese and American English. Journal of Pragmatics, 10: 347–71.
Hofstede, Geert. 1991. Cultures and Organizations. London: McGraw-Hill.
Holmes, Janet. 2001. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London: Longman.
Holtgraves, Thomas. 2001. Politeness. In Peter Robinson, W. and Giles, Howard (eds.). The New Handbook of Language and Social Psychology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 341–55.
Hughson, Jo-anne. 2001. Le tu et le vous: Étude sociolinguistique dans la banlieue parisienne. Unpublished Diplôme d’études approfondies. Université Paris-X, Nanterre.
Hughson, Jo-anne. 2005. Spanish address pronoun usage in an inter-cultural immigrant context: Language, social and cultural values among Spanish–English bilinguals in Australia. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of Melbourne.
Ide, Sachiko. 1989. Formal forms and discernment. Multilingua, 8: 223–48.
Joseph, John. 1989. Review of terms of address: Problems of patterns and usage in various languages and cultures by Friederike Braun. Language, 65 (4): 852–7.
Joseph, John. 2004. Language and Identity: National, ethnic, religious. Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kachru, Braj. 1982. The Other Tongue. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Kallen, Jeffrey. 2005. Politeness in Ireland: ‘. . .in Ireland, it's done without being said’. In Hickey, Leo and Stewart, Miranda (eds.). Politeness in Europe. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 130–44.
Kallmeyer, Werner. 2003. Sagen Sie bitte du zu mir. Werner Kallmeyer, Soziolinguist am Institut für Deutsche Sprache in Mannheim, über die Kunst der richtigen Anrede. Das Gespräch führte Cosima Schmitt (Werner Kallmeyer, Sociolinguist at the Institute for German Language in Mannheim, on the art of correct address. Conversation with Cosima Schmitt). Die Zeit, 58.27, 26 Juni 2003.
Kasper, Gabriele. 1994. Politeness. In Asher, R. E. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 6. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 3206–11.
Kerbrat-Orecchioni, Catherine. 1992. Les interactions verbales, vol. II. Paris: Armand Colin.
Kipp, Sandra, Clyne, Michael and Pauwels, Anne. 1995. Immigration and Australia's Language Resources. Canberra: AGPS.
Kretzenbacher, Heinz L. 1991. Vom Sie zum Du – und retour? In Kretzenbacher, Heinz L. and Segebrecht, Uwe. Vom Sie zum Du – mehr als eine neue Konvention? Antworten auf die Preisfrage der Deutschen Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung vom Jahr 1989. Hamburg, Zurich: Luchterhand Literaturverlag. 9–77.
Labov, William. 1972. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadephia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Lakoff, Robin. 1973. The logic of politeness; or, minding your p's and q's. Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistics Society, 292–305.
Lakoff, Robin and Ide, Sachiko (eds.). 2005. Broadening the Horizon of Linguistic Politeness. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Lambert, Wallace E. and Tucker, G. Richard. 1976. Tu, Vous, Usted. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Leech, Geoffrey N. 1983. Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman.
Leech, Geoffrey N. 1999. The distribution and function of vocatives in American and British English conversation. In Hasselgård, Hilde and Oksefiell, Signe (eds.). Out of Corpora: Studies in honour of Stig Johansson. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Rodopi. 107–118.
Page, Robert B. and Tabouret-Keller, Andrée. 1985. Acts of Identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lerchner, Gotthard. 1992. Broiler, Plast(e) und Datsche machen noch nicht den Unterschied. Fremdheit und Toleranz in einer polyzentrischen deutschen Kommunikationskultur. In Lerchner, Gotthard (ed.). Sprachkultur im Wandel: Anmerkungen zur Kommunikationskultur. Frankfurt: Lang. 297–332.
L'Express. 2006. D'où viennent les Parisiens. Dossier spécial. L'Express, 30 November.
Linell, Per. 1998. Approaching Dialogue: Talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Lüdi, Georges. 1992. French as a pluricentric language. In Clyne, Michael (ed.). Pluricentric Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 149–78.
Macarthur, Tom (ed.). 1992. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maley, Catherine. 1974. The Pronouns of Address in Modern Standard French. University, MS: University of Mississippi Romance Monographs.
Mara, Johanna and Huldén, Lena. 2000. Hälsningsvanor, tilltal och omtal i Svenskfinland under 1900-talet. Källan 2. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland.
Mårtensson, Eva. 1986. Det nya niandet. Nordlund 10. Lund: Dept. of Nordic Languages. 35–79.
Matsumoto, Yoshiko. 1989. Politeness and conversational universal observations from Japanese. Multilingua, 8: 200–21.
Mattheier, Klaus J. 1980. Pragmatik und Semantik der Dialekte. Heidelberg: Winter.
McCarthy, Michael and O'Keeffe, Anne. 2003. ‘What's in a name?’ Vocatives in casual conversations and radio phone-in calls. In Leistyna, Pepi and Meyer, Charles F. (eds.). Corpus Analysis: Language structure and language use. Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi. 153–85.
Morford, Janet. 1997. Social indexicality in French pronominal address. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 7 (1): 3–37.
Mühlhäusler, Peter and Harré, Rom. 1990. You: The grammatical expression of social relations. In Mühlhäusler, Peter and Harré, Rom (eds.). Pronouns and People: The linguistic construction of social and personal identity. Oxford: Blackwell. 131–67.
Muhr, Rudolf. 1987. Regionale Unterschiede im Gebrauch von Beziehungsindikatoren zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Österreich und ihre Auswirkungen auf den Unterricht in Deutsch als Fremdsprachen, dargestellt an Modalpartikeln. In Göetze, Lutz (ed.). Deutsch als Fremdsprache: Situation eines Faches. Bonn: Dürrsche Buchhandlung. 144–56.
Muhr, Rudolf. 1994. Entschuldigen Sie, Frau Kollegin. . . Sprechaktrealisierungsunterschiede an Universitäten in Österreich und Deutschland. In Bachleitner-Held, Susanne (ed.). Verbale Interaktion. Salzburg: Kovac. 126–44.
Muhr, Rudolf and Sellner, Peter. 2006. Zehn Jahre Forschung zum Österreischischen Deutsch 1995–2005: Eine Bilanz. Frankfurt: Lang.
Niedzielski, Nancy A. and Preston, Dennis Richard. 2000. Folk Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Norrby, Catrin. 1997. Kandidat Svensson, du eller ni – om utvecklingen av tilltalsskicket i svenskan. In Andersson, Anders-Börjeet al. (eds.). Svenska som andraspråk och andra språk: Festskrift till Gunnar Tingbjörn. Gothenburg: Department of Swedish Language, Gothenburg University. 319–28.
Norrby, Catrin and Håkansson, Gisela. 2004. ‘Kan jag hjälpa dig med något?’ Om tilltal i en servicesituation. Språk & Stil, 13: 6–34.
Nyblom, Heidi. 2006. The use of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 29 (2): 19.1–19.12
Ò Laoire, Muiris. 2005. The Language Planning Situation in Ireland. Current Issues in Language Planning, 6: 251–314.
Paulston, Christina Bratt. 1976. Pronouns of address in Swedish: Social class semantics and changing system. Language in Society, 5: 359–86.
Pauwels, Anne. 1998. Women Changing Language. London: Longman.
Pavlenko, Aneta and Blackledge, Adrian. 2004. Introduction. Theoretical approaches to the study of negotiation of identities in multilingual contexts. In Pavlenko, Aneta and Blackledge, Adrian (eds.). Negotiation of Identities in Multilingual Contexts. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 1–33.
Peeters, Bert. 2004. Tu ou vous? Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, 114: 1–17.
Peyret, Emmanuèle. 2006. C'est “mademoiselle” ou “madame”? Libération, 12 April.
Plevoets, Koen, Speelman, Dirk and Geeraerts, Dirk. 2008. The distribution of T/V pronouns in Netherlandic and Belgian Dutch. In Schneider and Barron, 181–210.
Ransmayr, Jutta. 2006. Der Status des Österreichischen Deutsch an nicht-deutschsprachigen Universitäten. Frankfurt: Lang.
Reuter, Mikael. 1992. Swedish as a pluricentric language. In Clyne, Michael (ed.). Pluricentric Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 101–16.
Romaine, Suzanne. 2001. A corpus-based view of gender in British and American English. In Hellinger, Marlis and Bussmann, Hudumod (eds.). Gender Across Languages: The linguistic representation of women and men. Vol 1. Amsterdam, Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 153–75.
Saari, Mirjaa. 1995. ‘Jo, nu kunde vi festa nog’. Synpunkter på svenskt språkbruk i Sverige och Finland. Folkmålsstudier, 36: 75–108.
Sacks, Harvey. 1992. Lecture 6. In Jefferson, Gail (ed.). Lectures on Conversation. Vols. 1–2. Oxford: Blackwell. 40–8.
Sakowski, Klaus. Not dated. Geduzt werden im Betrieb – LAG Hamm. Juristische Beiträge Arbeitsrecht. (accessed 24 September 2004).
Schacherreitner, Christian. 2004. Sie Trottel, du! ÖNachrichten 06/03/04. (accessed 24 September 2004).
Schlosser, Horst-Dieter. 1991. Deutsche Teilung, deutsche Einheit und die Sprache der Deutschen. Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Beilage zur Wochenzeitung Das Parlament, B17/91: 13–21.
Schneider, Klaus and Barron, Anne (eds.). 2008. Variational Pragmatics. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Sdun, Nora. 2004. Individuelle Kommodität. Textem 24/08/04. (accessed 24 September 2004).
Seidman, Michael. 2004. The Imaginary Revolution: Parisian students and workers in 1968. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Sifianou, Maria. 1992. Politeness Phenomena in England and Greece: A cross-cultural perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Spencer-Oatey, Helen. 1996. Reconsidering power and distance. Journal of Pragmatics, 26 (1): 1–24.
Sproß, Elfriede Monika. 2001. Das Du-Wort. Zur Anrede im Umgang mit anderen. Unpublished PhD thesis. Karl-Franzens-Universitat, Graz.
Stevenson, Patrick. 2002. Language and German Disunity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, Miranda. 2005. Politeness in Britain: ‘It's only a suggestion. . .’. In Hickey, Leo and Stewart, Miranda (eds.). Politeness in Europe. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 116–29.
Svennevig, Jan. 1999. Getting Acquainted in Conversation. A study of initial interactions. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Tajfel, Henri. 1974. Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Social Science Information, 13: 65–93.
Tandefelt, Marika. 1994. Urbanization and Bilingualism. In Nordberg, Bengt and Dittmar, Norbert (eds.). Urbanization and Language Change in Fenno-Scandinavia. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 246–73.
Tandefelt, Marika. 2006. Tänk om. . .Handlingsprogram för svenskan i Finland. [Imagine if. . .Action plan for Swedish in Finland.] Språk i Norden 2006. 57–66.
Teleman, Ulf. 2002. Ära, rikedom & reda: Svensk språkvård och språkpolitik under äldre nyare tid. Stockholm: Norstedts Ordbok.
Teleman, Ulf. 2003. Tradis och funkis: Svensk språkvård och språkpolitik efter 1800. Stockholm: Norstedts Ordbok.
Thompson, Robert W. 1992. Spanish as a pluricentric language. In Clyne, Michael (1992), 45–70.
Trudgill, Peter. 1974. The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Trudgill, Peter. 1986. Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
Trudgill, Peter and Hannah, Jean. 1985. International English. London: Arnold.
Tykesson-Bergman, Ingela. 2006. Samtal i butik: Språklig interaktion mellan biträden och kunder. Stockholm Studies in Scandinavian Philology. New Series 41. Stockholm University.
Upton, Clive and Widdowson, John D. A.. 2006. An Atlas of English Dialects, second edition. London, New York: Routledge.
Vanderkerckhove, Reinhild. 2005. Belgian Dutch versus Netherlandic Dutch: New patterns of divergence? On pronouns of address and dimunitives. Multilingua, 24: 379–98.
Vermaas, J. A. M. 2002. Veranderingen in de Nederlandse aanspraakvormen van de dertiende t/m de twintigste eeuw. Utrecht: LOT.
Wahrig, Gerhard. 1977 [1968]. Deutsches Wörterbuch. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann.
Wales, Katie. 1996. Personal Pronouns in Present-Day English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wales, Katie. 2003. Second person pronouns in contemporary English: The end of a story or just the beginning? Franco-British Studies, 33–34: 172–85.
Wales, Katie. 2006. Northern English: A cultural and social history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Watts, Richard J. 1989. Relevance and relational work: Linguistic politeness as politic behaviour. Multilingua, 8: 131–66.
Watts, Richard J. 1991. Power in Family Discourse. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Watts, Richard J. 2003. Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Watts, Richard J., Ide, Sachiko and Ehlich, Konrad (eds.). 1992. Politeness in Language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Wellander, Erik. 1935. Tilltalsordet Ni. Stockholm: C.E. Fritzes Bokförlags Aktiebolag.
Winter, Joanne and Pauwels, Anne. 2007. Missing me and Msing the other: Courtesy titles for women in Englishes. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 30 (1): DOI:10.2104/aral0708.
Yli-Vakkuri, Valma. 2005. Politeness in Finland: Evasion at all costs. In Hickey, Leo and Stewart, Miranda (eds.). Politeness in Europe. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 189–202.
Zimmerman, Don. 1998. Identity, context and interaction. In Antaki, Charles and Widdicombe, Sue (eds.). Identities in Talk. London: Sage. 89–106.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.