Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 32
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Levesque, Roger J. R. 2018. Encyclopedia of Adolescence. p. 2188.

    Chan, Christian S. van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P. Igou, Eric R. Poon, Cyanea Y. S. Tam, Katy Y. Y. Wong, Venus U. T. and Cheung, S. K. 2018. Situational meaninglessness and state boredom: Cross-sectional and experience-sampling findings. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 42, Issue. 4, p. 555.

    Nishimura, Takuma Murakami, Tatsuya and Sakurai, Shigeo 2018. Do not overlook lonely children. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 35, Issue. 7, p. 956.

    Hsieh, Yi-Ping and Yen, Lee-Lan 2017. Trajectories of Loneliness and Aggression From Childhood to Early Adolescence in Taiwan: The Roles of Parenting and Demographic Predictors. The Journal of Early Adolescence, p. 027243161773762.

    Sharifi, Mehdi Mohammad-Aminzadeh, Dana Soleimani sefat, Erfan Sudmand, Nasrin and Younesi, Jalal 2017. Relationship of Deterministic Thinking With Loneliness and Depression in the Elderly. Salmand, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 276.

    Lodder, Gerine M. A. Scholte, Ron H. J. Goossens, Luc and Verhagen, Maaike 2017. Loneliness in Early Adolescence: Friendship Quantity, Friendship Quality, and Dyadic Processes. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Vol. 46, Issue. 5, p. 709.

    Liu, Junsheng Xiao, Bowen Hipson, Will E. Coplan, Robert J. Li, Dan and Chen, Xinyin 2017. Self-control, peer preference, and loneliness in Chinese children: A three-year longitudinal study. Social Development, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 876.

    Levesque, Roger J. R. 2016. Encyclopedia of Adolescence. p. 1.

    Grygiel, Paweł Humenny, Grzegorz and Rębisz, Sławomir 2016. Using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale With Early Adolescents. Assessment, p. 107319111668229.

    Nishimura, Takuma Murakami, Tatsuya and Sakurai, Shigeo 2015. The development of the Five-item Loneliness Scale for Children. The Japanese journal of psychology, Vol. 86, Issue. 4, p. 368.

    Muñiz Rivas, María Cuesta Roldan, Pepa Monreal Gimeno, MCarmen and Povedano Díaz, Amapola 2015. Violencia de pareja online y offline en la adolescencia: el rol de la soledad y del género. Revista sobre la infancia y la adolescencia, p. 85.

    Qualter, Pamela Vanhalst, Janne Harris, Rebecca Van Roekel, Eeske Lodder, Gerine Bangee, Munirah Maes, Marlies and Verhagen, Maaike 2015. Loneliness Across the Life Span. Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 10, Issue. 2, p. 250.

    Markovic, Andrea and Bowker, Julie C. 2015. Social Surrogacy and Adjustment: Exploring the Correlates of Having a “Social Helper” for Shy and Non-Shy Young Adolescents. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 176, Issue. 2, p. 110.

    van Roekel, Eeske Goossens, Luc Verhagen, Maaike Wouters, Sofie Engels, Rutger C. M. E. and Scholte, Ron H. J. 2014. Loneliness, Affect, and Adolescents' Appraisals of Company: An Experience Sampling Method Study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 350.

    Vanhalst, Janne Luyckx, Koen and Goossens, Luc 2014. Experiencing Loneliness in Adolescence: A Matter of Individual Characteristics, Negative Peer Experiences, or Both?. Social Development, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 100.

    Rönkä, Anna Reetta Rautio, Arja Koiranen, Markku Sunnari, Vappu and Taanila, Anja 2014. Experience of loneliness among adolescent girls and boys: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study. Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 183.

    Vanhalst, Janne Luyckx, Koen Scholte, Ron H. J. Engels, Rutger C. M. E. and Goossens, Luc 2013. Low Self-Esteem as a Risk Factor for Loneliness in Adolescence: Perceived - but not Actual - Social Acceptance as an Underlying Mechanism. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 41, Issue. 7, p. 1067.

    Asher, Steven R. and Weeks, Molly Stroud 2013. The Handbook of Solitude. p. 283.

    Schinka, Katherine C. VanDulmen, Manfred H. M. Bossarte, Robert and Swahn, Monica 2012. Association Between Loneliness and Suicidality During Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Longitudinal Effects and the Role of Demographic Characteristics. The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 146, Issue. 1-2, p. 105.

    Liepins, Maureen and Cline, Tony 2011. The development of concepts of loneliness during the early years in school. School Psychology International, Vol. 32, Issue. 4, p. 397.

  • Print publication year: 1999
  • Online publication date: October 2009

4 - Developmental Change in the Sources of Loneliness in Childhood and Adolescence: Constructing a Theoretical Model


Research on loneliness has demonstrated it to be a common experience during both childhood and adolescence. It is also an experience that varies both as a function of children's and adolescents' social lives and of their psychological characteristics (Asher et al., 1990; Hymel et al., 1983). However, the study of loneliness prior to adulthood has reached a point at which it could benefit from theoretical models regarding the factors and mechanisms contributing to loneliness at different ages. This chapter points to areas that need to be addressed by such theories, and it outlines a developmental theory of the sources of loneliness in childhood and adolescence.

In the course of developing a theoretical model, we address the following questions. First, because theories of loneliness have often been based on a particular understanding of what it refers to, we discuss a number of issues that affect the definition of loneliness. Second, several possible models of the relationship between social deficits and loneliness are considered. Third, the chapter discusses evidence regarding the emergence of loneliness, the cognitions and experiences associated with loneliness in childhood and adolescence, and the kinds of social relationships and relationship provisions that are valued at various ages. On the basis of these, a stage model is proposed. Fourth, these stages are used as a framework for suggestions regarding developmental changes in the skill deficits and the other emotions providing routes to loneliness. They are used to identify experiences at each stage that may produce lasting vulnerabilities to loneliness.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Loneliness in Childhood and Adolescence
  • Online ISBN: 9780511551888
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *