Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Carroll, Andrew McSherry, Bernadette Wood, Debra and Yannoulidis, L.L.B.(Hons.), Steven 2008. Drug-associated psychoses and criminal responsibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol. 26, Issue. 5, p. 633.

    CASTLE, DAVID 2008. Letter to the Editor: Drawing conclusions about cannabis and psychosis. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 38, Issue. 03,

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2004
  • Online publication date: December 2009

3 - Acute and subacute psychomimetic effects of cannabis in humans

Summary

Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for both its medicinal and psychomimetic effects. This chapter outlines the acute and subacute psychomimetic effects of cannabis in humans. Animal experiments with cannabis are not addressed here; the interested reader can find an account of such studies in Chapters 1 and 2 or refer to Adams and Martin (1996) or Chaperon and Thiebot (1999). Similarly, cannabis-associated psychotic disorders in humans are not dealt with here, as these are discussed in Chapters 5–7.

As we shall describe, the response of most people to cannabis is fairly stereotyped. Having said this, the experience of intoxication with any psychomimetic substance is influenced, inter alia, by dose; previous experience (and hence expectation of effect); the personal characteristics of the user (e.g. personality); and the context in which the drug is taken (O'Brien, 1996). Dose is particularly problematic with use of the plant C. sativa, as the proportional content of the major psychoactive compound (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC) varies widely between different strains of the plant, as well as being dependent upon the conditions under which the plant was cultivated. Furthermore, the part of the plant or the type of plant product consumed also affects the amount of THC ingested: for example, cannabis resin has a THC content of up to 10 times that of the traditional cigarette (Ashton, 2001).

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Marijuana and Madness
  • Online ISBN: 9780511543630
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543630
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
REFERENCES
Adams, I. B. and Martin, B. R. (1996). Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction, 91, 1585–1614
Ames, F. R. (1958). A clinical and metabolic study of acute intoxication with Cannabis sativa and its role in the model psychoses. J. Mental Sci., 104, 972–999
Ames, F. R. and Castle, D. J. (1996). Cannabis, mind, and mirth. Eur. Psychiatry, 11, 329–334
Arroya, S., Lesser, R. P., Gordob, B.et al. (1993). Mirth, laughter and gelastic seizures. Brain, 116, 757–780
Ashton, C. H. (2001). Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review. Br. J. Psychiatry, 178, 101–106
Atha, M. J. and Blanchard, S. (1997). Regular Users. Self-Reported Consumption Patterns and Attitudes Towards Drugs Among 1333 Regular Cannabis Users. London, UK: Independent Drug Monitoring Unit
Beardsley, P. M. and Kelly, T. H. (1999). Acute effects of cannabis on human behavior and central nervous system functions. In The Health Effects of Cannabis, ed. H. Kalant, W. Corrigall, W. Hall and R. Smart, pp. 129–169. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Beaubrun, M. H., and Knight, F. (1973). Psychiatric assessment of 30 chronic users of cannabis and 30 matched controls. Am. J. Psychiatry, 130, 309–311
Berke, J. and Hernton, C. (1974). The Cannabis Experience. London: Quartet Books
Berrendero, F. and Maldonado, R. (2002). Involvement of the opioid system in the anxiolytic-like effects induced by delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacology, 163, 111–117
Castle, D. J. and Ames, F. R. (1996). Cannabis and the brain. Aust. NZ J. Psychiatry, 30, 179–183
Chaperon, F. and Thiebot, M. H. (1999). Behavioral effects of cannabinoid agents in animals. Crit. Rev. Neurobiol., 13, 243–281
Degenhardt, L., Hall, W. and Lynskey, M. (2001). Alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use among Australians: a comparison of their associations with other drug use and use disorders, affective and anxiety disorders, and psychosis. Addiction, 96, 1603–1614
D'Souza, D. C., Wray, Y., MacDougall, L.et al. (2002). Cannabinoid–dopamine interactions and psychosis: effects of haloperidol in a cannabinoid ‘model’ psychosis. Schizophrenia Res., 53, 252–253
Dumas, P., Saoud, M., Bouafia, S.et al. (2002). Cannabis use correlates with schizotypal personality traits in healthy students. Psychiatry Res., 109, 27–35
Goode, E. (1970). The Marijuana Smokers. New York: Basic Books
Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J. B. (1993). Marihuana, the Forbidden Medicine. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Gruber, A. J., Pope, H. G. and Oliva, P. (1997). Very long-term users of marijuana in the United States: a pilot study. Substance Use Misuse, 32, 249–264
Hall, W. and Solowij, N. (1998). Adverse effects of cannabis. Lancet, 352, 1611–1616
Han, C. J. and Robinson, J. K. (2001). Cannabinoid modulation of time estimation in the rat. Behavi. Neurosci., 115, 243–246
Heishman, S. J. (2002). Effects of marijuana on human performance and assessment of driving impairment. In Biology of Marijuana: From Gene to Behaviour, ed. E. S. Onaivi, pp. 308–332. New York: Taylor and Francis
Huestis, M. A., Gorelick, D. A., Heishman, S. J.et al. (2001). Blockade of effects of smoked marijuana by the CB1-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 58, 322–328
Isbell, H., Gorodetzsky, C. W., Jasinski, D.et al. (1967). Effects of delta-9-trans-tetrahydro-cannabinol in man. Psychopharmacologia, 11, 184–188
Iversen, L. L. (2000). The Science of Marijuana. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Johns, A. (2001). Psychiatric effects of cannabis. Br. J. Psychiatry, 178, 116–122
Kathuria, S., Gaetani, S., Fegley, D.et al. (2003). Modulation of anxiety through blockade of anandamide hydrolysis. Nature Med., 9, 76–81
Kurzthaler, I., Hummer, M., Miller, C.et al. (1999). Effect of cannabis use on cognitive functions and driving ability. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 60, 395–399
Liguori, A., Gatto, C. P. and Robinson, J. H. (1998). Effects of marijuana on equilibrium, psychomotor performance and simulated driving. Behav. Pharmacol., 9, 599–609
Loeber, R. T. and Yurgelun-Todd, D. A. (1999). Human neuroimaging of acute and chronic marijuana use: implications for frontocerebellar dysfunction. Human Psychopharmacol. Clin. Exp., 14, 291–301
Ludlow, F. H. (1857). The Hasheesh Eater: Being Passages from the Life of a Pythagorean. New York: Harper
Marshall, C. R. (1897). The active principle of Indian hemp: a preliminary communication. Lancet, , 235–238
Mathew, R. J., Wilson, W. H., Turkington, T. G. and Coleman, R. E. (1998). Cerebellar activity and disturbed time sense after THC. Brain Res., 797, 183–189
Melges, F. T., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E. and Gillespie, H. K. (1971). Marijuana and the temporal span of awareness. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 24, 564–567
Mendelson, J. H., Kuehnle, J. C., Greenberg, I. and Mello, N. K. (1976). Operant acquisition of marihuana in man. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 198, 42–53
Musty, R. E. (2002). Cannabinoid therapeutic potential in motivational processes, psychological disorders and central nervous system disorders. In Biology of Marijuana: From Gene to Behavior, ed. E. S. Onaivi, pp. 45–74. London: Taylor & Francis
Navarro, M., Hernandez, E., Munoz, R. M.et al. (1997). Acute administration of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A induces anxiety-like responses in the rat. Neuroreport, 8, 491–496
Nowlis, V. (1965). Research with the mood adjective check list. In Affect, Cognition, and Personality, ed. S. Tomkins and C. Isard, pp. 352–389. New York: Springer
O'Brien, C. P. (1996). Drug addiction and drug abuse. In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 9th edn, ed. J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird, P. B. Molinoff, R. W. Ruddon and A. G. Gilman, pp. 557–577. New York: McGraw-Hill
Ogborne, A. C., Smart, R. G., Weber, T. and Birchmore-Timney, C. (2000). Who is using cannabis as a medicine and why: an exploratory study?J. Psychoact. Drugs, 32, 435–443
Paton, W. D. M. and Pertwee, R. G. (1973). The actions of cannabis in man. In Marihuana, ed. R. Mechoulam, pp. 287–333. New York: Academic Press
Pope, H. G., Ionescu-Pioggia, M., Aizley, H. G. and Varma, D. K. (1990). Drug use and life style among college undergraduates in 1989: a comparison with 1969 and 1978. Am. J. Psychiatry, 147, 998–1001
Reilly, D., Didcott, P., Swift, W. and Hall, W. (1998). Long-term cannabis use: characteristics of users in an Australian rural area. Addiction, 93, 837–846
Robson, P. (2001). Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids. Br. J. Psychiatry, 178, 107–115
Schwartz, R. H. (1987). Marijuana: an overview. Pediatr. Clin. North Am., 34, 305–317
Smiley, A. (1999). Marijuana: on-road and driving simulator studies. In The Health Effects of Cannabis, ed. H. Kalant, W. Corrigal, W. Hall and R. Smart, pp. 173–191. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Solowij, N. (1998). Cannabis and Cognitive Functioning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Solowij, N. (2002). Cannabis and cognitive functioning. In Biology of Marijuana: From Gene to Behaviour, ed. E. S. Onaivi, pp. 308–332. New York: Taylor and Francis
Stewart, S. H., Karp, J., Pihl, R. O. and Peterson, R. A. (1997). Anxiety sensitivity and self-reported reasons for drug use. J. Substance Abuse, 9, 223–240
Tennant, F. S. and Groesbeck, C. J. (1972). Psychiatric effects of hashish. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 27, 133–136
Thomas, H. (1996). A community survey of adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend., 42, 201–207
Troisi, A., Pasini, A., Saracco, M. and Spalletta, G. (1998). Psychiatric symptoms in male cannabis users not using other illicit drugs. Addiction, 93, 487–492
Tucker, P. and Westermeyer, J. (1995). Substance-abuse in patients with comorbid anxiety disorder – a comparative study. Am. J. Addict., 4, 226–233
Volkow, N. D., Gillespie, H., Mullani, N.et al. (1996). Brain glucose-metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication. Psychiatry Res.: Neuroimaging, 67, 29–38
Weil, A. (1970). Adverse reactions to marihuana. N. Engl. J. Med., 282, 997–1000
Williams, E. M. and Evans, F. J. (2000). Cannabinoids in clinical practice. Drugs, 60, 1303–1314