Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lyvers, Michael Jamieson, Reuben and Thorberg, Fred Arne 2013. Risky Cannabis Use is Associated with Alexithymia, Frontal Lobe Dysfunction, and Impulsivity in Young Adult Cannabis Users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 45, Issue. 5, p. 394.

    Bedi, G. and Redman, J. 2008. Ecstasy use and higher-level cognitive functions: weak effects of ecstasy after control for potential confounds. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 38, Issue. 09,

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2004
  • Online publication date: December 2009

13 - Residual cognitive effects of long-term cannabis use

Summary

Introduction

Previous chapters of this book have addressed the question of whether cannabis can cause or potentiate frank psychiatric syndromes such as psychotic disorders. Of course, the great majority of cannabis users, including even those who have used cannabis for decades, do not appear to exhibit serious psychiatric disorders (Gruber and Pope, 1996; Johns, 2001). But what about more subtle impairments? Do long-term heavy cannabis users experience residual deficits in cognition, even if they stop using cannabis for a substantial period?

This question has proven surprisingly difficult to answer, largely because of the formidable methodological problems confronting studies in this area. Although many of these same problems have been mentioned elsewhere in this volume, it is important to review them once again here. First, there is the problem of defining a ‘residual effect’. Presumably a ‘residual effect’ is an effect that persists after acute intoxication with cannabis has cleared. But how long an interval should be allowed between the last episode of cannabis use and the time of evaluation? Elsewhere (Pope et al., 2001a), we have suggested that effects present hours or days after last cannabis use, when cannabinoids are still present in the central nervous system (CNS), should be considered separately as ‘short-term residual effects’. In heavy cannabis users, such short-term effects may persist for many days or even weeks, since these individuals gradually accumulate a large burden of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in body fat stores, and this residue is only slowly excreted (Ashton, 2001).

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Marijuana and Madness
  • Online ISBN: 9780511543630
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543630
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
REFERENCES
Aronowitz, B., Liebowitz, M., Hollander, E.et al. (1994). Neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological findings in conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J. Neuropsychiatry, 6, 245–249
Ashton, C. H. (2001). Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review. Br. J. Psychiatry, 178, 101–106
Barkley, R. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol. Bull., 121, 65–94
Block, R. I. and Ghoneim, M. M. (1993). Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology, 110, 219–228
Bolla, K. I., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, K. and Cadet, J. L. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology, 59, 1337–1343
Bray, J. W., Zarkin, G. A., Ringwalt, C.et al. (2000). The relationship between marijuana initiation and dropping out of high school. Health Econ., 9, 9–18
Brown, J., Kranzler, H. R. and Del Boca, F. K. (1992). Self-reports by alcohol and drug abuse inpatients: factors affecting reliability and validity. Br. J. Addict., 87, 1013–1024
Budney, A. J., Novy, P. L. and Hughes, J. R. (1999). Marijuana withdrawal among adults seeking treatment for marijuana dependence. Addiction, 94, 1311–1322
Buschke, H. (1973). Selective reminding for analyses of memory and learning. J. Verbal Learning Verbal Behav., 12, 543–550
Chen, K. and Kandel, D. B. (1995). The natural history of drug use from adolescence to the mid-thirties in a general population sample. Am. J. Public Health, 85, 41–47
Colón, H. M., Robles, R. R. and Sahai, H. (2001). The validity of drug use responses in a household survey in Puerto Rico: comparison of survey responses of cocaine and heroin use with hair tests. Int. J. Epidemiol., 30, 1042–1049
Colón, H. M., Robles, R. R. and Sahai, H. (2002). The validity of drug use self-reports among hard-core drug users in a household survey in Puerto Rico: comparison of survey responses of cocaine and heroin use with hair tests. Drug Alcohol Depend., 67, 269–279
Croft, R. J., Mackay, A. J., Mills, A. T. D. and Gruzelier, J. G. H. (2001). The relative contributions of ecstasy and cannabis to cognitive impairment. Psychopharmacology, 153, 373–379
Ehrenreich, H., Rinn, T., Kunert, H. J.et al. (1999). Specific attentional dysfunction in adults following early start of cannabis use. Psychopharmacology, 142, 295–301
Fendrich, M., Johnson, T. P., Sudman, S., Wislar, J. S., Spiehler, V. (1999). Validity of drug use reporting in a high-risk community sample: a comparison of cocaine and heroin survey reports with hair tests. Am. J. Epidemiol., 149, 955–962
Fletcher, J. M., Page, B., Francis, D. J.et al. (1996). Cognitive correlates of long-term cannabis use in Costa Rican men. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 53, 1051–1057
Gorenstein, E. E. (1987). Cognitive–perceptual deficit in an alcoholism spectrum disorder. J. Studies Alcohol 48, 310–318
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C. and Natarajan, L. (2001). Long-term neurocognitive consequences of marijuana: a meta-analytic study. Presented at National Institute on Drug Abuse Workshop on Clinical Consequences of Marijuana, Rockville, MD, 13 August 2001. Available online at http://www.nida.nih.gov/MeetSum/marijuanaabstracts.html
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natarajan, L. and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis: a meta-analytic study. Presented at National Institute on Drug Abuse Workshop on Clinical Consequences of Marijuana, Rockville, MD, 13 August 2001. Available online atJ. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 9, 679–689
Gruber, A. J. and Pope, H. G. Jr. (1994). Cannabis psychotic disorder: does it exist?Am. J. Addict., 3, 72–83
Gruber, A. J. and Pope, H. G.Jr. (1996). Cannabis-related disorders. In Psychiatry, ed. A. Tasman, J. Kay and J. A. Lieberman, pp. 795–806. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders
Gruber, A. J. and Pope, H. G. Jr. (2002). Marijuana use in adolescents. Pediatr. Clin. North Am., 49, 389–413
Gruber, A. J., Pope, H. G. Jr and Brown, M. E. (1996). Do patients use marijuana as an anti-depressant?Depression, 4, 77–80
Gruber, A. J.Pope, H. G. Jr, Hudson, J. I. and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2003). Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: a case-control study. Psychol. Med., 33, 1415–1422
Hammer, T. and Vaglum, P. (1990). Initiation, continuation or discontinuation of cannabis use in the general population. Br. J. Addict., 85, 899–909
Haney, M., Ward, A. S., Comer, S. D., Foltin, R. W. and Fischman, M. W. (1999). Abstinence symptoms following smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology, 141, 395–404
Harrison, E. R., Haaga, J. and Richards, T. (1993). Self-reported drug use data: what do they reveal?Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse., 19, 423–441
Johns, A. (2001). Psychiatric effects of cannabis. Br. J. Psychiatry, 178, 116–122
Jones, R. T., Benowitz, N. L. and Herning, R. I. (1981). Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 21, 143S–152S
Kandel, D. B. and Chen, K. (2000). Types of marijuana users by longitudinal course. J. Studies Alcohol, 61, 367–378
Kandel, D. B. and Davies, M. (1992). Progression to regular marijuana involvement: phenomenology and risk factors for near daily use. In Vulnerability to Drug Abuse, ed. M. Glantz and R. Pickens, pp. 211–253. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Kouri, E. M. and Pope, H. G. Jr. (2000). Abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from chronic marijuana use. Exp. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 8, 483–492
Kouri, E. M., Pope, H. G. Jr and Lukas, S. E. (1999). Changes in aggressive behavior during withdrawal from long-term marijuana use. Psychopharmacology, 143, 302–308
Landfeld, P. W., Cadwallader, L. B. and Visant, S. (1988). Quantitative changes in hippocampal structure following long-term exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: possible mediation by glucocorticoid systems. Brain Res., 443, 47–62
Lueger, R. J. and Gill, K. J. (1990). Frontal-lobe cognitive dysfunction in conduct disorder adolescents. J. Clin. Psychol., 46, 696–706
Lyketsos, C. G., Garrett, E., Liang, K. Y. and Anthony, J. C. (1999). Cannabis use and cognitive decline in persons under 65 years of age. Am. J. Epidemiol., 149, 794–800
Lynskey, M. and Hall, W. (2000). The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: a review. Addiction, 95, 1621–1630
Mialet, J.-P., Pope, H. G. Jr and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1996). Impaired attention in depressive states: a non-specific deficit. Psychol. Med., 26, 1009–1020
Morgan, A. B. and Lilienfeld, S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 20, 113–136
Pennington, B. E. and Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J. Child Psychiatry Psychol., 37, 51–87
Pope, H. G. Jr. (2002). Cannabis, cognition and residual confounding. J.A.M.A., 287, 1172–1174
Pope, H. G. Jr and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1996). The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students. J.A.M.A., 275, 521–527
Pope, H. G. Jr, Gruber, A. J., and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1995). The residual neuropsychological effects of cannabis: the current status of research. Drug Alcohol Depend., 38, 25–34
Pope, H. G. Jr, Gruber, A. J. and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2001a). Residual neuropsychological effects of cannabis. Currt. Psychiatry Rep., 3, 507–512
Pope, H. G. Jr, Gruber, A. J., Hudson, J. I., Huestis, M. A. and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2001b). Neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 58, 909–915
Pope, H. G. Jr, Gruber, A. J., Hudson, J. I., Huestis, M. A. and Yurgleun-Todd, D. (2002). Cognitive measures in long-term cannabis users. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 42, 415–475
Pope, H. G. Jr, Gruber, A. J., Hudson, J. I., Cohane, G., Huestis, M. A. and Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2003). Early-onset cannabis use and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of the association?Drug Alcohol Depend, 69, 303–310
Rodgers, J. (2000). Cognitive performance amongst recreational users of “ecstasy”. Psychopharmacology, 151, 19–24
Rouse, B. A., Kozel, N. J. and Richards, L. G. (eds) (1985). Self-Report Methods of Estimating Drug Use: Meeting Current Challenges to Validity. NIDA research monograph 57. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
Schwartz, R. H., Gruenewald, P. J., Klitzner, M.et al. (1989). Short-term memory impairment in cannabis-dependent adolescents. Am. J. Dis. Child., 143, 1214–1219
Solowij, N. (1998). Cannabis and Cognitive Functioning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Solowij, N., Stephens, R. S., Roffman, R. A.et al. (2002). Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. J.A.M.A., 287, 1123–1131
Stiglick, A., and Kalant, H. (1985). Residual effects of chronic cannabis treatment on behaviour in mature rats. Psychopharmacology, 85, 346–349
Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised Manual. Cleveland, OH, Psychological Corporation
Wiesbeck, G. A., Schuckit, M. A., Kalmijn, J. A.et al. (1996). An evaluation of the history of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome in a large population. Addiction, 91, 1469–1478
Williamson, P. (1987). Hypofrontality in schizophrenia: a review. Can. J. Psychiatry, 32, 399–404
Wilson, W., Mathew, R., Turkington, T.et al. (2000). Brain morphological changes and early marijuana use: a magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography study. J. Addict. Dis., 19, 1–22