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    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

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    Roffman, Itai Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth Stadler, André Ronen, Avraham and Nevo, Eviatar 2015. Preparation and use of varied natural tools for extractive foraging by bonobos (Pan Paniscus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 158, Issue. 1, p. 78.


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    Raubenheimer, David and Rothman, Jessica M. 2013. Nutritional Ecology of Entomophagy in Humans and Other Primates. Annual Review of Entomology, Vol. 58, Issue. 1, p. 141.


    Smith, Tanya M. Kupczik, Kornelius Machanda, Zarin Skinner, Matthew M. and Zermeno, John P. 2012. Enamel thickness in Bornean and Sumatran orangutan dentitions. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 147, Issue. 3, p. 417.


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  • Print publication year: 1999
  • Online publication date: October 2009

4 - Intelligent tool use in wild Sumatran orangutans

Summary

INTRODUCTION

Until recently, there was limited evidence of tool use (sensu Beck, 1980) by wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and no evidence of tool manufacture, despite several long-term field studies in Borneo (Ulu Segama: MacKinnon, 1974; Tanjung Puting: Galdikas, 1982; Kutai: Rodman 1973; Mitani 1985; Suzuki, 1989; Gunung Palung: Mitani et al., 1991) and Sumatra (Ketambe, in Gunung Leuser: Rijksen, 1978; Sugardjito 1986; Utami & Mitrasetia, 1995). Orangutans had been observed using only “found objects” as tools (Byrne, 1995): simple, unmodified raw materials such as leaves to wipe off feces (MacKinnon, 1974), a pad of leaves for holding spiny durian fruit (S. Utami, personal communication), a leafy branch for a bee swatter (E. Fox, personal observation), a bunch of leafy branches held together as an “umbrella” while traveling in the rain (Rijksen, 1978; E. Fox, personal observation), a single stick as a backscratcher (Galdikas, 1982), and a branch or tree trunk as a missile (all studies). Because observations of flexible tool behavior in wild primates had been limited to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), it had often been suggested that the manufacture and flexible use of tools arose only in the chimpanzee–hominid clade (McGrew, 1992, 1993).

Such limited tool use by wild orangutans was inconsistent with observations of captive orangutans. In contrast to their wild counterparts, captive and rehabilitant orangutans demonstrated a rich array of flexible tool behavior, at least as complex as that demonstrated by chimpanzees under similar conditions (Lethmate, 1982; Russon & Galdikas, 1993, 1995). Why did captive and rehabilitant orangutans demonstrate such complex tool behavior, while wild orangutans remained relatively unsophisticated?

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The Mentalities of Gorillas and Orangutans
  • Online ISBN: 9780511542305
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511542305
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