Skip to main content
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: April 2016

1 - Introduction

Summary

Advancements in semiconductor technology have led to a steady increase in the unity power gain frequency (fmax) of silicon transistors, both in CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. This, in turn, enables realization of complex monolithic silicon integrated circuits operating at the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency range (typically defined as 30–300 GHz). Prime target applications of silicon mm-wave integrated systems include high-speed wireless access, satellite communications, high-resolution automotive radars, and imagers for security, industrial control, healthcare, and other applications. However, scaling of silicon transistors for high fmax comes at the expense of reduced breakdown voltages, and hence limitations on output voltage swing and power. The link range and energy consumption of wireless systems are direct functions of the transmitter output power and efficiency, respectively. Efficient generation and amplification of radio-frequency (RF) modulated waveforms using silicon transistors is an ongoing challenge due to the reduced breakdown voltage of scaled silicon transistors, loss of passive components, and the conventional linearity–efficiency trade-off. This book covers the fundamentals, technology options, circuit architectures, and practical demonstrations of mm-wave wireless transmitters realized in silicon technologies.

Why mm-waves?

The main motivation to operate the wireless systems at higher carrier frequencies is the larger available bandwidth which translates to higher data rate in communication systems and higher resolution in ranging and imaging systems. Furthermore, the size of the antenna and circuitry, typically proportional to the wavelength, reduces with increasing carrier frequency. On the other hand, operating at higher frequencies poses two fundamental challenges. First, the loss of most materials increases with the frequency; therefore, compared with radio and microwave frequencies (below 30 GHz) the electromagnetic wave at mm-wave frequencies is attenuated more as it propagates in an environment (Fig. 1.1). It should be noted that over the mm-wave spectrum there are “windows” of relatively lower attenuation around 35 GHz, 90 GHz, 140 GHz, etc., and, consequently, these bands are often selected for mm-wave applications; on the other hand, high atmospheric attenuation levels around frequencies such as 60 GHz enable more aggressive frequency reuse, and are therefore often selected for small cell or secure communications applications. Second, the performance of semiconductor devices worsens with frequency; this includes reduced gain, increased noise, and more nonlinearity at higher frequencies for a given technology.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

mm-Wave Silicon Power Amplifiers and Transmitters
  • Online ISBN: 9781107295520
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107295520
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
[1] S. Emami, et al., “A 60 GHz CMOS phased-array transceiver pair for multi-Gb/s wireless communications,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2011, pp. 164–166.
[2] T. Tsukizawa, et al., “A fully integrated 60 GHz CMOS transceiver chipset based on WiGig/IEEE802.11ad with built-in self calibration for mobile applications,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2013, pp. 230–231.
[3] M. Boers, et al, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2014, pp. 344–345.
[4] H. B. Wallace, “A W-band silicon based phased array for helicopter operations,” in IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems & Technology, October 2013, pp. 1–3.
[5] G. Patton, et al., “75-GHz fT SiGe-base heterojunction bipolar transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 171–173, April 1990.
[6] A. Schuppen, et al, “Multi emitter finger SiGe-HBTs with fmax up to 120 GHz,” in International Electron Device Meeting (IEDM) Technical Digest, December 1994, pp. 377–380.
[7] A. Gruhle, et al, “Monolithic 26 GHz and 40 GHz VCOs with SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor,” in International Electron Device Meeting (IEDM) Technical Digest, December 1995, pp. 725–728.
[8] H. Hashemi, et al., “A fully integrated 24 GHz 8-path phased-array receiver in silicon,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2004, pp. 390–391.
[9] A. Natarajan, et al., “A 24 GHz phased-array transmitter in 0.18µm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2005, pp. 212–213.
[10] A. Babakhani, et al., “A 77 GHz 4-element phased array receiver with on-chip dipole antennas in silicon,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2006, pp. 629–630.
[11] A. Natarajan, et al., “A 77 GHz phased-array transmitter with local LO-path phase-shifting in silicon,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2006, pp. 639–640.
[12] S. Reynolds, et al., “60 GHz transceiver circuits in SiGe bipolar technology,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2004, pp. 442–443.
[13] B. Floyd, et al., “A silicon 60 GHz receiver and transmitter chipset for broadband communications,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2006, pp. 649–650.
[14] C. Duan, et al., “Design of CMOS for 60 GHz applications,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2004, pp. 440–441.
[15] C. Duan, “60 GHz CMOS radio for Gb/s wireless LAN,” in IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium Digest, June 2004, pp. 225–228.
[16] B. Razavi, “A 60 GHz direct-conversion CMOS receiver,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), February 2005, pp. 400–401.
[17] B. Razavi, “CMOS transceivers for the 60-GHz band,” in IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium Digest, June 2006, pp. 1–4.
[18] T. Yao, et al., “65 GHz Doppler radar transceiver with on-chip antenna in 0.18µm SiGe BiCMOS,” in IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) Digest, June 2006, pp. 1493–1496.
[19] S. Voinigescu, et al., “SiGe BiCMOS for analog, high-speed digital and millimetre-wave applications beyond 50 GHz,” in Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, June 2006, pp. 1–6.
[20] S. Pinel, et al., “A 90 nm CMOS 60 GHz radio,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, February 2008, pp. 130–131.
[21] Kwang-Jin Koh and G. M. Rebeiz, “An X- and Ku-band 8-element linear phased array receiver,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, September 2007, pp. 761–764.
[22] Kwang-Jin Koh, J. W. May, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A Q-band (40–45 GHz) 16-element phased-array transmitter in 0.18µm SiGe BiCMOS technology,” in IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium Digest, June 2013, pp. 225–228.
[23] Sang Young Kim and G. M. Rebeiz, “A low-power BiCMOS 4-element phased array receiver for 7684 GHz radars and communication systems,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 359–367, February 2012.
[24] F. Golcuk, T. Kanar, and G. M. Rebeiz, “A 90–100-GHz 4 × 4 SiGe BiCMOS polarimetric transmit/receive phased array with simultaneous receive-beams capabilities,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3099–3114, August 2012.
[25] Yi-An Li, et al., “A fully integrated 77 GHz FMCW radar system in 65 nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, February 2010, pp. 216–217.
[26] Pang-Ning Chen, et al., “A 94 GHz 3D-image radar engine with 4TX/4RX beamforming scan technique in 65 nm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, February 2013, pp. 146–147.
[27] E. Cohen, et al., “A thirty-two element phased-array transceiver at 60 GHz with RF–IF conversion block in 90 nm flip chip CMOS process,” in IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium Digest, June 2010, pp. 457–460.
[28] K. Okada, et al., “A 60 GHz 16QAM/8PSK/QPSK/BPSK direct-conversion transceiver for IEEE 802.15.3c,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, February 2011, pp. 160–161.
[29] J. Hasch, et al., “Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 845–860, March 2012.
[30] J. Bock, et al., “SiGe bipolar technology for automotive radar applications,” in Bipolar/ BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, June 2004, pp. 84–87.
[31] I. Gresham, et al., “Ultra-wideband radar sensors for short-range vehicular applications,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2105–2122, September 2004.
[32] H. Forstner, et al, “A 16TX/16RX 60 GHz 802.11ad chipset with single coaxial interface and polarization diversity,” in IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Digest, June 2008, pp. 233–236.
[33] S. Trotta, et al., “An RCP packaged transceiver chipset for automotive LRR and SRR systems in SiGe BiCMOS technology,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 778–794, March 2012.
[34] P. Schmalenberg, et al., “A SiGe-based 16-channel phased array radar system at W-Band for automotive applications,” in European Radar Conference (EuRAD), June 2013, pp. 299–302.
[35] B. Ku, et al., “16-element phased-array receiver with 50? beam scanning for advanced automotive radars,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 2823–2832, November 2014.
[36] Zhouyue Pi and F. Khan, “An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 101–107, June 2011.
[37] S. Rangan, T. S. Rappaport, and E. Erkip, “Millimeter-wave cellular wireless networks: potentials and challenges,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 366–385, March 2014.
[38] D. Bojic, et al., “Advanced wireless and optical technologies for small-cell mobile backhaul with dynamic software-defined management,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 86–93, September 2013.
[39] R. Taori and A. Sridharan, “Point-to-multipoint in-band mm-wave backhaul for 5G networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 195–201, January 2015.
[40] U.S. Air Force. Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) Satellite System. [Online]. Available: http://www.losangeles.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=5319
[41] D. Brown and D. Schroeder, “Commercially hosted resilient communications,” in Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), November 2001, pp. 2227–2232.
[42] A. Einhorn and J. Miller, “Spectrum management issues related to the AEHF system,” in Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), October 2007, pp. 1–7.
[43] DARPA Microsystems Technology Office. DARPA-BAA-09-36, Efficient linearized allsilicon transmitter ICs (ELASTx). [Online]. Available: https://www.fbo.gov
[44] T. LaRocca, et al., “45 GHz CMOS transmitter SoC with digitally-assisted power amplifiers for 64QAM efficiency improvement,” in Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, June 2013, pp. 359–362.
[45] T. LaRocca, “A 64QAM 94 GHz CMOS transmitter SoC with digitally-assisted power amplifiers and thru-silicon waveguide power combiners,” in Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, June 2014, pp. 295–298.
[46] I. Abdomerovic, et al., “Leveraging integration: towards efficient linearized all-silicon mm-wave transmitter ICs,” IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 86–96, May 2014.