Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: March 2011

8 - The waning of empire, 861–945

from PART II - UNIVERSALISM AND IMPERIALISM
Summary
On a winter night in Samarra in 247/861, the caliph Jaqfar al-Mutawakkil held a carousing session with some companions and courtiers. With Samarra and Baghdad absorbed by inner conflict in the 860s and trying to recover from it during the following decades, most of the empire fell apart. Having acted as chief commander for al-Muqtazz's side during the civil war of 865, he enjoyed the respect of the soldiers. Brett sees ninth-century Ismailism as part of a larger brew of oppositional trends, the 'sectarian milieu' which John Wansbrough described as the religious and doctrinal environment of early Islam. Al-Mutadid achieved a reputation and popularity that went beyond the army, and his reign constituted the high point of what is known as the 'Abbasid restoration'. The decline of Abbasid power was felt throughout the Islamic world. A powerless Abbasid caliphate was still indispensable to the Buyids for several reasons, including their need for formal legitimacy.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The New Cambridge History of Islam
  • Volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries
  • Edited by Chase F. Robinson
  • Online ISBN: 9781139055932
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521838238
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
ʿArīb ibn Saʿd al-Kātib al-Qurṭubī, , Ṣilat Taʾrīkh al-Ṭabarī, Leiden, 1897.
Abū, Bakr al-Mālikī, Riyāḍ al-nufūs, 3 vols., Beirut, 1981.
al-Ṣūlī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad al-Shaṭranjī, Akhbār al-Rāḍī wal-Muttaqī, London, 1935, trans. Marius, Canard as Histoire de la dynastie abbaside de 322 à 333/933 à 944, 2 vols., Algiers, 1950.
al-Ṭabarī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr, Taʾrīkh al-rusul wal-mulūk, ed. Goeje, M. J. et al., 15 vols. in 3 series, Leiden, 1879–1901; trans. as The history of al-Ṭabarī, 39 vols., Albany, 1985–99: see vol. XXXIV, trans. Joel L. Kraemer as Incipient decline, Albany, 1989; vol. XXXV, trans. George Saliba as The crisis of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate, Albany, 1985; vol. XXXVI, trans. David Waines as The revolt of the Zanj, Albany, 1992; vol. XXXVII, trans. Philip M. Fields as The ʿAbbāsid recovery, Albany, 1987; vol. XXXVIII, trans. Franz Rosenthal as The return of the caliphate to Baghdad, Albany, 1985.
al-Balawī, ʿAbdallāh ibn Muḥammad, Sīrat Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn, Damascus, 1939.
al-Hamadhānī, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Malik, Takmilat Taʾrīkh al-Ṭabarī, Leiden, 1897.
al-Iṣṭakhri, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm, Kitāb al-masālik wal-mamālik, Leiden, 1870.
al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, Abū Bakr Aḥmad, Taʾrīkh Baghdād, 14 vols., Cairo, 1931.
al-Maqrīzī, Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī, Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ bi-akhbār al-aʾimma al-fāṭimiyyīn al-khulafāʾ, Cairo, 1967.
al-Masʿūdī, ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn, Kitāb al-tanbīh wal-ishrāf, Leiden, 1894.
al-Masʿūdī, ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn, Murūj al-dhahab wa-maʿādin al-jawhar, 5 vols., Beirut, 1966–74.
al-Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān, , Iftitāḥ al-dawla wa-ibtidāʾ al-daʿwa, ed. W. al-Qāḍī, , Beirut, 1970; ed. F. Dachraoui [Dashrāwī], Tunis, 1975.
al-Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān, , al-Majālis wal-musāyarāt, Tunis, 1978.
al-Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad ibn Abī Yaʿqūb ibn Wāḍiḥ, Kitāb al-buldān, Leiden, 1892.
al-Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad ibn Abī Yaʿqūb ibn Wāḍiḥ, Taʾrīkh, Leiden, 1883.
Ali, Samer, ‘Praise for murder? Two odes by al-Buḥturī surrounding an ʿAbbasid patricide’, in Gruendler, Beatrice and Louise, Marlow (eds.), Writers and rulers, Wiesbaden, 2004 –38.
,Anon., Tārīkh-i Sīstān, ed. Malik al-Shuʿarāʾ Bahār, Tehran, 1935; trans. Milton, Gold as Literary and historical texts from Iran, vol. II, Rome, 1976.
Bacharach, J., ‘The career of Muḥammad ibn Ṭughj al-Ikhshīd’, Speculum, 50 (1975) –612.
Bianquis, Thierry, ‘Autonomous Egypt from Ibn Ṭūlūn to Kāfūr, 868–969’, in Petry, Carl F. (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt, vol. I: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, Cambridge, 1998, 86–119.
Bonner, Michael, Jihad in Islamic history: Doctrines and practices, Princeton, 2006.
Bonner, Michael, ‘al-Khalīfa al-Marḍī: The accession of Hārūn al-Rashīd’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 109, 1 (1988) –91.
Bosworth, C. E., The history of the Ṣaffārids of Sīstān and the Maliks of Nimrūz (247/861 to 949/1542), Costa Mesa and New York, 1994.
Bosworth, C. E., ‘The armies of the Ṣaffārids’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 31 (1968) –54.
Bosworth, C. E., The new Islamic dynasties: A chronological and genealogical manual, New York, 1996.
Bosworth, C. E.,‘Ṣanawbarī’s elegy on the pilgrims slain in the Carmathian attack on Mecca (317/930): A literary-historical study’, Arabica, 19, 3 (1972) –39.
Bosworth, C. E.,‘The Ṭāhirids and Arabic culture’, Journal of Semitic Studies, 14 (1969) –79.
Bosworth, C. E., ‘The Ṭāhirids and Ṣaffārids’, in Frye, R. N. (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975 –135.
Bowen, H., The life and times of ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā, the ‘Good Vizier’, Cambridge, 1928.
Bray, Julia, ‘Samarra in ninth-century Arabic letters’, in Robinson, Chase F. (ed.), A medieval Islamic city reconsidered: An interdisciplinary approach to Samarra, Oxford Studies in Islamic Art 14, Oxford, 2001 –8.
Brett, Michael, The rise of the Fatimids: The world of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the fourth century of the hijra, tenth century CE, Leiden, 2001.
Brett, Michael, ‘The Mīm, the ʿAyn, and the making of Ismāʿīlism’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 57 (1994) –39; repr. in Michael Brett, Ibn Khaldūn and the medieval Maghrib, Aldershot, 1999.
Brett, Michael, ‘The way of the peasant’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 47, 1 (1984) –56.
Brett, Michael, The rise of the Fatimids: The world of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the fourth century of the hijra, tenth century CE (Leiden, 2000), p. 80
Brett, Michael, Ibn Khaldūn and the medieval Maghrib (Aldershot, 1999)
Bulliett, Richard, Conversion to Islam in the medieval period: An essay in quantitative history, Cambridge, MA, 1979.
Busse, H., ‘Das Hofbudget des Chalifen al-Muʿtaḍid billāh’, Islam, 43 (1967) –36.
Cahen, C., ‘L’évolution de l’iqṭāʿ du IXe au XIIIe siècle: Contribution à une histoire comparée des sociétés médiévales’, in C. Cahen, Les peuples musulmans dans l’histoire médiévale, Damascus, 1977, 231–69; first published in Annales, Economies-Sociétés-Civilisations, 7 (1953), 25–52.
Cahen, C., Mouvements populaires et autonomisme urbain dans l’Asie musulmane du moyen âge, Leiden, 1959.
Canard, M., Histoire de la dynastie des H’amdanides de Jazira et de Syrie, Paris, 1953.
Canard, Marius as Histoire de la dynastie abbaside de 322 à 333/933 à 944, 2 vols. (Algiers, 1950)
Chabbi, Jacqueline, ‘Remarques sur le développement historique des mouvements ascétiques et mystiques au Khurasan’, Studia Islamica, 46 (1977) –72.
Chamberlain, Michael, Knowledge and social practice in medieval Damascus, 1190–1350, Cambridge, 1994.
Cobb, Paul, ‘al-Mutawakkil’s Damascus: A new ʿAbbāsid capital?’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 58 (1999) –57.
Crone, Patricia, God’s rule: Government and Islam, New York, 2004.
Crone, Patricia, and Martin, Hinds, God’s caliph: Religious authority in the first centuries of Islam, Cambridge, 1986.
Puente, Cristina, ‘El Ŷihād en el califato omeya de al-Andalus y su culminación bajo Hišām II’, in Fernando Valdés, Fernández (ed.), Almanzor y los terrores del Milenio, Aguilar de Campoo, 1999 –38.
Frye, Richard N., The golden age of Persia: The Arabs in the east, London, 1975.
Frye, Richard N., ‘The Samanids’, in Frye, R. N. (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975 –61.
Gordon, Matthew, The breaking of a thousand swords: A history of the Turkish military community of Samarra (AH 200–275 – 815–899 CE), Albany, 2001.
Haarmann, Ulrich (ed.), Geschichte der arabischen Welt, Munich, 1987.
Halm, Heinz, The empire of the Mahdi: The rise of the Fatimids, trans. Michael, Bonner, Leiden, 1996.
Halm, Heinz, Die Traditionen über den Aufstand ʿAlī Ibn Muḥammads, des ‘Herrn der Zanğ’: Eine quellenkritische Untersuchung, Bonn, 1967.
Hilāl ibn al-Muḥassin al-Ṣābī, , Rusūm dār al-khilāfa, Beirut, 1964; repr. Beirut, 1986.
Hilāl ibn al-Muḥassin al-Ṣābī, , Tuḥfat al-umarāʾ fi taʾrīkh al-wuzarāʾ, Cairo, 1958.
Ibn Ḥawqal, , Ṣūrat al-arḍ, Leiden, 1938.
Ibn al-Athīr, ʿIzz al-Dīn, al-Kāmil fī l-taʾrīkh, Beirut, 1418/1998.
Ibn Khurradādhbih, Abū l-Qasim ʿUbaydallāh, al-Masālik wal-mamālik, Leiden, 1889.
Kennedy, Hugh, Muslim Spain and Portugal: A political history of al-Andalus, London and New York, 1996.
Kennedy, Hugh, The Prophet and the age of the caliphates, 2nd edn, Harlow, 2004.
Kimber, Richard, ‘The succession to the caliph Mūsā al-Hādī’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121, 3 (2001) –48.
Kraemer, Joel L., Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The cultural revival during the Buyid age, Leiden, 1993.
Kraemer, Joel L. as Incipient decline (Albany, 1989), pp. 170–84
Lewis, Bernard, The Arabs in history, London, 1958.
Madelung, W., ‘The minor dynasties of northern Iran’, in Frye, R. N. (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975, 198–249.
Margoliouth, D. S. in The eclipse of the ʿAbbasid caliphate: Original chronicles of the fourth Islamic century, vol. V (Oxford, 1921) –5
Massignon, Louis, The Passion of al-Ḥallāj, trans. Herbert, Mason, 4 vols., Princeton, 1980.
Melchert, Christopher, ‘Religious policies of the caliphs from al-Mutawakkil to al-Muqtadir, AH 232–295/AD 847–908’, Islamic Law and Society, 3 (1996) –42.
Mez, A., The renaissance of Islam, trans. Khuda, Bakhsh, London, 1937.
Miles, George, The numismatic history of Rayy, New York, 1938.
Minorsky, Vladimir, ‘La domination des Dailamites’, Société des Etudes Iraniennes, 3 (1932) –26.
Miquel, André, La géographie humaine du monde musulman, 4 vols., Paris and The Hague, 1967–.
Miskawayh, Abū ʿAlī al-Rāzī, Tajārib al-umam, ed. Emami, A., Tehran, 2001; partial ed. and trans. H. F. Amedroz and D. S. Margoliouth in The eclipse of the ʿAbbasid caliphate: Original chronicles of the fourth Islamic century, vols. I–II, IV–V, London, 1921.
Mottahedeh, R. P., ‘The ʿAbbāsid caliphate in Iran’, in Frye, R. N. (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975, 57–89.
Mottahedeh, R. P., Loyalty and leadership in an early Islamic society, Princeton, 1980; repr. 2001.
Muth, Franz-Christoph, ‘“Entsetzte” Kalifen: Depositionsverfahren im mittelalterlichen Islam’, Der Islam, 75 (1998) –23.
Nuʿaym ibn Ḥammād, , Kitāb al-fitan, Beirut, 1993.
Nuʿmān, Qāḍī, Iftitāḥ al-dawla wa-btidāʾ al-daʿwa, ed. Dachraoui, F. [Dashrāwī] (Tunis, 1975)
Jürgen, Paul, The state and the military: The Samanid case, Papers on Inner Asia 26, Bloomington, 1994.
Paul, Jürgen, Herrscher, Gemeinwesen, Vermittler: Ostiran und Transoxanien in vormongolischer Zeit, Beirut and Stuttgart, 1996.
Paul, Jürgen, ‘The histories of Samarqand’, Studia Iranica, 22 (1993) –92.
Popovic, A., The revolt of African slaves in the 3rd/9th century, Princeton, 1998.
Qudāma ibn Jaʿfar, , Kitāb al-kharāj wa-ṣināʿat al-kitāba, ed. al-Zubaydi, M. H., Baghdad, 1981.
Robinson, Chase (ed.), A medieval city reconsidered: An interdisciplinary approach to Samarra, Oxford Studies in Islamic Art 14, Oxford, 2001.
Rosenthal, Franz, A history of Muslim historiography, Leiden, 1968.
Sabari, S., Mouvements populaires à Bagdad à l’époque ʿAbbaside, IXe–XIe siècles, Paris, 1981.
Sato, Tsugitaka, ‘The iqṭāʿ system of Iraq under the Buwayhids’, Orient, 18 (1982) –105.
Sato, Tsugitaka, State and society in medieval Islam: Sultans, muqṭaʿs and fallāḥūn, Leiden, 1997.
Savage, Elizabeth, A gateway to hell, a gateway to paradise: The North African response to the Arab conquest, Princeton, 1997.
Scott-Meisami, Julie, ‘The palace-complex as emblem: Some Samarran qasidas’, in Robinson, Chase F. (ed.), A medieval Islamic city reconsidered: An interdisciplinary approach to Samarra, Oxford Studies in Islamic Art 14, Oxford, 2001 –78.
Sourdel, Dominique, Le vizirat ʿabbaside de 749 à 936, 2 vols., Damascus, 1959–60.
Samuel Miklos, Stern, ‘Yaʿqūb the Coppersmith and Persian national sentiment’, in Bosworth, C. E. (ed.), Iran and Islam, in memory of Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburgh, 1971 –55.
Talbi, Mohamed, L’émirat aghlabide (184–296/800–909): Histoire politique, Paris, 1966.
Tor, Deborah G., Violent order: Religious warfare, chivalry, and the ʿAyyār phenomenon in the medieval Islamic world, Istanbuler Texte und Studien 11, Würzburg, 2007.
Tor, Deborah G., ‘A numismatic history of the first Ṣaffārid dynasty (AH 247–300/AD 861–911)’, Numismatic Chronicle, 162 (2002) –314.
Vasiliev, A. A., and Marius, Canard, Byzance et les Arabes, vol. II, part 1, Brussels, 1968.
Waines, D., ‘The third-century internal crisis of the ʿAbbasids’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 20 (1977) –306.
Walker, Paul, ‘The Ismāʿīlī daʿwa and the Fatimid caliphate’, in Petry, Carl F. (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt, vol. I: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, Cambridge, 1998 –50.
Walker, Paul, Exploring an Islamic empire: Fatimid history and its sources, London and New York, 2002.
Wansbrough, John, The sectarian milieu: Content and composition of Islamic salvation history, Oxford, 1978.
Wittek, Paul, The rise of the Ottoman empire, London, 1938.