Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 2000
  • Online publication date: March 2008

(b) - The Reign of Richard II

from 13 - The British Isles
The reign of Richard II coincided in England with a period of opportunity, competition and experiment. Richard of Bordeaux was not born to be king: he was third in the line of succession. The continual councils had been discontinued in 1380 and from then on Richard was in nominal charge of the government. His attention to business appears to have been fitful. The difficulty for Richard was that political crises are not always susceptible of legal solutions. On 3 May 1389 Richard summoned a great council of his lords to Westminster and there formally announced his intention, now that he had reached his majority of shouldering the burden of ruling his kingdom himself. The reign of Richard II witnessed some remarkable changes, many of them nurtured by a declining population and rising prosperity; new attitudes to religious practice and belief; widespread use of written English by all classes of society.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The New Cambridge Medieval History
  • Online ISBN: 9781139055741
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
A Book of London English 1384–1425, ed. Chambers, R.W. and Daunt, M., Oxford (1931)
A Metrical History of the Deposition of Richard II attributed to Jean Creton’, ed. Webb, J., Archaeologia 20 (1814)
Alexander, J. and Binski, P. (eds.) (1987), The Age of Chivalry. Art in Plantagenet England, 1200–1400, London
Alexander, J.G. (1998), ‘The Portrait of Richard II in Westminster Abbey’, in Gordon, , Monnas and Elam (1998)
An English Chronicle of the Reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI, ed. Davies, J.S., Camden Soc., London (1856)
Annales Monasterii Sancti Albani a Johanne Amundesham, ed. Riley, H.T., 2 vols., RS, London (1870–1).
Annales Ricardi Secundi et Henrici Quarti, in de Trokelowe, J., Chronica et Annales, ed. Riley, H.T., RS, London (1866)
Anonimalle Chronicle 1338–81, ed. Galbraith, V.H., Manchester (1927)
Aston, M. (1960),‘Lollardy and Sedition, 1381–1431’, P&P 17; repr. in Hilton, R. H. (ed.), Peasants, Knights and Heretics, Cambridge (1973)
Aston, M. (1965), ‘The Impeachment of Bishop Despenser’, BIHR 38
Aston, M. (1967), Thomas Arundel, Oxford
Aston, M. (1971), ‘Richard II and the Wars of the Roses’, in Boulay, Du and Barron, (1971)
Aston, M. (1987),‘Wyclif and the Vernacular’, in Hudson, A. and Wilks, M. (eds.), From Ockham to Wyclif, (Studies in Church History, Subsidia 5)
Aston, M. and Richmond, C. (eds.) (1997), Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages, Stroud
Atkinson, R.L. (1923), ‘Richard II and the Death of the Duke of Gloucester’, EHR 38
Baldwin, J.F. (1913), The King’s Council in England during the Middle Ages, Oxford
Barker, J.R.V. (1986), The Tournament in England 1100–1400, Woodbridge
Barron, C.M. (1968), ‘The Tyranny of Richard II’, BIHR 41
Barron, C.M. (1969),‘Richard Whittington: The Man behind the Myth’, in Hollaender, A.E.J. and Kellaway, W. (eds.), Studies in London History Presented to P.E. Jones, London
Barron, C.M. (1971), ‘The Quarrel of Richard II with London 1392–1397’, in Boulay, Du and Barron, (1971)
Barron, C.M. (1981), Revolt in London. 11th to 14th June 1381, London
Barron, C.M. (1985), ‘The Art of Kingship: Richard II 1377–1399’, HT 35
Barron, C.M. (1990), ‘The Deposition of Richard II’, Taylor, and Childs, , (1990)
Barron, C.M. (1993), ‘Richard II: Image and Reality’, in Gordon, (1993)
Barron, C.M. and Sutton, A. (eds.) (1994), Medieval London Widows 1300–1500, London
Bean, J.M.W. (1959), ‘Henry IV and the Percies’, History 44
Bellamy, J.G. (1964–5), ‘The Northern Rebellions of the Later Years of Richard II’, BJRL 47
Bennett, M.J. (1983), Community, Class and Careerism. Cheshire and Lancashire Society in the Age of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Cambridge
Bennett, M.J. (1998), ‘Edward III’s Entail and the Succession to the Crown, 1376–1471’, EHR 113
Binski, P. (1995), Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets. Kingship and the Representation of Power 1200–1400, New Haven and London
Bird, R. (1949), The Turbulent London of Richard II, London
Brewer, D.S. (1973), Chaucer, 3rd edn, London
Brooks, N. (1985), ‘The Organisation and Achievement of the Peasants of Kent and Essex in 1381’, in Mayr-Harting, H. and Moore, R.I. (eds.), Studies in Medieval History Presented to R.H.C. Davis, London
Brown, R.A., Colvin, H.M. and Taylor, A.J. (eds.) (1963), History of the King’s Works. The Middle Ages, 2 vols., London
Burrow, J.A. (1971), Ricardian Poetry. Chaucer, Gower, Langland and the Gawain Poet, London
Calendar of Close Rolls 1377–1399, 6 vols., HMSO, London (1914–27)
Calendar of Fine Rolls 1377–1399, 3 vols., HMSO, London (1926–9)
Calendar of Papal Registers, iv: 1362–1404, HMSO, London (1904)
Calendar of Patent Rolls 1377–1399, 6 vols., HMSO, London (1895–1909)
Calendar of Select Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London, 1381–1412, ed. Thomas, A.H., Cambridge (1932)
Calendar of the Cartularies of John Pyel and Adam Fraunceys, ed. O’Connor, S.J., Royal Historical Society, Camden 5th series II, London (1993)
Calendar of the Letter Books of the City of London … Letter Book H, ed. Sharpe, R. R., London (1907)
Campbell, M. (1998), ‘White Harts and Coronets: The Jewellery and Plate Collection of Richard II’, in Gordon, , Monnas, and Elam, (1998)
Carey, H. (1992), Courting Disaster, London
Catto, J.I. (1981), ‘Religion and the English Nobility in the Later Fourteenth century’, in Lloyd-Jones, H., Pearl, V. and Worden, B. (eds.), History and the Imagination. Essays in Honour of H.R. Trevor-Roper, London
Catto, J.I. (1992), ‘Wyclif and Wycliffism at Oxford, 1356–1403’, in Catto, J.I. and Evans, T.A.R. (eds.), The History of the University of Oxford, 11:Late Mediaeval Oxford, Oxford
Cavanaugh, S. (1988), ‘Royal Books: King John to Richard II’, The Library 10
Chaucer Life Records, ed. Crow, M.M. and Olson, C.C., Oxford (1966)
Chrimes, S.B. (1956), ‘Richard II’s Questions to the Judges’, Law Quarterly Review 72
Chronicles of London, ed. Kingsford, C.L., Oxford (1905)
Chronicles of the Revolution, 1397–1400, ed. Given-Wilson, C., Manchester (1993)
Chronicon Adae de Usk, ed. Thompson, E.M., London (1904)
Chronicon Anglie 1328–1388, ed. Thompson, E.M., RS, London (1874)
Chronicon de la Traison et Mort de Richart II, ed. Williams, B., London (1846)
Chronique du Religieux de Saint-Denys, ed. Bellaguet, L.F., 6 vols., Paris (1839–52); repr. 1994, with introduction by Guenée, B.
Chroniques de J. Froissart, ed. Luce, S. et al., 15 vols., SHF, Paris (1869–1975, continuing)
Clarke, M.V. (1931), ‘The Wilton Diptych’, Burlington Magazine 68; repr. in her Fourteenth Century Studies, ed. Sutherland, L.S. and McKisack, M., Oxford (1968)
Clarke, M.V. (1932), ‘Forfeitures and Treason in 1388’, TRHS 4th series, 14
Clarke, M.V. and Galbraith, V.H. (1930), ‘The Deposition of Richard II’, BJRL 14; repr. in ibid.
Clementi, D. (1971), ‘Richard II’s Ninth Question to the Judges’, EHR 86
Coleman, O. (1969), ‘The Collectors of Customs in London under Richard II’, in Hollaender, A.E.J. and Kellaway, W. (eds.), Studies in London History Presented to P.E. Jones, London
Cosgrove, A. (1987), ‘England and Ireland, 1399–1447’, in Cosgrove, A. (ed.), A New History of Ireland, II: Medieval Ireland, 1169–1534, Oxford
Crook, D. (1987), ‘Derbyshire and the English Rising of 1381’, HR 60
Crook, D. (1991), ‘Central England and the Revolt of the Earls’, HR 64
Curtis, E. (1927a), Richard II in Ireland, 1394–5, and the Submission of the Irish Chiefs, Oxford
Curtis, E. (1927b), ‘Unpublished Letters from Richard II in Ireland’, PRIA 37
Dahmus, J. (1966), William Courtenay, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1381–1396, Philadelphia
Davies, R.G. (1971), ‘Some Notes from the Register of Henry de Wakefield, Bishop of Worcester, on the Political Crisis of 1386–1388’, EHR 86
Davies, R.G. (1975a), ‘Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, 1374–1388’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 47
Davies, R.G. (1975b), ‘Richard II and the Church in the Years of “Tyranny”’, JMH 1
Davies, R.G. (1976), ‘The Episcopate and the Political Crisis in England of 1386–1388’, Speculum 51
Davies, R.R. (1971), ‘Richard II and the Principality of Chester’, in Boulay, Du and Barron, (1971)
Diplomatic Correspondence of Richard II, ed. Perroy, E., Camden 3rd series, XLVIII, London (1933)
Dobson, R.B. (1989), ‘Beverley in Conflict: Archbishop Alexander Neville and the Minster Clergy, 1381–8’, in Wilson, C. (ed.), Medieval Art and Architecture in the East Riding of Yorkshire, Brit. Arch. Assn., 9, London
Du Boulay, F.R.H. and Barron, C.M. (1971), The Reign of Richard II. Essays in Honour of May McKisack, London
Dyer, C. (1984), ‘The Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381’, in Hilton, and Aston, (1984)
Eberle, P.J. (1985), ‘The Politics of Courtly Style at the Court of Richard II’, in Burgess, G.S. and Taylor, R.A. (eds.), The Spirit of the Court. Selected proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the International Courtly Literature Society, Woodbridge
Edwards, J.G. (1925), ‘The Parliamentary Committee of 1398’, EHR 40; repr. in Fryde, E.B. and Miller, E. (eds.), Historical Studies of the English Parliament, 1, Cambridge (1970)
Emden, A.B. (1957–9), A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to AD 1500, 3 vols., Oxford
Emden, A.B. (1963), A Biographical Register of the University of Cambridge to 1500, Cambridge
English Historical Documents 1327–1485, ed. Myers, A.R., London (1969)
Eulogium Historiarum sive Temporis, ed. Haydon, F.S., 3 vols., RS, London (1858–63)
Faith, R. (1984), ‘The “Great Rumour” of 1377 and Peasant Ideology’, in Hilton, and Aston, (1984)
Favent, Thomas, ‘Historia sive Narracio Mirabilis Parliamenti’, ed. McKisack, M., Camden Miscellany XIV, Camden 3rd series, XXXVII, London (1926)
Ferris, S. (1974), ‘Chaucer, Richard II, Henry IV and 13 October’, in Rowland, B. (ed.), Chaucer and Middle English Studies in Honour of Rossell Hope Robbins, London
Fisher, J.H. (1965), John Gower, Moral Philosopher and Friend of Chaucer, London
Frame, R. (1975), ‘English Officials and Irish Chiefs in the Fourteenth Century’, EHR 90
Froissart, J., Chronicles, ed. Johnes, T., 2 vols., London (1862)
Fryde, E.B. (1981), The Great Revolt of 1381, Historical Association, London
Galbraith, V.H. (1942), ‘A New Life of Richard II’, History 26
Galbraith, V.H. (1971), ‘Thoughts about the Peasants’ Revolt’, in Boulay, Du and Barron, (1971)
Gillespie, J.L. (1975), ‘Thomas Mortimer and Thomas Molineux; Radcot Bridge and the Appeal of 1397’, Albion 7
Gillespie, J.L. (1985), ‘Ladies of the Fraternity of St George and of the Society of the Garter’, Albion 17
Gillespie, J.L. (1987), ‘Richard II’s Knights: Chivalry and Patronage’, JMH 13
Gillespie, J.L. (ed.) (1997a), The Age of Richard II, Stroud
Gillespie, J.L. (1997b), ‘Richard II: King of Battles?’, in Gillespie, (1997a)
Gillingham, J. (1987), ‘Crisis or Continuity? The Structure of Royal authority in England 1396–1422’, in Schneider, R. (ed.), Das Spätmittelalterliche Königtum im Europäischen Vergleich, Sigmaringen
Given-Wilson, C. (1978), ‘Richard II and his Grandfather’s Will’, EHR 93
Given-Wilson, C. (1986), The Royal Household and the King’s Affinity. Service Politics and Finance in England 1360–1413, New Haven and London
Given-Wilson, C. (1993a), ‘Adam Usk, the Monk of Evesham and the Parliament of 1397–8’, HR 66
Given-Wilson, C. (1993b), ‘The Manner of King Richard’s Renunciation: A “Lancastrian Narrative”?’, EHR 108
Given-Wilson, C. (1994), ‘Richard II, Edward II and the Lancastrian Inheritance’, EHR 109
Goodman, A. (1971), The Loyal Conspiracy. The Lords Appellant under Richard II, London
Goodman, A. (1992), John of Gaunt. The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe, London
Goodman, A. and Gillespie, J.L. (1999), Richard II: The Art of Kingship, London
Gordon, D. (1992), ‘A New Discovery in the Wilton Diptych’, Burlington Magazine 134
Gordon, D. (ed.) (1993), Making and Meaning. The Wilton Diptych, London
Gordon, D., Monnas, L. and Elam, C. (eds.) (1998), The Regal Image of Richard II and the Wilton Diptych, London
Gransden, A. (1982), Historical Writing in England, 11: c.1307 to the Early Sixteenth Century, London
Grant, A. (1992), ‘The Otterburn War from the Scottish Point of View’, in Tuck, A. and Goodman, A. (eds.), War and Border Societies in the Middle Ages, London
Green, R.F. (1976), ‘King Richard II’s Books Revisited’, The Library 31
Green, R.F. (1980), Poets and Princepleasers. Literature and the English Court in the Late Middle Ages, Toronto
Hansen, H.M. (1980), ‘The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 and the Chronicles’, JMH 6
Harvey, B.F. (1965), ‘Draft Letters Patent of Manumission and Pardon for the Men of Somerset’, EHR 80
Harvey, J.H. (1961), ‘The Wilton Diptych – a Re-Examination’, Archaeologia 98
Harvey, J.H. (1967), The Plantagenets, London
Harvey, J.H. (1971), ‘Richard II and York’, in Du Boulay, and Barron, (1971)
Hector, L.C. (1953), ‘An Alleged Hysterical Outburst of Richard II’, EHR 68
Hilton, R.H. (1962), ‘Peasant Movements in England before 1381’, EcHR 2nd series 2 (1949), reprinted in Carus-Wilson, E.M. (ed.), Essays in Economic History, London 11
Hilton, R.H. (1973), Bond Men Made Free. Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381, London
Hilton, R.H. and Aston, T.H. (1984), The English Rising of 1381, Cambridge
Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi, ed. Stow, G.B., Philadelphia (1977)
Holmes, G.A. (1957), The Estates of the Higher Nobility in Fourteenth-Century England, Cambridge
Holmes, G.A. (1975), The Good Parliament of 1376, Oxford
Holt, R. (1985), ‘Thomas of Woodstock and Events at Gloucester in 1381’, BIHR 58
Household Accounts from Medieval England, ed. Woolgar, C.M., 2 vols., London (1992–3)
Housley, N. (1983), ‘The Bishop of Norwich’s Crusade, May 1383’, HT 33
Hudson, A. (1982), ‘Lollardy: The English Heresy?’, SCH 18; repr. in her Lollards and their Books, London (1985)
Hutchison, H.F. (1961), ‘Shakespeare and Richard II’, HT 11
Ilg, U. (1994), ‘Ein wiederentdecktes Inventar der Goldschmiedearbeiten Richards II von England und seine Bedeutung für die ikonographie des Wiltondiptychons’, Pantheon 52
Issues of the Exchequer, Henry III–Henry VI, ed. Devon, F., London (1847)
James, M.K. (1956), ‘Gilbert Maghfield, a London Merchant of the Fourteenth Century’, EcHR 2nd series 8
John of Gaunt’s Register, 1372–1376, ed. Armitage-Smith, S., 2 vols., Camden 3rd series, XX–XXI, London (1911)
John of Gaunt’s Register, 1379–1383, ed. Lodge, E. C. and Somerville, R., 2 vols., Camden 3rd series, LVI–LVII, London (1937)
Johnston, D.B. (1980), ‘Richard II and the Submissions of Gaelic Ireland’, IHS 12
Johnston, D.B. (1981), ‘The Interim Years: Richard II and Ireland, 1395–1399’, in Lydon, J.F. (ed.), England and Ireland in the Later Middle Ages. Essays in Honour of Jocelyn Otway-Ruthven, Dublin
Johnston, D.B. (1983a), ‘The Draft Indenture of Thomas Duke of Gloucester, as Lieutenant of Ireland, 1391’, Journal of the Society of Archivists 7
Johnston, D.B. (1983b), ‘Richard II’s Departure from Ireland, July 1399’, EHR 98
Jones, M. (1970), Ducal Brittany 1364–1399, Oxford
Jones, M. (1972), ‘The Ransom of Jean de Bretagne, Count of Penthièvre: An Aspect of English Foreign Policy, 1386–8’, BIHR 45
Jones, R.H. (1968), The Royal Policy of Richard II. Absolutism in the Later Middle Ages, Oxford
Jones, S.R. (ed.) (1997), The Government of Medieval York. Essays in Commemoration of the 1396 Royal Charter, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, York
Justice, S. (1994), Writing and Rebellion. England in 1381, Berkeley
Keen, M. (1973), England in the Later Middle Ages, London
Keen, M. (1986), ‘Wyclif, the Bible and Transubstantiation’, in Kenny, A. (ed.), Wyclif in his Times, Oxford
Keen, M. (1998), ‘The Wilton Diptych: the Case for a Crusading Context’, in Gordon, Monnas and , Elam (1998)
Kipling, G. (1986), ‘Richard II’s “Sumptuous Pageants” and the Idea of the Civic Triumph’, in Bergeron, D.M. (ed.), Pageantry in the Shakespearean Theater, Athens, Ga.
Knighton’s Chronicle 1337–1396, ed. Martin, G.H., Oxford (1995)
Kriehn, G. (1901–2), ‘Studies in the Sources of the Society Revolt in 1381’, AmHR 7 and 458–84
Lancashire, I. (1984), Dramatic Texts and Records, Cambridge
Lewis, N.B. (1926), ‘The “Continual Council” in the Early Years of Richard II, 1377–80’, EHR 41
Lindenbaum, S. (1990), ‘The Smithfield Tournament of 1390’, JMRS 20
Lindley, P. (1998), ‘Absolutism and Regal Image in Ricardian Sculpture’, in Gordon, , Monnas, and Elam, (1998)
Loomis, R.S. (1969), ‘The Library of Richard II’, in Atwood, E.B. and Hill, A.A. (eds.), Studies in Language Literature and Culture of the Middle Ages and Later, Austin, Tex.
Lydon, J.F. (1963), ‘Richard II’s Expeditions to Ireland’, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 93
Martin, G.H. (1997a), ‘Narrative Sources for the Reign of Richard II’, in Gillespie, (1997a)
Martin, G.H. (1997b), ‘Knighton’s Lollards’, in Aston, and Richmond, (1997)
Mathew, G. (1968), The Court of Richard II, London
McFarlane, K.B. (1952), John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity, London
McFarlane, K.B. (1972), Lancastrian Kings and Lollard Knights, Oxford
McFarlane, K.B. (1973), The Nobility of Later Medieval England, Oxford
McHardy, A. (1997), ‘Haxey’s Case, 1397: The Petition and Presenter Reconsidered’, in Gillespie, (1997a)
McKisack, M. (1959), The Fourteenth Century 1307–1399, Oxford
McNiven, P. (1969–70), ‘The Cheshire Rising of 1400’, BJRL 52
McNiven, P. (1994), ‘Rebellion, Sedition and the Legend of Richard II’s Survival in the Reigns of Henry IV and Henry V’, BJRL 76
Meyer, P. (1881), ‘L’Entrevue d’Ardres’, ABSHF 18
Mézières, Philippe, Letter to King Richard II, ed. Coopland, G.W., Liverpool (1975)
Mitchell, S. (1998), ‘Richard II and the Cult of Saints’, in Gordon, , Monnas, and Elam, (1998)
Monnas, L. (1998), ‘Fit for a King: Embroidered and Woven Silk Worn at the Court of Richard II’, in Gordon, , Monnas, and Elam, (1998)
Morgan, P. (1987), War and Society in Medieval Cheshire, 1277–1403, Chetham Soc., 3rd series, XXXIV, Manchester
Morgan, P. (1995), ‘Henry IV and the Shadow of Richard II’, in Archer, R. (ed.), Crown, Government and People in the Fifteenth Century, Stroud
Mott, R.A.K. (1974), ‘A Study in the Distribution of Patronage, 1389–99’, Proceedings of Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society 15
Mott, R.A.K. (1991), ‘Richard II and the Crisis of July 1397’, in Wood, I. and Loud, G.A. (eds.), Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages. Essays presented to John Taylor, London
Munimenta Gildhallae, ed. Riley, H.T., 2 vols., RS, London (1858–62)
Myers, A.R. (1969), ‘The Wealth of Richard Lyons’, in Sandquist, T.A. and Powicke, M.R. (eds.), Essays in Medieval History Presented to Bertie Wilkinson, Toronto
Myres, J.N.L. (1927), ‘The Campaign of Radcot Bridge in December 1387’, EHR 42
Nightingale, P. (1989), ‘Capitalists, Crafts and Constitutional Change in Late Fourteenth-Century London’, P&P 124
Nightingale, P. (1995), A Medieval Mercantile Community: The Grocers’ Company and the Politics and Trade of London 1000–1485, New Haven and London
Norton, C. (1997), ‘Richard II and York Minster’, in Jones, (1997)
Oman, C. (1969), The Great Revolt of 1381, 2nd edn, ed. Fryde, E.B., Oxford
Ormrod, W.M. (1990), ‘The Peasants’ Revolt and the Government of England’, JBS 29
Otway-Ruthven, A.J. (1968), A History of Medieval Ireland, London
Palmer, J.J.N. (1966a), ‘The Anglo-French Peace Negotiations, 1390–1396’, TRHS 5th series 16
Palmer, J.J.N. (1966b), ‘Articles for a Final Peace between England and France, 16 June 1393’, BIHR 39
Palmer, J.J.N. (1968), ‘England and the Great Western Schism, 1388–1399’, EHR 83
Palmer, J.J.N. (1969), ‘The Impeachment of Michael de la Pole in 1386’, BIHR 42
Palmer, J.J.N. (1971a), ‘The Background to Richard II’s Marriage to Isabel of France, 1396’, BIHR 44
Palmer, J.J.N. (1971b), ‘The Parliament of 1385 and the Constitutional Crisis of 1386’, Speculum 46
Palmer, J.J.N. (1971c), ‘The War Aims of the Protagonists and the Negotiations for Peace’, in Fowler, K. (ed.), The Hundred Years War, London
Palmer, J.J.N. (1972), England, France and Christendom, 1377–99, London
Palmer, J.J.N. (1978–9), ‘The authorship, Date and Historical Value of the French Chronicles on the Lancastrian Revolution’, BJRL 61 and 398–421
Palmer, J.J.N. (ed.) (1981), Froissart: Historian, Woodbridge
Patterson, L. (1992), ‘Court Politics and the Invention of Literature: The Case of Sir John Clanvowe’, in Aers, D. (ed.), Culture and History, 1350–1600. Essays in English Communities, Identities and Writing, Detroit
Pearsall, D. (1992), The Life of Geoffrey Chaucer, Oxford
Perroy, E. (1933), L’Angleterre et le Grand Schisme d’Occident, Paris
Philpotts, C.J. (1990), ‘John of Gaunt and English Policy towards France, 1389–1395’, JMH 16
Plucknett, T.F.T. (1952), ‘State Trials under Richard III’, TRHS 5th series 2
Pollard, A.F. (1938), ‘The authorship and Value of the Anonimalle Chronicle’, EHR 53
Post, J.B. (1981), ‘The Obsequies of John of Gaunt’, Guildhall Studies in London History 5
Powell, E. (1896), The Rising in East Anglia, Cambridge
Prestwich, M. (1984), ‘An Estimate by the Commons of Royal Revenue in England under Richard II’, Parliamentary History 3
Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council of England, ed. Nicolas, N.H., 7 vols., London (1834–7)
Rawcliffe, C. (1994), ‘Margaret Stodeye, Lady Philipot (d.1431)’, in Barron, and Sutton, (1994)
Richardson, H.G. (1936), ‘Heresy and the Lay Power under Richard II’, EHR 51
Richmond, C.F. (1971), ‘The War at Sea’, in Fowler, K. (ed.), The Hundred Years War, London
Richmond, C.F. (1990), The Paston Family in the Fifteenth Century. The First Phase, Cambridge
Rickert, E. (1926–7), ‘Documents and Records: A Leaf from a Fourteenth-Century Letter Book’, Modern Philology 24
Rickert, E. (1933), ‘Richard II’s Books’, The Library 4th series 13
Rogeri Dymmok liber contra XII Errores et Hereses Lollardorum, ed. Cronin, H.S., London (1922)
Rogers, A. (1964), ‘Parliamentary Appeals of Treason in the Reign of Richard II’, American Journal of Legal History 8
Roskell, J.S. (1965), The Commons and their Speakers in English Parliaments, 1376–1523, Manchester
Roskell, J.S. (1984), The Impeachment of Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, in 1386, Manchester
Roskell, J.S., Clark, , Linda, and Rawcliffe, Carole (eds.) (1992), The History of Parliament. The House of Commons 1386–1421, 4 vols, Stroud
Ross, C.D. (1956), ‘Forfeiture for Treason in the Reign of Richard II’, EHR 71
Rotuli Parliamentorum, 7 vols., London (1767–1832)
Royal Commission on Historical Monuments. An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, 1: Westminster Abbey (1924), London
Russell, P.E. (1955), The English Intervention in Spain and Portugal in the Time of Edward III and Richard II, Oxford
Rymer, Thomas, Foedera, Conventiones, Litterae etc., ed. Holmes, G., 20 vols., London (1704–35)
Sanderlin, S. (1987), ‘Chaucer and Ricardian Politics’, Chaucer Review 22
Sandquist, T.A. (1969), ‘The Holy Oil of St Thomas of Canterbury’, in Sandquist, T.A. and Powicke, M.R. (eds.), Essays in Medieval History Presented to Bertie Wilkinson, Toronto
Saul, N. (1990), ‘The Commons and the Abolition of Badges’, Parliamentary History 9
Saul, N. (1995), ‘Richard II and the Vocabulary of Kingship’, EHR 110
Saul, N. (1996), ‘Richard II and Westminster Abbey’, in Blair, W.J. and Golding, B. (eds.), The Cloister and the World: Essays in Medieval History in Honour of Barbara Harvey, Oxford
Saul, N. (1997a), Richard II, New Haven and London
Saul, N. (1997b), ‘Richard II, York and the Evidence of the King’s Itinerary’, in Gillespie, (1997a)
Saul, N. (1997c), ‘Richard II and the City of York’, in Jones, (1997)
Sayles, G.O. (1979), ‘Richard II in 1381 and 1399’, EHR 94; repr. in Sayles, (1982)
Sayles, G.O. (1981), ‘The Deposition of Richard II: Three Lancastrian Narratives’, BIHR 54; repr. in ibid.
Sayles, G.O. (1982), ‘King Richard II of England: A Fresh Look’, in his Scripta Diversa, London
Scattergood, V.J. (1983), ‘Literary Culture at the Court of Richard II’, in Scattergood, and Sherborne, (1983)
Scattergood, V.J. and Sherborne, J.W. (eds.) (1983), English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages, London
Select Cases before the King’s Council 1243–1482, ed. Baldwin, J.F., Selden Society, XXXV, London (1918)
Select Cases in the Court of King’s Bench under Richard II, Henry IV and Henry V, ed. Sayles, G.O., Selden Soc., LXXXVIII, London (1971)
Select Documents of English Constitutional History, 1307–1485, ed. Chrimes, S.B. and Brown, A.L., London (1961)
Sherborne, J.W. (1967), ‘The English Navy: Shipping and Manpower, 1369–89’, P&P 37: repr. in his War, Politics and Culture in Fourteenth-Century England, ed. Tuck, A., London (1994)
Sherborne, J.W. (1975), ‘Richard II’s Return to Wales, July 1399’, WHR, 7; repr. in ibid.
Sherborne, J.W. (1977), ‘The Cost of English Warfare with France in the Later Fourteenth Century’, BIHR 50; repr. in ibid.
Sherborne, J.W. (1981), ‘Charles VI and Richard II’, in Palmer, (1981); repr. in ibid.
Sherborne, J.W. (1988), ‘Perjury and the Lancastrian Revolution of 1399’, WHR 14; repr. in ibid.
Sherborne, J.W. (1990), ‘The Defence of the Realm and the Impeachment of Michael de la Pole in 1386’, in Taylor, and Childs, (1990); repr. in ibid.
Somerset, F. (1977), ‘Answering the Twelve Conclusions: Dymmok’s Halfhearted Gestures towards Publication’, in Aston, and Richmond, (1997)
Stamp, A.E. (1923), ‘Richard II and the Death of the Duke of Gloucester’, EHR 38
Starkey, D. (1981), ‘The Age of the Household: Politics, Society and the Arts, c. 1350–c. 1550’, in Medcalf, S. (ed.), The Later Middle Ages, London
Statutes of the Realm, 11 vols., London (1810–28)
Steel, A. (1934–5), ‘The Sheriffs of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in the Reign of Richard II’, Proceedings of the Cambridgeshire Antiquarian Society 36
Steel, A. (1941), Richard II, Cambridge
Storey, R.L. (1957), ‘The Wardens of the Marches of England towards Scotland, 1377–1489’, EHR 72
Storey, R.L. (1971), ‘Liveries and Commissions of the Peace, 1388–90’, in Boulay, Du and Barron, (1971)
Stow, John (1908), Survey of London, ed. Kingsford, C.L., London
Stow, G.B. (1973), ‘The Vita Ricardi as a Source for the Reign of Richard II’, Vale of Evesham Historical Society Research Papers 4
Stow, G.B. (1984), ‘Richard II in Thomas Walsingham’s Chronicles’, Speculum 59
Stow, G.B. (1985), ‘Richard II in Jean Froissart’s Chroniques’, JMH, 11
Stow, G.B. (1989), ‘Chronicles versus Records: The Character of Richard II’, in Hamilton, J.S. and Bradley, P. (eds.), Documenting the Past. Essays in Medieval History Presented to G.P.Cuttino, Woodbridge
Stow, G.B. (1993), ‘Richard II in John Gower’s Confessio Amantis: Some Historical Perspectives’, Medievalia 16
Stow, G.B. (1995), ‘Richard II and the Invention of the Pocket Handkerchief’, Albion 27
Strohm, P. (1989), Social Chaucer, Cambridge, Mass.
Strohm, P. (1992), Hochon’s Arrow: The Social Imagination of Fourteenth-Century Texts, Princeton, N.J.
Strohm, P. (1996), ‘The Trouble with Richard: The Reburial of Richard II and Lancastrian Symbolic Strategy’, Speculum 71
Stubbs, W. (1875–8), The Constitutional History of England, 3 vols., Oxford
Suggett, H. (1947), ‘A Letter Describing Richard II’s Settlement with the City of London’, EHR 72
Tait, J. (1902), ‘Did Richard II Murder the Duke of Gloucester?’, in Tout, T.F. and Tait, J. (eds.), Historical Essays by Members of the Owens College, Manchester, Manchester
Taylor, J. (1971), ‘Richard II’s Views on Kingship’, Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society 14
Taylor, J. (1987), English Historical Literature in the Fourteenth Century, Oxford
Taylor, J. (1990), ‘The Good Parliament and its Sources’, in Taylor, and Childs, (1990)
Taylor, J. and Childs, W. (eds.) (1990), Politics and Crisis in Fourteenth Century England, Gloucester
Testamenta Vetusta, ed. Nicolas, N.H., 2 vols., London (1826)
The Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of the Treasury of His Majesty’s Exchequer, ed. Palgrave, F., 3 vols, London (1836)
The Dieulacres Chronicle’, in Clarke, M.V. and Galbraith, V.H., ‘The Deposition of Richard II’, BJRL 15 (1931)
The Great Chronicle of London, ed. Thomas, A.H. and Thornley, I.D., London (1938)
The Kirkstall Abbey Chronicles, ed. Taylor, J., Thoresby Soc., XLII, Leeds (1952)
The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381, ed. Dobson, R.B., 2nd edn, London (1983)
The Scrope and Grosvenor Controversy, ed. Nicolas, N.H., 2 vols., London (1832)
The Treaty of Bayonne (1388), ed. Palmer, J.J.N. and Powell, B., Exeter (1988)
The Westminster Chronicle 1381–1394, ed. Hector, L.C. and Harvey, B.F., Oxford (1982)
Theilmann, J.M. (1976), ‘Stubbs, Shakespeare and Recent Historians of Richard II’, Albion 8
Theilmann, J.M. (1990), ‘Political Canonization and Political Symbolism in Medieval England’, JBS 29
Thomson, J.A.F. (1997), ‘Knightly Piety and the Margins of Lollardy’, in Aston, and Richmond (1997)
Tout, T.F. (1920–33), Chapters in the Administrative History of Medieval England, 6 vols., Manchester
Tuck, A. (1968), ‘Richard II and the Border Magnates’, Northern History 3
Tuck, A. (1969), ‘The Cambridge Parliament, 1388’, EHR 84
Tuck, A. (1970), ‘Anglo-Irish Relations, 1382–1393’, PRIA 69
Tuck, A. (1971), ‘Richard II’s System of Patronage’, in Boulay, Du and Barron, (1971)
Tuck, A. (1973), Richard II and the English Nobility, London
Tuck, A. (1984), ‘Nobles, Commons and the Great Revolt of 1381’, in Hilton, and Aston, (1984), Cambridge
Tuck, A. (1990), ‘Richard II and the Hundred Years War’, in Taylor, and Childs, (1990)
Tyerman, C. (1988), England and the Crusades 1095–1588, Chicago
Walker, S. (1983), ‘Lancaster v. Dallingridge: A Franchisal Dispute in Fourteenth-Century Sussex’, Sussex Archaeological Collections 121
Walker, S. (1990), The Lancastrian Affinity 1361–1399, Oxford
Walker, S. (1991), ‘Letters to the Dukes of Lancaster in 1381 and 1399’, EHR 106
Walker, S. (1995), ‘Richard’s II’s Views on Kingship’, in Archer, R.E. and Walker, S. (eds.), Rulers and Ruled in Late Medieval England: Essays Presented to Gerald Harriss, London
Wallon, H. (1864), Richard II, 2 vols, Paris
Walsingham, Thomas, Historia Anglicana, ed. Riley, H.T., 2 vols., RS, 28, London (1863–4)
Warren, W.L. (1959), ‘A Re-Appraisal of Simon Sudbury, Bishop of London (1361–1375) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1375–1381)’, JEH 10
Wathey, A. (1989), Music in the Royal and Noble Households in Late Medieval England, New York and London
Webster, B. (1984), ‘The Community of Kent in the Reign of Richard II’, Archaeologia Cantiana 99
Whittingham, S. (1971), ‘The Chronology of the Portraits of Richard II’, Burlington Magazine 113
Wilkins, N. (1983), ‘Music and Poetry at Court: England and France in the Late Middle Ages’, in Scattergood, and Sherborne, (1983)
Wilkinson, B. (1940), ‘The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381’, Speculum 15
Wilson, C. (1990), ‘The Tomb of Henry IV and the Holy Oil of St Thomas of Canterbury’, in Fernie, E. and Crossley, P. (eds.), Medieval Architecture in its Intellectual Context. Essays in Honour of Peter Kidson, London
Wilson, C. (1998), ‘Sacral Kingship and Shopping: The Hegemony of the Architect and Structural Pragmatics: Some Contexts of Richard II’s Rebuilding of Westminster Hall 1393–1399’, in Gordon, Monnas and Elam, (1998)
Wood, C.T. (1988), Joan of Arc and Richard II. Sex, Saints and Government in the Middle Ages, Oxford
Wright, H.G. (1939), ‘The Protestation of Richard II in the Tower in September 1399’, BJRL 23