Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: July 2019

1 - Organization Unbound

from Introduction

Summary

The modern world is highly organized. Much organization occurs within formal organizations, to the extent that the extensive study of formal organizations has overshadowed other forms of organization. But organization happens not only within, but also outside the context of formal organizations. We define ‘organization’ as a decided order, and we see some decisions as more fundamental than others and have dubbed these decisions ‘organizational elements’. We distinguish five such elements: membership, rules, monitoring, sanctions, and hierarchy. Individuals or organizations can use organizational elements to organize other individuals or organizations, even if they do not belong to the same organization. But organizers do not necessarily use all elements, and all settings are not organized by all elements. In fact, many social settings are only partially organized – even formal organizations. We use the concepts of social relationships and formal organization to specify what we mean by organization and organizational elements, and compare organizational elements with other ways in which social relationships develop. We describe the differences between organization and other origins of social order such as institutions and networks. The chapter ends with an overview of the following chapters.

Ahrne, G. (1994) Social Organizations. Interaction, inside, outside and between Organizations. London: SAGE.
Ahrne, G. & Brunsson, N. (2008) Meta-Organizations. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Ahrne, G. & Brunsson, N. (2011) Organization outside Organizations: The Significance of Partial Organization. Organization 18(1): 83104.
Ahrne, G., Brunsson, N. & Seidl, D. (2016) Resurrecting Organization by Going beyond Organizations. European Management Journal 34(2): 93101.
Barnard, C. (1968) The Functions of the Executive. Thirtieth Anniversary Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bommes, M. & Tacke, V. (2005) Luhmanns System´s Theory and Network Theory. In Seidl, D. & Becker, K. (eds.), Niklas Luhmann and Organization Studies. Malmö: Liber. 282304.
Borgatti, S. P. & Foster, P. C. (2003) The Network Paradigm in Organizational Research: A Review and Typology. Journal of Management 29(6): 9911013.
Borgatti, S. P. & Hagin, D. S. (2011) On Network Theory. Organization Science 22(5): 1168–81.
Bromley, P. & Meyer, J. (2015) Hyper-Organization. Global Organizational Expansion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brunsson, N. (1982) The Irrationality of Action and Action Rationality: Decisions, Ideologies and Organizational Actions. Journal of Management Studies 19(1): 2944.
Brunsson, N. (2007) The Consequences of Decision-Making. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brunsson, N. & Jutterström, M. (eds.) (2018) Organizing and Re-Organizing Markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brunsson, N., & Sahlin-Andersson, K. (2000) Constructing Organizations: The Example of Public Sector Reform. Organization Studies 21(4): 721–46.
Burt, R. S. (2005) Brokerage and Closure. An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Czarniawska, B. (2009) Emerging Institutions: Pyramids or Anthills? Organization Studies 30(4): 423–41.
Dobusch, L. & Schoeneborn, D. (2015) Fluidity, Identity and Organizationality: The Communicative Constitutions of Anonymous. Journal of Management Studies 52(8): 1005–35.
Edwards, R. C. (1979) Contested Terrain: The Transformation of the Workplace in the Twentieth Century. New York: Basic Books.
Foucault, M. (1977) Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Gambetta, D. (1994) Godfather’s Gossip. European Journal of Sociology 35(02): 199223.
Garud, R. & Karnøe, P. (2003) Bricolage versus Breakthrough: Distributed and Embedded Agency in Technology Entrepreneurship. Research Policy 32(2): 277300.
Goffman, E. (1972) Encounters. Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Hechter, M. & Opp, K.-D. (eds.) (2001) Social Norms. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Jepperson, R. L. (1991) Institutions, Institutional Effects, and Institutionalism. In Powell, W. & Di Maggio, P. (eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: Chicago University Press. 143–63.
Kemper, T. D. (2012) Status, Power and Ritual Interaction. A Relational Reading of Durkheim, Goffman and Collins. Farnham: Ashgate.
Krasner, S. D. (1999) Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Lamont, M. & Molnár, V. (2002) The Study of Boundaries in the Social Sciences. Annual Review of Sociology 28: 167–95.
Lindberg, K. & Czarniawska, B. (2006) Knotting the Action Net, or Organizing between Organizations. Scandinavian Journal of Management 22(4): 292306.
Luhmann, N. (2000) Organisation und Entscheidung. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Luhmann, N. (2003) Organization. In Bakken, T. & Hernes, T. (eds.), Autopoietic Organization Theory. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann´s Social System Perspective. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag AS. 3152.
Luhmann, N. (2005) The Paradox of Decision Making. In Seidl, D. & Becker, K. (eds.), Niklas Luhmann and Organization Studies. Malmö: Liber. 85106.
March, J. & Simon, H. (1958) Organizations. New York: John Wiley.
Marsden, P. (2000) Social Networks. In Encyclopedia of Sociology. 2nd edition, volume 4. New York: MacMillan Reference USA. 2727–35.
Meyer, J. & Rowan, B. (1977) Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure As Myth and Ceremony. American Journal of Sociology 83(2): 340–63.
Meyer, J. W. & Jepperson, R. L. (2000) The ‘Actors’ of Modern Society: The Cultural Construction of Social Agency. Sociological Theory 18(1): 100–20.
Mintzberg, H. (1983) Power in and around Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
North, D. C. (1998) Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going? In Benner, , A. & Putterman, , L. (eds.), Economics, Values and Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 491508.
Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons. The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Perrow, C. (1986) Complex Organizations. A Critical Essay. 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Podolny, J. M. & Page, K. L. (1998) Network Forms of Organization. Annual Review of Sociology 24: 5776.
Schoeneborn, D., Blaschke, S., Cooren, F., McPhee, R. D., Seidl, D. & Taylor, J. R. (2014) The Three Schools of CCO Thinking: Interactive Dialogue and Systematic Comparison. Management Communication Quarterly 28(2): 285316.
Stinchcombe, A. (1990) Information and Organizations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sundström, G. (2003) Stat på villovägar: resultatstyrningens framväxt i ett historisk-institutionellt perspektiv. Dissertation, Stockholm University.
Sydow, J. (2005) Managing Interfirm Networks: Towards More Reflexive Network Development? In Theurl, T. (ed.), Economics of Interfirm Networks. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. 217–36.
Tamm Hallström, K. (2004) Organizing International Standardization. ISO and the IASC in Quest of Authority. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Thompson, G. F. (2003) Between Hierarchies and Markets. The Logic and Limits of Network Forms of Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tilly, C. (1998) Durable Inequality. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weber, M. (1968) Economy and Society. Volume 1. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weick, K. (1979) The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading: Addison-Wesley.