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    Baleghizadeh, Sasan and Derakhshesh, Ali 2017. Measuring the Effectiveness of Explicit and Implicit Instruction through Explicit and Implicit Measures. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 81.

    Liu, Binmei 2017. The use of discourse markers but and so by native English speakers and Chinese speakers of English. Pragmatics, Vol. 27, Issue. 4, p. 479.

    Shirinbakhsh, Salva Rasekh, Abbass Eslami and Tavakoli, Mansoor 2016. Metapragmatic instruction (6Rs) versus input-based practice: a comparison of their effects on pragmatic accuracy and speed in the recognition and oral production of English refusals. The Language Learning Journal, p. 1.

    Rezvani, Ehsan Eslami-Rasekh, Abbass and Vahid Dastjerdi, Hossein 2014. Teaching speech acts: Input enhancement versus presentation, practice, and production. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, Vol. 3, Issue. 4,

    Rezvani, Ehsan Eslami-Rasekh, Abbass and Vahid Dastjerdi, Hossein 2014. Investigating the effects of explicit and implicit instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ pragmatic development: Speech acts of request and suggestion in focus. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, Vol. 4, Issue. 2,

    Ghavamnia, Maedeh Eslami-Rasekh, Abbass and Vahid Dastjerdi, Hossein 2014. A qualitative investigation into the effects of pragmatic instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ production of suggestions and requests. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, Vol. 3, Issue. 5,

    Ifantidou, Elly 2014. Pragmatic Competence and Relevance. Vol. 245, Issue. ,

    Keck, Casey and Kim, YouJin 2014. Pedagogical Grammar.

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Minh 2013. Instructional effects on the acquisition of modifiers in constructive criticism by EFL learners. Language Awareness, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 76.

    Simin, Shahla Eslami, Zohreh Rasekh Eslami-Rasekh, Abbass and Ketabi, Saeed 2013. The effect of explicit teaching of apologies on Persian EFL learners’ performance: When e-communication helps. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, Vol. 3, Issue. 4,

    van Compernolle, Remi A. and Williams, Lawrence 2012. Promoting sociolinguistic competence in the classroom zone of proximal development. Language Teaching Research, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 39.

    Martínez-Flor, Alicia 2012. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics.

    Farahian, Majid Rezaee, Mehrdad and Gholami, Afshin 2012. Does Direct Instruction Develop Pragmatic Competence? Teaching Refusals to EFL Learners of English. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 3, Issue. 4,

    Li, Qingping 2012. Effects of Instruction on Adolescent Beginners’ Acquisition of Request Modification. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 30.

    Roever, Carsten 2012. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics.

    Salemi, Azin Rabiee, Mitra and Ketabi, Saeed 2012. The Effects of Explicit/Implicit Instruction and Feedback on the Development of Persian EFL Learners‟ Pragmatic Competence in Suggestion Structures. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 3, Issue. 1,

    Li, Shuai 2012. The Effects of Input-Based Practice on Pragmatic Development of Requests in L2 Chinese. Language Learning, Vol. 62, Issue. 2, p. 403.

    Hernández, Todd A 2011. Re-examining the role of explicit instruction and input flood on the acquisition of Spanish discourse markers. Language Teaching Research, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 159.

    Hong, Wei 2011. Refusals in Chinese: How Do L1 and L2 Differ?. Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 122.

    MASUDA, KYOKO 2011. Acquiring Interactional Competence in a Study Abroad Context: Japanese Language Learners’ Use of the Interactional Particle ne. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 95, Issue. 4, p. 519.

  • Print publication year: 2001
  • Online publication date: October 2012

Chapter 11 - Explicit instruction and JFL learner's use of interactional discourse markers



The development of L2 pragmatic competence entails the ability to use a wide range of conversational routines and discourse strategies to manage one's communicative interactions with others. Since the early 1980s, researchers have established that a foreign language learner's development of various aspects of pragmatic competence may be facilitated by the instruction of pragmatic routines and strategies in the foreign language classroom (Kasper, this volume). House (1996, p. 247) points out that when such instruction is explicit, it appears to be particularly beneficial since it enables learners to develop an awareness and understanding of the differences between L1 and L2 pragmatic preferences, and thereby “counteract negative L1 transfer through ‘noticing’ (Schmidt, 1993b) and through making attempts to use alternative, more L2 norm-oriented expressions.” In a comparison of the relative benefits of implicit and explicit instruction, House (1996) reports on two sections (i.e., implicit and explicit) of a 14-week communication course instructed in the use of everyday, conversational routines. Through lectures, handouts, and explanatory feedback that provided metapragmatic information on the use and function of these routines, the members of the explicit group had additional opportunities to raise their awareness of preferred L2 pragmatic practices and to “notice” differences between L1 and L2 practices. House argues that the greater improvement shown by the explicit group, particularly in areas where the pragmatic preferences of the learners' L1 differed from those of the target L2, is a result of the learners' heightened awareness of L1-L2 pragmatic differences.

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Pragmatics in Language Teaching
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