Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
The Promise and Limits of Private Power
  • Cited by 428
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book examines and evaluates various private initiatives to enforce fair labor standards within global supply chains. Using unique data (internal audit reports and access to more than 120 supply chain factories and 700 interviews in 14 countries) from several major global brands, including NIKE, HP and the International Labor Organization's Factory Improvement Programme in Vietnam, this book examines both the promise and the limitations of different approaches to actually improve working conditions, wages and working hours for the millions of workers employed in today's global supply chains. Through a careful, empirically grounded analysis of these programs, this book illustrates the mix of private and public regulation needed to address these complex issues in a global economy.

Reviews

‘Richard Locke confronts issues that are of central concern to scholars, as well as to activists, firms, and consumers: under what conditions, and through which mechanisms, will workers involved in global supply chains be treated fairly? Locke’s answer is that no single mechanism - corporate codes of conduct, capacity building, or host government regulation - is sufficient to effect improvements in workers’ conditions. Locke argues protecting workers will require a combination of firm-level efforts, long-standing supply-chain relationships, and government effort. He draws on a rich collection of factory-level audit data, as well as in-depth interviews in a range of countries, to explore the determinants of variation in workers’ rights outcomes, and to illustrate the conditions under which sustained improvements might occur.’

Layna Mosley - University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

‘This is an outstanding book examining labor issues in global supply chains. The key strength is the level and quality of access Richard Locke has to company-level data. This type and level of access is quite unprecedented in political science. Theoretically, the book raises important issues regarding the efficacy of voluntary regulation, particularly the merits of compliance-based versus capacity-based approaches.’

Aseem Prakash - Walker Family Professor for the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Washington

‘This book is seminal in setting out how collaborative governance of global supply chains can deliver better employment conditions and distributive justice. Global business, governments, and NGOs with different beliefs about the proper role of business and the state should treat this as a wake-up call. The Promise and Limits of Private Power will quickly become the definitive reference on labor standards and set a high benchmark for those who study this issue.’

Mari Sako - University of Oxford

'Richard M. Locke’s book, The Promise and Limits of Private Power: PromotingLabor Standards in a Global Economy, does a remarkable job in this hotly contested terrain of dissecting the daunting challenges of trying to improve global labour standards, while also outlining sustainable solutions that are supported by a range of key industry actors … Locke’s analysis has very significant methodological implications for anyone seeking to understand labour standards in the global economy.'

Gary Gereffi Source: Socio-Economic Review

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Bibliography
Aleinik, M. 2010. “Employment Agencies – The Open Door for Migrant Workers: Recruitment Mechanisms and Working Conditions of Russian speaking Female Migrants in the Czech Republic.” Open Society Institute & Soros Foundation Network Report.
Amaral, J., Billington, C. A., & Tsay, A. A. 2006. “Safeguarding the promise of production outsourcing.” Interfaces, 36(3): 220–33.
Amengual, M. 2010. “Complementary Labor Regulation: The Uncoordinated Combination of State and Private Regulators in the Dominican Republic.” World Development, 38(3): 405–14.
Amengual, M. 2011. “Enforcement without Autonomy: The Politics of Labor and Environmental Regulations in Agentina.” PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Amsden, A. H. 1989. Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, A. H., & Chu, W. 2003. Beyond Late Development: Taiwan's Upgrading Policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Anderson, , , M. B., & Woodrow, , , P. J. 1989. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Times of Disaster. Boulder, CO:San Francisco: Westview Press.
Anner, , , M. S. 2011. Solidarity Transformed: Labor Responses to Globalization and Crisis in Latin America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Apple. 2009. “Supplier Responsibility Progress Report.” Retrieved from .
Apple. 2011. “Apple Supplier Responsibility: 2011 Progress Report.” Retrieved August 12, 2011.
Apple. 2012. “Apple Supplier Responsibility: 2012 Progress Report.” Retrieved from .
Armbruster-Sandoval, R. 1999. “Globalization and Cross-Border labor Organizing: The Guatemalan Maquiladora Industry and the Phillips Van Heusen Workers’ Movement.” Latin American Perspectives, 26(2).
Armbruster-Sandoval, R. 2003. “Globalization and Transnational Labor Organizing: The Hondoran Maquiladora Industry and the Kimi Campaign.” Social Science History, 27(4): 551–76.
Armbruster-Sandoval, , , R. 2005. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Solidarity in the Americas: The Anti-Sweatshop Movement and the Struggle for Social Justice. New York: Routledge.
Axelrod, R. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Ayers, I. and Braithwaite, J. 1992 “Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate” Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Baccaro, L. 2001. Civil Society, NGOs, and Decent Work Policies: Sorting out the Issues. International Labor Organization (International Institute for Labour Studies). Geneva: IILS Publications. Retrieved from .
Bair, J., & Gereffi, G. 2001. “Local Clusters in Global Chains: The Causes and Consequences of Export Dynamism in Torreon's Blue Jeans Industry.” World Development, 29(11): 1885–903.
Barboza, D. 2011. “Workers Sickened at Apple Supplier in China.” The New York Times. February 23, p. B1.
Bardach, E., & Kagan, R. A. 1982. Going by the Book: The Problem of Regulatory Unreasonableness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Barrientos, S., & Smith, S. 2006. “The ETI Code of Labour Practice: Do Workers Really Benefit?” Sussex, UK: Ethical Trading Initiative.
Barrientos, S., & Smith, S. 2007. “Do Workers Benefit from Ethical Trade? Assessing Codes of Labour Practice in Global Production Systems.” Third World Quarterly, 28: 713–29.
Barrientos, S., Gereffi, G., & Rossi, A. 2010. “Economic and Social upgrading in Global Production Networks: Developing a Framework for Analysis.” Working Paper #1020/03, Institute for Development Policy & Management, University of Manchester, UK.
Bartley, T. 2005. “Corporate Accountability and the Privatization of Labor Standards: Struggles over Codes of Conduct in the Apparel Industry.” In Prechel, Harland (Ed.), Politics and the Corporation, Vol. 14 (Research in Political Sociology), Greenwich, CO; Oxford: JAI Press: 211–44.
Bartley, T. 2007. “Institutional Emergence in an Era of Globalization: The Rise of Transnational Private Regulation of Labor and Environmental Conditions.” The American Journal of Sociology, 113: 297–351.
Bartley, T. 2010. “Transnational Private Regulation in Practice: The Limits of Forest and Labor Standards Certification in Indonesia,” Berkeley Electronic Press. Retrieved from .
Bartley, T. 2011. “Transnational Governance as the Layering of Rules: Intersections of Public and Private Standards.” Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 12(2): 6.
BBC. n.d. “The History of Running Shoes.” Retrieved from .
Becker, G. S. 1968. “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach.” The Journal of Political Economy, 76(2): 169–217.
Berger, S. 2006. How We Compete: What Companies around the World Are Doing to Make It in Today's Global Economy. New York: Doubleday.
Berman, S. 1997. “Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic.” World Politics, 49(3): 401–29.
Berk, G. 2009. Louis D. Brandeis and the Making of Regulated Competition, 1900–1932. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bhagwati, J. 1995. “Trade liberalisation and ‘fair trade’ demands: addressing the environmental and labour standards issues.” The World Economy, 18(6): 745–59.
Billington, C., & Ellram, L. 2001. “Purchasing Leverage Considerations in the Outsourcing Decision.” European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 7(1): 15–27.
Bloom, N., Eifert, B., Mahajan, A., McKenzie, D., & Roberts, J. December 2010. “Does management matter: evidence from India,” with Benn Eifert, Aprajit Mahajan, David McKenzie, & John Roberts, Stanford Graduate Business School Research Paper No. 2074.
Blowfield, M. 2007. “Reasons to Be Cheerful? What We Know about CSR's Impact.” Third World Quarterly, 284: 683–95.
Bormann, S., Krishnan, P., & Neuner, M. E. 2010. Migration in a Digital Age: Migrant Workers in the Malaysian Electronics Industry. Berlin: World Economy, Ecology and Development.
Bormann, S., & Plank, L. 2010. “Under Pressure: Working Conditions and Economic Development in Central and Eastern Europe.” WEED – World Economy, Ecology and Development Report 2010.
Bowman, J. R. 1985. “The Politics of the Market: Economic Competition and the Organization of Capitalists.” Political Power and Social Theory, 5: 35–88.
Braithwaite, J. 2006. “Responsive Regulation and Developing Economies.” World Development, 34(5): 884–98.
Braithewaite, V., & Levi, M., eds. 1998. Trust and Governance. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Brown, D. L. 2005. “Challenges and Opportunities for the Fair Labor Association in the Post-MFA Period.” Prepared under the supervision of Professor Richard Locke for The Fair Labor Association (FLA) Strategic Planning Meeting, July 26–27, at MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA.
Brown, G. 2009. “Global Electronics Industry: Poster Child of 21st Century Sweatshops and Despoiler of the Environment?” EHS Today, pp. 45–8. Retrieved from: .
Burruss, J., & Kuettner, D. 2002. “Forecasting For Short-Lived Products: Hewlett-Packard's Journey.” Journal of Business Forecasting Methods and Systems, 21(4): 9–14.
Byster, L., & Smith, T. 2006. “The Electronics Production Life Cycle. From Toxics to Sustainability: Getting Off the Toxic Treadmill.” In Smith, T., Sonnenfeld, D., and Pellow, N. (Eds.), Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Carrillo, J. 1998. “Third-generation Maquiladoras? The Delphi-General Motors case.” Journal of Borderlands Studies, 13(1): 79–97.
Carrillo, J. 2005. “Cooperation without Trust? Reflections on the FLA's Efforts to Promote Collaboration Among Its Members and with Other MSIs.” Prepared under the supervision of Professor Richard Locke for The Fair Labor Association (FLA) Strategic Planning Meeting, July 26–27, at MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA.
Casey, R. 2006. Meaningful Change: Raising the Bar in Supply Chain Workplace Standards. Working Paper # 29, Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, November 2006: 24–5.
Catholic Agency for Overseas Development. 2004. Clean up your computer: working conditions in the electronics sector.
Centre for Reflection and Action on Labour Issues. 2007. Electronics, Multinationals, and Labour Rights in Mexico.
Centre for Reflection and Action on Labour Issues. 2009. Labour Rights in a Time of Crisis. J. Barajas.
Chakrabarty, S., & Grote, U. 2009, “Child Labor in Carpet Weaving: Impact of Social Labeling in India and Nepal.” World Development, 37(10): 1683–93.
Chambers, R. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. New York: Longman.
Chambers, R. 1994. “The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal.” World Development, 22(7): 953–69.
Chan, J., & Peyer, C. 2008. “High Tech – No Rights? A One Year Follow Up Report on Working Conditions in China's Electronic Hardware Sector.” SACOM. p. 62.
Chan, J., & Pun, N. 2010. “Suicide as Protest for the New Generation of Chinese Migrant Workers: Foxconn, Global Capital, and the State.” The Asia-Pacific Journal, 37(2) 1–11.
Chan, J., de Haan, E., Nordbrand, S., & Torstenson, A. 2008. “Silenced to Deliver: Mobile Phone manufacturing in China and the Philippines.” SOMO & SwedWatch, available at .
Chang, L. T. 2008. Factory Girls. New York: Spiegel and Grau.
Channel News Asia. 2008. “The Olympics: It's All about the Shoes.” Originally aired May 28, 2008.
Charnovitz, S. 1987. “The Influence of International Labour Standards on the World Trading Regime: A Historical Overview.” International Labour Review, 126(5): 565–84.
Charnovitz, S. 2001. “Rethinking WTO Trade Sanctions,” The American Journal of International Law, 94(4): 792–832.
Christensen, C. M. 1997. The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Christensen, C. R., & Rikert, D.C. October 16, 1984. “Nike (A).” Harvard Business School Case, No. 9-385-025: 1–31.
Claudia, S., & Castilleja, L. 2005. “The Maquiladora Electronics Industry and the Environment along Mexico's Northern Border.” Research Paper prepared for the Third North American Symposium on Assessing the Environmental Effects of Trade, November 2005. Retrieved from .
Clean Clothes Campaign. 2008. “Cashing In: Giant Retailers, Purchasing Practices, and Working Conditions in the Garment Industry.” Retrieved from .
Coe, N. M., Johns, J., & Ward, K. 2008. “Flexibility in Action: The Temporary Staffing Industry in the Czech Republic and Poland. Enforcement and Planning, 40: 1391–415.
Cohen, J., & Rogers, J. 1992. “Secondary Associations and Democratic Governance.” Politics and Society, December: 393–472.
Cohen, J., & Rogers, J. 2003. “Power and Reason.” In Fung, Archon and Wright, Erik Olin, eds., Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance (pp. 237–255). London: Verso.
Cohen, J., & Sabel, C. 2006. “Extra Republicam Nulla Justita?Philosophy & Public Affairs, 34(2): 147–75.
Cole, R. E. 1999. “Market Pressures and Institutional Forces: The Early Years of the Quality Movement.” In R. E. Cole & W. R. Scott (Eds.), The Quality Movement and Organizational Theory (pp. 67–88). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Collier, P., & Dollar, D. 2002. Globalization, Growth, and Poverty: Building an Inclusive World Economy. Washington, DC: World Bank/Oxford University Press.
Collins, J., & Packard, D. 2005. “Foreword to the HP Way.” In Kirby, D. & Lewis, K. (Eds.), The HP Way (xi–xviii). New York: HarperCollins.
Compa, L., & Vogt, J. S. 2001. “Labor Rights in the Generalized System of Preferences: A 20-Year Review.” Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal 22(2/3): 199–238.
Connor, T., & Dent, K. 2006. Offside! Labor Rights and Sportswear Production in Asia. Oxfam International. Retrieved from .
Consumers International. 2009. “The Real Deal: Running Costs.” Retrieved from .
Cooney, S. “Dynamism and Stasis: Regulating Working Conditions in China.” Unpublished manuscript, University of Melbourne Law School.
Cooney, S. 2007. “China's Labour Law, Compliance and Flaws in Implementing Institutions.” Industrial Relations Society of Australia, 49: 673.
Coslovsky, S. 2011. “Relational Regulation in the Brazilian Ministério Publico: The Organizational Basis of Regulatory Responsiveness.” Regulation & Governance, 5(1): 70–89.
Coslovsky, S., & Locke, R. M. 2011. “Enforcing Labor Standards in the Sugar Supply Chain: The Brazilian Experience.” Unpublished manuscript.
Coslovsky, S., Pires, R., & Silbey, S. 2011. The Politics of Regulatory Compliance and and Enforcement (Handbook on the Politics of Regulation, Levi-Faur, David, Ed.) London: Edward Elgar Publishers.
Czech Environmental Inspectorate. 2006/2007/2009. Annual Report 2006, 2007, 2009. Retrieved from .
Commerce, Danish and Companies Agency. 2008. “Small Suppliers in Global Supply Chains.” Retrieved from .
Dean, J., & Tsai, T. 2010, May 27. “Suicides Spark Inquiries: Apple, H-P to Examine Asian Supplier After String of Deaths at Factory.” Retrieved from online.wsj.com/.
Dedrick, J., & Kraemer, K. L. 2011. “Market Making in the Personal Computer Industry.” The Market Makers: How Retailers Are Reshaping the Global Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 291–310.
Devlin, R., Estevadeordal, A., & Rodríguez-Clare, A. (Eds.). 2006. The Emergence of China: Opportunities and Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank; Cambridge, MA: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University, Harvard University Press.
Dhanarajan, S. 2005. “Managing Ethical Standards: When Rhetoric Meets Reality. Development in Practice, 15(3/4): 529–38.
Dobbin, F., & Sutton, J. R. 1998, September. “The Strength of a Weak State: The Rights Revolution and the Rise of Human Resources Management Divisions.” American Journal of Sociology, 104(2): 441–76.
Dong, J. 2002, April 10. “The Rise and Fall of the HP Way.” Palo Alto Weekly. Retrieved from .
Doumbia-Henry, C., & Gravel, E. 2006. “Free Trade Agreements and Labour Rights: Recent Developments.” International Labour Review, 145(3): 185–205.
Dubin, C. December 2009. “Snapshot: Footware.” Retrieved from .
Duhigg, C., & Barboza, D. 2012, January 25. “In China, Human Costs Are Built into an iPad.” New York Times. Retrieved from .
Duhigg, C., & Bradsher, K. 2012, January 21. “How the US Lost Out on iPhone Work.” New York Times. Retrieved from .
Duhigg, C., & Greenhouse, S. 2012, March 29. “Electronic Giant Vowing Reforms in China Plants,” The New York Times. Retrieved from .
Eade, D. 1997. Capacity-building: An Approach to People-centered Development. Oxfam United Kingdom.
Eckstein, H. 1991. “Case Study and Theory in Political Science.” In Eckstein, H. (Ed.), Regarding Politics: Essays on Political Theory, Stability, and Change (pp. 117–76). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Edwards, M., & Hulme, D. 1996b. “Introduction: NGO Performance and Accountability.” In Edwards, M. & Hulme, D. (Eds.), Beyond the Magic Bullet-NGO Performance and Accountability in the Post-Cold World (pp. 1–12). Save the Children. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
Egels-Zandén, N. 2007. “Suppliers’ Compliance with MNC's Codes of Conduct: Behind the Scenes at Chinese Toy Suppliers.” Journal of Business Ethics, 75: 45–62.
Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition. 2009a. “Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition: 2008 Annual Report.” Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition.
Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition. 2009b. “Electronic Industry Code of Conduct: Version 3.01.”
Elliott, K. A., & Freeman, R. B. 2001. “White Hats or Don Quixotes? Human Rights Vigilantes in the Global Economy.” National Bureau for Economic Research.
Elliott, K. A., & Freeman, R. B. 2003. Can Standards Improve under Globalization?Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Ellram, L., & Billington, C. 2001. “Purchasing leverage considerations in the outsourcing decision.” European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 7(1): 15–27.
Environmental Law Service. 2006. “LG Philips Displays in Hranice.” Retrieved from .
Evans, P. 1995. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ernst, D. 2004. “Global Production Networks in East Asia's Electronics Industry and Upgrading Prospects in Malaysia.” In Yusuf, S., Altaf, M. S., & Nabeshima, K. (Eds.), Global Production Networking and Technological Change in East Asia (pp. 89–157). Washington, DC: World Bank/Oxford University Press.
Esbenshade, J. 2001. “The Social Accountability Contract: Private Monitoring from Los Angeles to the Global Apparel Industry.” Labor Studies Journal (Spring): 98–120.
Esbenshade, J. 2004. Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, and the Global Apparel Industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Espach, R. H. 2009. Private Environmental Regimes in Developing Countries: Globally Sown, Locally Grown. New York: Macmillan.
Estache, A., & Wren-Lewis, L. 2009. “Toward a theory of regulation for developing countries: Following Jean-Jacque Laffont's lead.” Journal of Economic Literature, 47(3): 729–70.
Esty, D., & Porter, M. E. 2000. “Ranking National Environmental Regulation and Performance: A Leading Indicator of Future Competitiveness?” In Porter, M. E., Sachs, J., & Warner, A. M. (Eds.), Global Competitiveness Report of 2000. New York: Oxford University Press.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Temporary Agency Work in an Enlarged European Union, Dublin, Ireland, 2006.
European Industrial Relations Observatory. 2009. Country Profiles. Retrieved .
Evans, P. 2004. “Development as Institutional Change: The Pitfalls of Monocropping and the Potentials of Deliberation.” Studies in Comparative International Development (SCID), 38(4): 30–52.
Fair Labor Association. “FLA 3.0 – Toward Sustainable Compliance.” Retrieved from .
Fair Labor Association. 2011. “Wages along the Supply Chain: Trends, Progress and Looking Ahead.” Conference report, June 2011.
Fair Labor Association. 2012, March. “Independent Investigation of Apple Supplier, Foxconn.” Retrieved from .
Farrell, Henry, 2009. The Political Economy of Trust: Institutions, Interests, and Inter-Firm Cooperation in Italy and Germany. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Frank, T. A. 2008. “Confessions of a Sweatshop Inspector.” Washington Monthly, 40(4): 34–7.
Fraser, S. 1991. Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise of American Labor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Fitter, R., & Kaplinsky, R. 2001. “Who Gains from Product Rents as the Coffee Market Becomes More Differentiated?” A Value Chain Analysis IDS Bulletin Special Issue on The Value of Value Chains, 32(3): 69–82.
Freidman, E. 2012. “Getting through Hard Times Together?: Chinese Workers and Unions Respond to the Eonomic Crisis,” Journal of Industrial Relations, 54(4): 1–17.
Freire, P. 2005. Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Continuum. Original work published 1973.
Freire, P. 2007. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum. Original work published 1972.
Frenkel, S. J., & Scott, D. 2002. “Compliance, Collaboration, and Codes of Labor Practice: The Adidas Connection.” California Management Review, 45(1): 29–49.
Frenkel, S. J. 2001. “Globalization, Athletic Footwear Commodity Chains and Employment Relations in China.” Organization Studies, 22(4): 531–62.
Frundt, H. J. 2001. “The Impact of Private Codes and the Union Movement.” Paper presented at XXIII International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington, DC.
Frundt, H. J. 2002. “Central American Union in the Era of Globalization.” Latin American Research Review, 37(3): 7–53.
Fukuyama, F. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.
Fung, A., O’Rourke, D., & Sabel, C. F. 2001. Can We Put an End to Sweatshops? A New Democracy Forum on Raising Global Labor Standards. Boston: Beacon Press.
Gallagher, K. P., & Zarsky, L. 2007. The Enclave Economy: Foreign Investment and Sustainable Development in Mexico's Silicon Valley. Cambridge, MA; London: The MIT Press.
Gallagher, M. 2012. “Changes in the World's Workshop: The Demographic, Social, and Political Factors Behind China's Labor Movement.” Unpublished Manuscript.
Gallagher, M. E., Jing, S., & Trieu, H. 2010. “Industrial Relations in the World's Workshop: Participatory Legislation, Bottom-Up Law Enforcement and Firm Behavior.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2–5, 2010, Washington, DC.
Gambetta, D. 1998. Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Gelman, A., & Hill, J. 2007. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gereffi, G. 1999. “International Trade and Industrial Upgrading in the Apparel Commodity Chain.” Journal of International Economics, 48(1): 37–70.
Gereffi, G. 2005. The Global Economy: Organization, Governance, and Development. In Smelser, N. J. & Swedberg, R. (Eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology (pp. 160–182). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gereffi, G., Humphrey, J., & Sturgeon, T. 2005. “The Governance of Global Value Chains.” In Review of International Political Economy, 12(1): 78–104.
Gereffi, G., & Korzeniewicz, M. 1994. Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism. Westport, CT; London: Praeger.
Gibbons, R. 2001. “Trust in Social Structures: Hobbes and Coase Meet Repeated Games.” In Cook, K. (Ed.), Trust in Society. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Glaeser, E., Johnson, S., & Shleifer, A. 2001. “Coase Versus the Coasians.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116: 853–99.
Global Production. 2008, January. “Footwear: trends in global production and trade.” Retrieved from .
Good Electronics. December 2009. Newsletter (8th ed). Retrieved .
Good Electronics. 2009. Reset: Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Electronics Supply Chain. Amsterdam: Good Electronics MVO Platform.
Graham, D., & Woods, N. 2006. “Making Corporate Self-Regulation Effective in Developing Countries.” World Development, 34(5): 868–83.
Granovetter, , , M. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology, 78: 1360–80.
Greif, A. 1998. “Self-Enforcing Political System and Economic Growth: Late Medieval Genoa.” In Bates, R., Greif, A., Levi, M., Rosenthal, J.-L., and Weingast, B. (Eds.), Analytic Narratives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press: 23–63.
Grossman, E. 2010, November. “200 People per Shoe: Making Footwear in Tangerang, Indonesia.” Retrieved from .
Gunningham, N., Kagan, R., & Thornton, D. 2003. Shades of Green: Business, Regulation and Environment. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gupta, P., & Chan, E. 2012, March 29. “Apple, Foxconn revamp China work conditions.” Reuters.
Hainmueller, J., Hiscox, M., & Sequeira, S. 2011. “Consumer Demand for the Fair Trade Label: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” SSRN eLibrary. Retrieved from .
Hainmueller, J., & Hiscox, M. J. 2012, June 3. “The Socially Conscious Consumer? Field Experimental Tests of Consumer Support for Labor Standards.” MIT Political Science Department Working Paper Series, No. 2012–15.
Hall, P., & Soskice, D. 2001. Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hamilton, G. G., Petrovic, M., & Senauer, B. (Eds.). 2011. The Market Makers: How Retailers Are Reshaping the Global Economy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hardin, R. 2001. “Conceptions and Explanations of Trust.” In Cook, Karen, ed., Trust in Society. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Haufler, V. 2001. A Public Role for the Private Sector: Industry Self-regulation in a Global Economy. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Helper, S., MacDuffie, J. P., and Sako, M. 1998. “Determinants of Trust in Supplier Relations. Evidence from the Automotive Industry in Japan and the United States.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 34: 77–84.
Heritier, A., Mueller-Debus, A. K., & Thauer, C. R. 2009. “The Firm as an Inspector: Private Ordering and Political Rules.” Business and Politics, 11(4): Article 2.
Herrigel, G. 2010. Manufacturing Possibilities. New York: Oxford University Press.
Herrigel, G., and Volker, W. 2010. “Mutually Beneficial Upgrading? China's Changing Relationship With Developed Country Manufacturing Multinationals,” Presented at The Beijing Forum, Beijing, China, November 5–7, 2010.
Hewlett-Packard. 2009, March. “Global Citizenship Customer Report 2008.” Hewlett-Packard Development Company, Palo Alto, California.
Hewlett-Packard. 2010. “2009 HP Global Citizenship Report.” Hewlett-Packard Development Company, Palo Alto, California.
Hewlett-Packard. 2011. “A Connected World: The Impact of HP Global Citizenship in 2010 – and Beyond.” Hewlett-Packard Development Company.
Hiscox, M., Broukhim, M., & Litwin, C. 2011. “Consumer Demand for Fair Trade: New Evidence from a Field Experiment Using eBay Auctions of Fresh Roasted Coffee.” unpublished.
Hiscox, M., & Smyth, N. 2012. “Is There Consumer Demand for Improved Labor Standards? Evidence from Field Experiments in Social Labeling.” Journal of Business Ethics. Unpublished manuscript:School of Government, Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Humphrey, J., & Schmitz, H. 1996. Trust and Economic Development, Discussion Paper 355. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.
Humphrey, J., & Schmitz, H. 2002. “How Does Insertion in Global Value Chains Affect Upgrading in Industrial Clusters?Regional Studies, 36: 1017–27.
Ichniowski, C., Kochan, T. A., Levine, D.I., Olson, C. A., & Strauss, G. (1996). “What Works at Work: Overview and Assessment.” Industrial Relations, 35(3): 299–333.
Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility. 2010. “Investor Statement Regarding Suicides and Working Conditions at Electronics Manufacturing Facilities.” Retrieved from .
International Confederation of Private Employment Agencies. 2009. The agency work industry around the world. Retrieved from .
International Labor Orgaization. 2006. “Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection (GB.297/ESP/3).” ILO, Labour Administration and Labour Inspection. Geneva: International Labour Conference, 100 Session.
International Labor Organization. 2007. “Monitoring Process Brochure.” Retrieved from (en).pdf.
International Labor Organization. 2008a. Global Employment Trends, Geneva: ILO.
International Labor Organization. 2008b. “Child Labor.” Retrieved from .
International Labor Organization. 2008c. “Eradicating Forced Labour from Global Supply Chains.” Retrieved from: .
International Labor Organization. 2008d. “Safety and Health at Work.” Retrieved from: .
International Labor Organization. 2011. “Labor Administration and Labor Inspection.” Presented at the International Labour Conference, 100th Session.
Ivarsson, I., & Alvstam, C.G. 2009. “Local Technology Linkages and Supplier Upgrading in Global Value Chains: The Case of Swedish Engineering TNCs in Emerging Markets.” Competition & Change, 13(4): 368–88.
Ivarsson, I., & Alvstam, C. G. 2010a. “Supplier Upgrading in the Home-furnishing Value Chain: An Empirical Study of IKEA's Sourcing in China and South East Asia.” World Development, 38(11): 1575–87.
Ivarsson, I., & Alvstam, C. G. 2010b. “Upgrading in Global Value-Chains: A Case Study of Technology-Learning Among IKEA-Suppliers in China and Southeast Asia.” Journal of Economic Geography, 10(2): 731–52.
Jack, E. P., & Raturi, A. 2002. “Sources of Volume Flexibility and Their Impact on Performance.” Journal of Operations Management, 20(5): 519–48.
Jenkins, R. April 2001. “Corporate Codes of Conduct: Self-Regulation in a Global Economy,” United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Retrieved from (httpPublications)/E3B3E78BAB9A886F80256B5-E00344278?OpenDocument.
Johnson, S., McMillan, J., & Woodruff, C. 2000. “Courts and Relational Contracts.” Unpublished manuscript, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Justice, D. W. 2005. “The Corporate Social Responsibility Concept and Phenomenon: Challenges and Opportunities for Trade Unionists.” Presented at the ILO Training Seminar in Kuala Lumpur, November 28–December 3, 2005.
Kagan, R., & Scholz, J. 1984. “The Criminology of the Corporation and Regulatory Enforcement Strategies.” In Hawkins, K. & Thomas, J. M. (Eds.), Enforcing Regulation. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing.
Kaipia, R., Korhonen, H., & Hartiala, H. 2006. “Planning Nervousness in a Demand Supply Network: An Empirical Study.” International Journal of Logistics Management, 17(1): 95–113.
Kane, T,Holmes, K. R., & O'Grady, M. A. 2007. 2007 Index of Economic Freedom: The Link Between Economic Opportunity and Prosperity. Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation.
Kaplinsky, R. 2000. “Globalisation and Unequalisation: What Can Be Learned from Value Chain Analysis?Journal of Development Studies, 37(2): 117–46.
Kaplinsky, R. 2005. Globalization, Poverty and Inequality: Between a Rock and a Hard Place. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Katz, H., & Sabel, C. 1985. “Industrial Relations & Industrial Adjustment in the Car Industry.” Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 24(3): 295–315.
Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. 2006. Governance Matters III: Governance Research Indicator Country Snapshot (GRICS), 1996–2002. The World Bank. Retrieved from .
Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. 2007. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kelman, S. 1981. Regulating America, Regulating Sweden: A Comparative Study of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kernaghan, C. 2006. “US-Jordan Free Trade Agreement: Descends Into Human Trafficking & Involuntary Servitude.” The National Labor Committee, New York.
Knauss, J. 1998. “Modular Mass Production: High Performance on the Low Road.” Politics and Society, 26(2): 273–96.
Knight, Jack, 1992. Institutions and Social Conflict, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Kochan, T. A., Katz, H. C., & McKersie, R. B. 1986. The Transformation of American Industrial Relations. New York: Basic Books.
Kolben, K. 2007. “Integrative Linkage: Combining Public and Private Regulatory Approaches in the Design of Trade and Labor Regimes.” Harvard International Law Journal, 48(1): 203.
Kolben, K. 2010. “Better Work Jordan: A Case Study.” Unpublished manuscript.
Korovkin, T., & Sanmiguel-Valderrama, O. 2007. “Labour Standards, Global Markets and Non-State Initiatives: Columbia's and Ecuador's Flower Industries in Comparative Perspectives.” Third World Quarterly, 28(1): 117–35.
Korzeniewicz, M. 1994. “Commodity Chains and Marketing Strategies: Nike and the Global Athletic Footwear Industry.” In Gereffi, G. & Korzeniewicz, M. (Eds.), Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism (pp. 247–66). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
KPMG, Consumer Electronics Association, and Global Semiconductor Alliance. 2008. “The Consumer Electronics Boom: How Semiconductor and Consumer Electronics Companies Can Improve Cost, Time-to-Market, and Product Quality.” Retrieved from .
Kuhn, P. J., & Shen, K. December 2009. “Employers’ Preferences for Gender, Age, Height and Beauty: Direct Evidence.” NBER Working Paper No. 15564.
Laffont, J., & Tirole, J. 1993. A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation. Cambridge, MA; London: The MIT Press.
Lake, H. 2006. “Production and Principles: A Study of Work Organization in the South Indian Apparel Industry.” PhD dissertation, Tufts University.
Lee, E. 2005. “Why Did They Comply while Others Did Not?” (Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology).
Leinbach, T. R., & Bowen, J. T. 2004. “Air Cargo Services and the Electronics Industry in Southeast Asia.” Journal of Economic Geography, 4(3): 299–321.
Level Works. 2006. Wages, Benefits and Work Hours in the Peoples Republic of China. San Francisco, CA: Level Works Limited.
Levi, M., & Linton, A. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?Politics & Society, 31(3): 407–32.
Levy, B. 1991. “Transaction Costs, the Size of Firms and Industrial Policy: Lessons from a Comparative Case Study of the Footwear Industry in Korea and Taiwan.” Journal of Development Economics (November): 151–78.
Linden, G., Kraemer, K. L., & Dedrick, J. 2009. “Who Captures Value in a Global Innovation Network? The Case of Apple's iPod.” Communications of the ACM, 52(3): 140–4.
Locke, R. M. 2003. “The Promise and Perils of Globalization: The Case of Nike, Inc.” In Kochan, T. A. & Schmalensee, R. (Eds.), Management: Inventing and Delivering Its Future (pp. 39–70). Cambridge, MA; London: The MIT Press.
Locke, , , R. M., Amengual, , , M., & Mangla, , , A. 2009. “Virtue out of Necessity? Compliance, Commitment, and the Improvement of Labor Conditions in Global Supply Chains.” Politics & Society, 37(3): 319–51.
Locke, R. M., Distelhorst, G., Pal, T., & Samel, H. 2012. “Production Goes Global, Standards Stay Local: Private Labor Regulation in the Global Electronics Industry.” Working paper.
Locke, R. M., Kochan, T., Romis, M., & Qin, F. 2007. “Beyond Corporate Codes of Conduct: Work Organization and Labour Standards at Nike's Suppliers.” International Labour Review, 146(1–2): 21–40.
Locke, R. M., Qin, F., & Brause, A. 2007. “Does Monitoring Improve Labor Standards? Lessons from Nike.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 61(1): 3–31.
Locke, R. M., & Romis, M. 2007. “Improving Work Conditions in a Global Supply Chain.” MIT Sloan Management Review, 48(2): 54–62.
Locke, R. M., Rissing, B. A., & Pal, T. 2011. “Complements or Substitutes? Public vs. Private Regulation and the Improvement of Labor Standards in Global Supply Chains.” Working paper.
Locke, R. M., & Samel, H. 2012. “Looking in the Wrong Places?: Labor Standards and Upstream Business Practices in the Global Electronics Industry MIT Political Science Working Paper #2012–18.
Lowi, T. J. 1964. “American Government, 1933–1963: Fission and Confusion in Theory and Research.” The American Political Science Review, 58(3): 589–99.
Lowi, T. J. 1972. “Four Systems of Policy, Politics, and Choice.” Public Administration Review, 32(4): 298–310.
Lu, J. 2009. “Employment Discrimination in China: The Current Situation and Principle Challenges.” Hamline Law Review, 32(1): 133.
Luthje, B. 2002. “Electronics Contract Manufacturing: Global Production and the International Division of Labor in the Age of the Internet.” Industry & Innovation, 9(3): 227–47.
MacDuffie, J. P. 1995. “Human-Resource Bundles and Manufacturing Performance: Organizational Logic and Flexible Production Systems in the World Auto Industry.” Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 48(2): 197–221.
MacDuffie, J. P., & Krafcik, J. F. 1992. “Integrating Technology and Human Resources for High-Performance Manufacturing: Evidence from the International Auto Industry.” In Kochan, T. A. & Useem, M. (Eds.), Transforming Organizations (pp. 206–26). New York: Oxford University Press.
makeITfair. November 2009. On the Move: Electronics Industry in Central and Eastern Europe. .
Mamic, I. 2004. Implementing Codes of Conduct: How Businesses Manage Social Performance in Global Supply Chains. Geneva: International Labor Organization.
Matten, D., & Crane, A. 2005. “Corporate Citizenship: Toward an Extended Theoretical Conceptualization.” Academy of Management Review, 30(10): 166–79.
Mayer, M., & Gereffi, G. 2010. “Regulation and Economic Globalization: Prospects and Limits of Private Governance.” Berkeley Electronic Press, 12(3).
McGregor, D. M. 1960. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
McKay, S. C. 2006. “Hard Drives and Glass Ceilings – Gender Stratification in high-tech production.” Gender & Society, 20: 207–35.
Miller, G. 2001. “Why Is Trust Necessary Organizations? The Moral Hazard of Profit Maximization.” In Cook, Karen, ed., Trust in Society. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. 2004. “State Environmental Policy of the Czech Republic 2004–2010.” Retrieved from .
Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. 2005. Report on the Environment in the Czech Republic in 2005. Retrieved from: .
Minnich, D., & Maier, F. 2007. “Responsiveness and Efficiency of Pull-Based and Push-Based Planning Systems in the High-Tech Electronics Industry.”
Moran, T. H. 2002. Beyond Sweatshops: Foreign Direct Investment and Globalization in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Morrison, A., Pietrobelli, C., & Rabellotti, R. 2008. “Global Value Chains and Technological Capabilities: A Framework to Study Learning and Innovation in Developing Countries.” Oxford Development Studies, 36(1): 39–58.
Mosley, L. 2010. Labor Rights and Multinational Production. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mosley, L., & Saika, U. 2007, August. Racing to the Bottom or Climbing to the Top?: Economic Globalization and Collective Labor Rights,” Comparative Political Studies, 40(8): 023–048.
Marine Stewardship Council. 2011. “MSC in Numbers.” Retrieved from .
Murakami, Y. 1987. “The Japanese Model of Political Economy.” In Yamamura, K. & Yasuba, Y. (Eds.), The Political Economy of Japan: The Domestic Transformation (Vol. 1, pp. 33–90). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Nadvi, K. 2008. “Global Standards, Global Governance and the Organization of Global Value Chains.” Journal of Economic Geography, 8: 323–43.
Nadvi, K., Lund-Thomsen, P., Xue, H., & Khara, N. 2011. “Playing against China: Global Value Chains and Labour Standards in the International Sports Good Industry.” Global Networks, 11(3): 334–54.
Nadvi, K., & Wältring, F. 2004. “Making Sense of Global Standards.” In Schmitz, H. (Ed.), Local Enterprises in the Global Economy: Issues of Governance and Upgrading (pp. 53–94). Northampton: Edward Elgar.
National Research Council. 2004. Monitoring International Labor Standards: Techniques and Sources of Information, Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
National Sporting Goods Association. 2005. Retrieved from .
National Sporting Goods Association. 2010. Retrieved from .
Navas-Alemán, L., & Bazan, L. 2003. “Local Implementation of Quality, Labour and Environmental Standards: Opportunities for Upgrading in the Footwear Industry.” SEED Working Paper No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
Navas-Alemán, L., & Bazan, L. 2005. “Making Value Chain Governance Work for the Implementation of Quality, Labor and Environmental Standards: Upgrading Challenges in the Footwear Industry.” In Giuliani, E., Rabellotti, R., & van Dijk, M. P. (Eds.), Clusters Facing Competition: The Importance of External Linkages (pp. 39–60). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
Nelson, V., Martin, A., & Ewert, J. 2007. “The Impacts of Codes of Practice on Worker Livelihoods: Empirical Evidence from the South African Wine and Kenyan Cut Flower Industries.” The Journal of Corporate Citizenship, Winter, 28: 61.
Ngai, P. 2005. “Global Production, Company Codes of Conduct, and Labor Conditions in China: A Case Study of Two Factories.” China Journal, 54: 101–13.
Ngai, P., & Chan, Jenny. 2010. “Global Capital, the State, and Chinese Workers: The Foxconn Experience.” Modern China, 38(4): 383–410.
Nike, Inc. 2005, March. FY04 Corporate Responsibility Report. Beaverton, OR: Nike. Retrieved from .
Nike, Inc. 2007, May. “Innovate for a Better World: FY05–06 Corporate Responsibility Report.” Beaverton, OR: Nike, Inc., pp. 39–42.
Nike, Inc. January 2010a. Corporate Responsibility Report. Beaverton, OR: Nike, Inc. Retrieved from .
Nike, Inc. July 2010b. Annual Report. Retrieved from .
Nike, Inc. May 2012. FY10–11 Sustainable Business Performance Summary. Beaverton, OR: Nike, Inc. Retrieved from .
North, D. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2008. “OECD Information Technology Outlook 2008: Highlights.” .
Oka, C. 2010a. “Accounting for the Gaps in Labour Standard Compliance: The Role of Reputation-Conscious Buyers in the Cambodian Garment District.” European Journal of Development Research, 22(1): 59–78.
Oka, C. 2010b. “Channels of Buyer Influence and Labor Standard Compliance: The Case of Cambodia's Garment Sector.” Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, 17: 153–83.
Ōno, T. 1988. Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-scale Production. Portland, OR: Productivity Press. Original work published 1978.
O’Rourke, D. 1997. “Smoke from a Hired Gun: A Critique of Nike's Labor and Environmental Auditing in Vietnam as performed by Ernst & Young.” San Francisco: Transnational Resource Action Center, 1997. Retrieved from .
O’Rourke, D. 2000, September 28. “Monitoring the Monitors: A Critique of PriceWaterhouseCoopers Labor Monitoring.” Unpublished manuscript, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
O’Rourke, D. 2002. “Monitoring the Monitors: A Critique of Corporate Third-party Labor Monitoring.” In Jenkins, R., Pearson, R., & Seyfang, G. (Eds.), Corporate Responsibility and Labour Rights: Codes of Conduct in the Global Economy (pp. 196–208). London: Earthscan.
O’Rourke, D. 2003, February. “Outsourcing Regulation: Analyzing Nongovernmental Systems of Labor Standards and Monitoring.” Policy Studies Journal, 31(1): 1–30.
O’Rourke, D. 2007. “Bringing in Social Actors: Accountability and Regulation in the Global Textiles and Apparel Industry.” In Brown, D. & Woods, N. (Eds.), Making Global Self-Regulation Effective in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 113–148.
O’Rourke, D. 2011. “Citizen Consumer.” Boston Review, November/December: 12–19.
Osterman, P. 1994. “How Common Is Workplace Transformation and Who Adopts It?Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 47(2): 173–88.
Ostrom, E. 1990, November. Governing the Commons: The Evolutuion of Institutions for Active Action. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Overeem, P. 2009. “Reset. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Electronics Supply Chain.” Amsterdam: Good Electronics MVO Platform.
Oxfam International. 2004. “Trading Away Our Rights: Women Working in Global Supply Chains.”
Packard, D. 2006. The HP Way: How Bill Hewlett and I Built Our Company. New York: HarperBusiness.
Partida, R. E. 2004. “Efectos de los Tratados de Libre Comercio suscritos con otros paises sobre los salarios y empleo (NAFTA, Union Europea).” Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexique.
Pattberg, P. H. 2005. “The Forest Stewardship Council: Risk and the Potential of Private Frest Governance.” Journal of Environment and Development, 14(3): 356–74.
Pay, E. 2009. “The Market for Organic and Fair-Trade Coffee.” United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. Retrieved from .
Pessoa, A. 2006. “Public-Private Sector Partnerships in Developing Countries: Prospects and Drawbacks.” FEP Working Papers 228, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
Peterson, K. 2010. “Temping Down Labor Rights: The Manpowerization of Mexico.” CorpWatch. Retrieved from .
Petrecca, L., & Howard, T. 2005, August 4. “Adidas-Reebok Merger Lets Rivals Nip at Nike's Heels.” USA Today, p. B1.
Piore, M. J. 2005. “Looking for Flexible Workplace Regulation in Latin America and the United States.” Conference paper for Workshop on Labour Standards Application: A Compared Perspective, November 28–30, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Piore, M. J., & Sabel, C. F. 1984. The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity. New York: Basic Books.
Piore, M. J., & Schrank, A. 2008. “Toward Managed Flexibility: The Revival of Labour Inspection in the Latin World.” International Labour Review, 147(1): 1–23.
Pires, R. 2008. “Promoting sustainable compliance: Styles of labour inspection and compliance outcomes in Brazil.” International Labour Review, 147(2–3): 199–229.
Pires, R. 2011. “Beyond the Fear of Discretion: Flexibility, Performance, and Accountability in the Management of Regulatory Bureaucracies.” Regulation & Governance, 5(1): 43–69.
Polaski, S. 2004. “Protecting Labor Rights through Trade Agreements: An Analytical Guide.” U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy, 13: 13–25.
Polaski, S. 2006. “Combining global and local forces: The Case of Labor Rights in Cambodia.” World Development, 34(5): 919–32.
Posthuma, A., & Nathan, D. 2010. Labour in Global Production Networks, Cambridge UK: Oxford University Press.
Potoski, M., & Prakash, A. 2004. “The Regulation Dilemma: Cooperation and Conflict in Environmental Governance. Publication Administration Review, 64(2): 137–48.
Power, M. 1997. The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification. New York: Oxford University Press.
Prakash, A., & Potoski, M. 2007. “Investing Up: FDI and the Cross-Country Diffusion of ISO 14001 Management Systems.” International Studies Quarterly, 51: 723–44
Prakash, A., & Potoski, M. 2006a. “Racing to the Bottom? Trade, Environmental Governance, and ISO 14001,” American Journal of Political Science, 50(2): 350–64.
Prakash, A., & Potoski, M. 2006b. The Voluntary Environmentalists: Green Clubs, ISO 14001, and Voluntary Environmental Regulations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Program on International Policy Attitudes. 2000. Retrieved from .
Putnam, R. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Pruett, D. 2005, November. “Looking for a Quick Fix: How Weak Social Auditing Is Keeping Workers in Sweatshops.” Clean Clothes Campaign. Retrieved from .
Raworth, K., & Kidder, T. 2009. “Mimicking ‘Lean’ in Global Value Chains: It's the Workers Who Get Leaned On.” (Bair, Jennifer, Ed.) Frontiers of Commodity Chain Research (pp. 165–189). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Reich, R. B. 2007. Supercapitalism: The Transformation of Business, Democracy and Everyday Life. New York: Knopf.
Reinhardt, Forest. 1999. “Market Failure and the Environmental Policies of Firms: Economic Rationales for “Beyond Compliance” Behavior,” Journal of Industrial Economy, 3(1): 9–21.
Renard, M. C. 2005. “Quality Certification, Regulation and Power in Fair Trade.” Journal of Rural Studies, 21(4): 419–31.
Rivoli, P. 2005. The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy: An Economist Examines the Markets, Power, and Politics of World Trade. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Riisgaard, L. 2009. “Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards: Lessons from East African Cut Flower Industries.” World Development, 37(2): 326–40.
Robertson, R., Dehejia, R., Brown, D., & Ang, D. 2010. “Labor Law Compliance and Human Resource Management Innovation: Better Factories Cambodia.” Geneva, IlO: Working paper.
Rodriguez-Garavito, C. A. 2005. “Global Governance and Labor Rights: Codes of Conduct and Anti-Sweatshop Struggles in Global Apparel Factories in Mexico and Guatemala.” Politics and Society, 33(2): 203–33.
Rosenzweig, P. M. July 14, 1994. “International Sourcing in Athletic Footwear: Nike and Reebok.” Harvard Business School Case, No. 9–394–189: 1–17.
Rossi, A., & Robertson, R. 2011. “Better Factories Cambodia: An Instrument for Improving Industrial Relations in a Transnational Context.” Washington D.C. Center for Global Development. Unpublished manuscript.
Ruggie, J. G. 2003. “Taking Embedded Liberalism Global: The Corporate Connection.” In Held, D. & Koenig-Archibugi, M., Taming Globalization: Frontiers of Governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Ruggie, J. G. 2003. “The United Nations and Globalization: Patterns and Limits of Institutional Adaptation.” Global Governance, 9: 301.
Ryan, J., and Thein, A. 1998. Stuff: The Secret Lives of Everyday Things. Seattle, WA: Northwest Environment Watch. Retrieved from .
Sabel, C. F. 1982. Work and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sabel, C. F. 1994. “Learning by Monitoring: The Institutions of Economic Development.” In Smelser, N. J. & Swedberg, R. (Eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology (pp. 137–65). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sabel, C. F., & Zeitlin, J. 2004. “Neither Modularity nor Relational Contracting: Inter-Firm Collaboration in the New Economy.” Enterprise & Society, 5(3): 388–403.
Sabel, C. F., 7 Zeitlin, J. 2012. “Experimental Governance” (Faur, David Levi, Ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salazar Salame, H. 2011. Worker Rights Protection in Mexico's Silicon Valley: Confronting Low-Road Labor Practices in High-Tech Manufacturing through Antagonistic Collaboration (master's thesis). Retrieved from DSpace@mit. Retrieved from .
Schatan, C., & Castilleja, L. 2005. “The Maquiladora Electronics Industry and the Environment along Mexico's Northern Border.” Third North American Symposium on Assessing the Environmental Effects of Trade, Working Paper 05.
Scherer, A. G., Palazzo, G., & Baumann, D. 2006. “Global Rules and Private Actors: Toward a New Role of the Transnational Corporation in Global Governance.” Business Ethics Quarterly, 16: 505–32.
Schipper, I, & de Haan, E. 2007. Hard (Disk) Labour: Research Report on Labour Conditions in the Thai Electronics Sector. Amsterdam: Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen (SOMO).
Schon, D., & Rein, M. 1994. Frame Reflection: Toward the Resolution of Intractable Policy Controversies. New York: Basic Books.
Schrage, E. J. 2004, January. Promoting International Worker Rights through Private Voluntary Initiatives: Public Relations or Public Policy?University of Iowa Center for Human Rights. Retrieved from .
Schrank, A. 2005. “Professionalization and Probity in the Predatory State: Labor Law Enforcement in the Dominican Republic.” Paper presented for the MIT Institute for Work and Employment Relations Seminar, February 8, Cambridge, MA.
Schrank, A. 2007. “Labor Standards and Human Resources: A Natural Experiment in an Unlikely Laboratory.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, January 28, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Schrank, A. 2009. “Professionalization and Probity in a Patrimonial State: Labor Inspectors in the Dominican Republic.” Latin American Politics and Society, 51(2): 91–115.
Seidman, G. W. September, 2003. “Monitoring Multinationals: Lessons from the Anti-Apartheid Era.” Politics & Society, 31(3): 381–406.
Seidman, G. W. 2007. Beyond the Boycott: Labor Rights, Human Rights, and Transnational Activism. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Seidman, G.W. 2009. “Labouring under an Illusion? Lesotho's ‘sweat-free’ label.” Third World Quarterly, 30(3): 581–98.
SEMARNAT (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca). 2000. Informe 1995–2000. Mexico City, Mexico: SEMARNAT.
SEMARNAT (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales). 2003. Informe Anual PROFEPA, 2002, Mexico City, Mexico: SEMARNAT.
Sen, A. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor.
Senauer, B., & Reardon, T. 2011. “The Global Spread of Modern Food Retailing.” In Hamilton, G. G., Petrovic, M., Senauer, B. (Eds.), The Market Makers (pp. 271–90). New York: Oxford University Press.
Shamir, R. 2004. “The De-Radicalization of Corporate Social Responsibility.” Critical Sociology, 3: 669–89.
Sharma, A., Sharma, R., & Raj, N. 2000. “The Impact of Social Labelling on Child Labour in India's Carpet Industry.” ILO/IPEC Working Paper. New Delhi, Institute for Human Development.
Shiba, S., Graham, A., & Walden, D. 1993. A New American TQM: Four Practical Revolutions in Management. Cambridge: Productivity Press, Inc.
Silbey, S., Huising, R., & Vinocur Coslovsky, S. 2009The ‘Sociological Citizen’: Related Interdependence in Law and Organizations,” L’Annee Sociologique, 59(1): 201–29.
Silbey, S. (Editor of Special Issue) 2011. “The Sociological citizen: Pragmatic and relational regulation in law and organizations,” Regulation and Governance, 5(1): 1–164.
Smith, G., & Feldman, D. 2003, October. Company Codes of Conduct and International Standards: An Analytical Comparison. Part I of II: Apparel, Footware and Light Manufacturing; Agribusiness; Tourism. The World Bank. Retrieved from .
Smith, T., Sonnenfeld, D., & Pellow, D. 2006. Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Sodhi, M. S., & Lee, S. 2007. “An Analysis of Sources of Risk in the Consumer Electronics Industry.” Journal of the Operational Research Society, 58(11): 1430–9.
SOMO. (2009). “On the Move: The Electronics Industry in Central and Eastern Europe” Make IT Fair Publication. Retrieved from makeitfair.org/en/the-facts/reports/on-the-move/at_download/file.
Standing, G. 2007. “Decent Workplaces, Self-Regulation and CSR: From Puff to Stuff?” Working Papers (62). United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
Stavins, R. N. 2003. “Experience with market-based environmental policy instruments.” In Mäler, K. G. & Vincent, J. R. (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Economics (Vol. 1, pp. 355–435). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.
Steinfeld, E. S. 2004. “China's Shallow Integration: Networked Production and the New Challenges for Late Industrialization.” World Development, 32(11): 1971–87.
Strasser, J. B., & Becklund, L. 1993. Swoosh: The Unauthorized Story of Nike and the Men Who Played There. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Strathern, M. 2000. Audit Cultures. London: Routledge.
Streeck, W. 1987, September. “The Uncertainties of Management in the Management of Uncertainty: Employers, Labor Relations and Industrial Adjustment in the 1980s.” Work, Employment & Society, 1(3): 281–308.
Streeck, W. 1991. “On the Institutional Conditions of Diversified Quality Production.” In Matzner, E. & Wolfgang, S. (Eds.), Beyond Keynesianism: The Socio-Economics of Production and Employment (pp. 21–61). London: Edward Elgar.
Streeck, W. 2009. Re-forming Capitalism: Institutional Change in the German Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sturgeon, T. J. 2002. “Modular Production Networks: A New American Model of Industrial Organization.” Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3): 451–96.
Sturgeon, T. J., & Lester, R. 2002. The New Global Supply Base: New Challenges for Local Suppliers in East Asia. Cambridge MA: MIT Industrial Performance Center.
SwedWatch, SACOM, and SOMO. 2008. “Silenced to Deliver: Mobile Phone Manufacturing in China and the Philippines.”
Swenson, P. 1991, July. “Bringing Capital Back in, or Social Democracy Reconsidered: Employer Power, Cross-Class Alliances, and Centralization of Industrial Relations in Denmark and Sweden.” World Politics, 43(4): 513–44.
Swidler, A., 2009, November 2. “African Chiefdoms and Institutional Resilience: Public Goods and Private Strategies.” Presented at Center for European Studies, Harvard University.
Swidler, A. 2010. “Return of the Sacred: What African Chiefs Teach Us about Secularization,” Sociology of Religion, 71 no. 2.
Tendler, J. 1997. Good Government in the Tropics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Tewari, M., & Pillai, P. 2005, June. “Global Standards and the Dynamcs of Environmental Compliance in India's Leather Industry.” Oxford Development Studies 33(2): 245–67.
Thelen, K. 2004. How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States and Japan. New York: Cambridge University.
Timberland. 2007. Make It Better: Brief on Working Hours Version 1.0. Retrieved from .
Trubek, D. M., & Trubek, L. G. 2007. “New Governance & Legal Regulation: Complementarity, Rivalry, and Transformation.” University of Wisconsin Law School, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, 1047.
Trumbull, G. 2006. Consumer capitalism: politics, product markets and firm strategy in France and Germany. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Trumbull, J. G. 2011. “Consumer Credit in Postwar America and France: The Political Construction of Economic Interests.” New York: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.
United National Conference on Trade and Development. 2004. World Investment Report. The Shift Towards Services. Geneva: United Nations Report.
United Nations High Commision for Refugees. 2006. “Interim report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises” Geneva: UNHCR (Report E/CN.4/2006/97).
Utting, P. 2005. “Rethinking Business Regulation: From Self-Regulation to Social Control.” UNRISD Technology, Business and Society Programme Paper (15).
Valkila, J., & Nygren, A. 2010. “Impacts of Fair Trade Certification on Coffee Farmers, Cooperatives, and Laborers in Nicaragua.” Agriculture and Human Values, 27(3): 321–33.
Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry. 2008. “Final Report: Factory Improvement Programme.” Presented Hochiminh City, February, 2008.
Verité, . 2004, September 7. “Excessive Overtime in Chinese Supplier Factories: Causes, Impacts, and Recommendations for Action” (pp. 1–30). Amherst, MA: Verité Research Paper. Retrieved from .
Vogel, D. 2005. The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Vogel, D. 2008. “Private Global Business Regulation.” Annual Review of Political Science, 11: 261–82.
von Hippel, E. 1987. “Cooperation between Rivals: Informal Know-How Trading.” Research Policy, 16(6): 291–302.
Walton, R. E., Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. E., & McKersie, R. B. 2000. Strategic Negotiations: A Theory of Change in Labor-Management Relations. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Ward, J., Coe, N., & Johns, J. 2005. The Role of Temporary Staffing Agencies in Facilitating Labour Mobility in Eastern and Central Europe. Vedior Working Paper. Retrieved from .
Ward, J., Zhang, B., Jain, S., Fry, C., Olavson, T., Mishal, H., Amaral, J., Beyer, D., Brecht, A., Cargille, B., Chadinha, R., Chou, K., DeNyse, G., Feng, Q., Padovani, C., Raj, S., Sunderbruch, K., Tarjan, R., Venkatraman, K., Woods, J., & Zhou, J. 2010. “HP Transforms Product Portfolio Management with Operations Research.” Interfaces, 40(1): 17–32.
Weick, K. E. 1999. “Quality Improvement: A Sense-making Perspective.” In Cole, R. E. & Scott, W. R. (Eds.), The Quality Movement and Organizational Theory (pp. 155–75), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Weil, D. 1991. “Enforcing OSHA: The Role of Labor Unions.” Industrial Relations, 30(1): 20–36.
Weil, D. 1996. “If OSHA Is So Bad, Why Is Compliance So Good? “The RAND Journal of Economics, 27(3): 618–40.
Weil, D. 2005. “Public Enforcement/Private Monitoring: Evaluating a New Approach to Regulating the Minimum Wage.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 58(2): 238–57.
Weil, D. 2010. “Improving Workplace Conditions through Strategic Enforcement.” Report to the Wage and Hour Division, May 2010.
Wetterberg, A. 2011. “Public-Private Partnership in Labor Standards Governance: Better Factories Cambodia.” Public Administration and Development, 31: 64–73.
Whitman, J. Q. 2007. “Consumerism Versus Producerism: A Study in Comparative Law.” The Yale Law Journal, 117: 340.
Wilson, J. Q. 1968. Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
World Bank. 2003. World Development Report, Sustainable Development in a Dynamic World. Retrieved from .
Yu, X. M. 2008. “Impacts Of Corporate Code Of Conduct On Labor Standards: A Case Study Of Reebok's Athletic Footwear Supplier Factory In China.” Journal of Business Ethics, 81: 513–29.
Zadek, S 2004. “The Path to Corporate Responsibility.” Harvard Business Review, 82:12 (Dec. 1): 125–32.