Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 13
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Schmieder, Christian and Biesel, Kay 2016. Rekonstruktive Fallarbeit in der Pflege. p. 131.

    Turner, Sarah 2016. Gonzálvez-García, F., Peña Cervel, M. S., & Pérez Hernández, L. (Eds). (2013).Metaphor and Metonymy Revisited. Beyond the Contemporary Theory of Metaphor.. Metaphor and the Social World, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 169.

    Hart, Gwen 2015. Elicited Metaphor Analysis in Educational Discourse. Vol. 3, Issue. , p. 265.

    Davis, Hope Smith Watson, A. Bruce and Bakerson, Michelle 2015. Elicited Metaphor Analysis in Educational Discourse. Vol. 3, Issue. , p. 139.

    Henderson, Emily F. 2014. Poststructuralist Metaphor Analysis Through the “Gender” Lens. Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 332.

    Agbaria, Ayman K. 2011. To nail a pudding: metaphorical analysis of the social studies education discourse community on globalization. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 209.

    Đurović, Tatjana and Silaški, Nadežda 2010. Metaphors we vote by. Journal of Language and Politics, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 237.

    Koller, Veronika 2008. Goatly, Andrew.Washing the Brain. Metaphor and Hidden Ideology.2007. Journal of Language and Politics, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 348.

    Koller, Veronika 2005. Critical discourse analysis and social cognition: evidence from business media discourse. Discourse & Society, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 199.

    Ho, Judy Woon Yee 2005. Metaphorical Construction of Self in Teachers’ Narratives. Language and Education, Vol. 19, Issue. 5, p. 359.

    Shindell, Tom and Willis, Verna 2001. Analyzing HRD Metaphor-in-Use. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 309.

    Short, Darren C. 2001. Strategies for Applying Metaphor in HRD Research, Practice, and Education. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 379.

    Cameron, Lynne and Low, Graham 1999. Metaphor. Language Teaching, Vol. 32, Issue. 02, p. 77.

  • Print publication year: 1999
  • Online publication date: October 2012

3 - Validating metaphor research projects



The extent to which applied linguistic researchers attempt to describe or control the validity of what they are doing appears to vary markedly. What is standard practice in psychology and sociology is not, at least in my experience, quite so standard when it comes to areas like language education, or even straight linguistic description. Essentially, any research report needs to include overt discussion of the extent to which the reader can be confident about the nature of the data which has been selected or omitted from the study, about the techniques of analysis and categorisation used, and about the extent to which the data support the conclusions proposed. It must, however, be admitted that, when it comes to applied language research, this is not always quite as simple a demand as it may at first sight appear.

The object of Chapter 3 is accordingly to examine some of these ‘not quite so simple’ aspects of validity, with respect to metaphor research projects and their method, data and conclusions. Validity will be taken in the very broad sense referred to above, of giving confidence to an observer that the data and the researcher's actions are appropriate to the task in hand. This is akin to the notion of validity developed in Messick (1980: 1014; see also Low, 1996b). The hope is that the paper will act as a bridge between the first two chapters of the book, which take a panoramic view, and the later chapters, the majority of which describe actual empirical studies.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Researching and Applying Metaphor
  • Online ISBN: 9781139524704
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *