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    Banes, Graham L. Galdikas, Biruté M. F. and Vigilant, Linda 2015. Male orang-utan bimaturism and reproductive success at Camp Leakey in Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 69, Issue. 11, p. 1785.

    Caeiro, Cátia C. Waller, Bridget M. Zimmermann, Elke Burrows, Anne M. and Davila-Ross, Marina 2013. OrangFACS: A Muscle-Based Facial Movement Coding System for Orangutans (Pongo spp.). International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 34, Issue. 1, p. 115.

    Balolia, Katharine L. Soligo, Christophe and Lockwood, Charles A. 2013. Sexual Dimorphism and Facial Growth Beyond Dental Maturity in Great Apes and Gibbons. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 361.

    van Schaik, Carel P. Damerius, Laura Isler, Karin and Kamilar, Jason M. 2013. Wild Orangutan Males Plan and Communicate Their Travel Direction One Day in Advance. PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, Issue. 9, p. e74896.

    Dixson, Barnaby J. and Vasey, Paul L. 2012. Beards augment perceptions of men's age, social status, and aggressiveness, but not attractiveness. Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 481.

    Pradhan, Gauri R. van Noordwijk, Maria A. and van Schaik, Carel 2012. A model for the evolution of developmental arrest in male orangutans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 149, Issue. 1, p. 18.

    Morrogh-Bernard, Helen Celia Morf, Nadja V. Chivers, David J. and Krützen, Michael 2011. Dispersal Patterns of Orang-utans (Pongo spp.) in a Bornean Peat-swamp Forest. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 362.


    Lewis, Rebecca J. and van Schaik, Carel P. 2007. Bimorphism in Male Verreaux’s Sifaka in the Kirindy Forest of Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 159.

  • Print publication year: 2004
  • Online publication date: August 2009

11 - Alternative male reproductive strategies: male bimaturism in orangutans



An individual's lifetime reproductive success is determined by the degree to which it copes with the various challenges that it faces in the different stages of its life. These challenges change constantly from early juvenility until late adulthood (Setchell & Lee, this volume). They require corresponding adaptive variation in the tactics of survival and reproduction, as the animal passes through the successive phases of its life cycle. This dynamic change takes its most dramatic form in those species where an individual goes through one or several distinct larval stages before becoming a reproductively active adult. Apart from such successive changes, there are also variations in fitness-maximising tactics that coexist side by side. In this chapter we deal specifically with such parallel or alternative fitness trajectories in a primate, the orangutan, a species with two adult, sexually mature male morphs. A recent study by Utami et al. (2002) has shown that these two male morphs exist side by side in a natural population and that each morph can and does produce offspring, suggesting that they represent parallel alternative reproductive tactics. Here we review the pertinent evidence.

It has long been an established fact in ethology that interactions with social partners influence an individual's motivational state and vice versa, and, through interactions, its physiological development and condition. For example, the suppression of reproductive processes by the presence of a same-sex conspecific has been documented for many species, including primates.

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Sexual Selection in Primates
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