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    Rabosky, Daniel L. 2017. Phylogenetic tests for evolutionary innovation: the problematic link between key innovations and exceptional diversification. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, Issue. 1735, p. 20160417.

    Patzkowsky, Mark E. 2017. Origin and Evolution of Regional Biotas: A Deep-Time Perspective. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol. 45, Issue. 1, p. 471.

    Sanmartín, Isabel and Meseguer, Andrea S. 2016. Extinction in Phylogenetics and Biogeography: From Timetrees to Patterns of Biotic Assemblage. Frontiers in Genetics, Vol. 7, Issue. ,

    Marcot, Jonathan D. Fox, David L. and Niebuhr, Spencer R. 2016. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue. 26, p. 7189.

    Silvestro, Daniele Zizka, Alexander Bacon, Christine D. Cascales-Miñana, Borja Salamin, Nicolas and Antonelli, Alexandre 2016. Fossil biogeography: a new model to infer dispersal, extinction and sampling from palaeontological data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, Issue. 1691, p. 20150225.

    Alroy, John 2015. Current extinction rates of reptiles and amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue. 42, p. 13003.

    Bibi, Faysal and Kiessling, Wolfgang 2015. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue. 34, p. 10623.

    Smits, Peter D. 2015. Expected time-invariant effects of biological traits on mammal species duration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue. 42, p. 13015.

    Marcot, Jonathan D. 2014. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of North American ungulate mammals: standardizing variation in intensity and geography of sampling. Paleobiology, Vol. 40, Issue. 02, p. 238.

    Alroy, John 2014. Accurate and precise estimates of origination and extinction rates. Paleobiology, Vol. 40, Issue. 03, p. 374.

    Rabosky, Daniel L. 2013. Diversity-Dependence, Ecological Speciation, and the Role of Competition in Macroevolution. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 481.

    Bokma, Folmer van den Brink, Valentijn and Stadler, Tanja 2012. UNEXPECTEDLY MANY EXTINCT HOMININS. Evolution, Vol. 66, Issue. 9, p. 2969.

    Simpson, Carl Kiessling, Wolfgang Mewis, Heike Baron-Szabo, Rosemarie C. and Müller, Johannes 2011. EVOLUTIONARY DIVERSIFICATION OF REEF CORALS: A COMPARISON OF THE MOLECULAR AND FOSSIL RECORDS. Evolution, Vol. 65, Issue. 11, p. 3274.

    Mahler, D. Luke Revell, Liam J. Glor, Richard E. and Losos, Jonathan B. 2010. ECOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITY AND THE RATE OF MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN THE DIVERSIFICATION OF GREATER ANTILLEAN ANOLES. Evolution, Vol. 64, Issue. 9, p. 2731.

    Simpson, Carl and Kiessling, Wolfgang 2010. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.

    Rabosky, Daniel L. 2010. Primary Controls on Species Richness in Higher Taxa. Systematic Biology, Vol. 59, Issue. 6, p. 634.

    Rabosky, Daniel L. 2009. Heritability of Extinction Rates Links Diversification Patterns in Molecular Phylogenies and Fossils. Systematic Biology, Vol. 58, Issue. 6, p. 629.

  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: June 2012

16 - Speciation and extinction in the fossil record of North American mammals



Paleontological data have been used for decades to address a series of very general and intrinsically interesting questions concerning speciation. Many of them are essentially microevolutionary, morphological or both. What is the relative prevalence of anagenesis and cladogensis (Wagner & Erwin 1995)? Do constraints on morphology cause occupation of morphospace to slow down as diversity increases (Foote 1993)? Is morphological change gradual or punctuated across speciation events (Simpson 1944)?

A survey of the analytical paleobiology literature would reveal, however, that interest in all of these questions has waned over the last decade or two. The one topic relating to speciation that remains very popular is the quantification and modelling of turnover rates (Foote 1994b, 2000, 2003; Sepkoski 1998; Newman & Eble 1999; Kirchner and Weil 2000; Allen et al. 2006; Alroy 2008). Coincidentally and fortuitously, the explosion of molecular data sets and great improvements in phylogenetic methods have led to quantifying speciation rates by tracking the accumulation of lineages through time (Nee et al. 1992, 1994; Purvis et al. 1995; Magallon & Sanderson 2001; Roelants et al. 2007).

Nonetheless, paleontological research has focused far more strongly on taxonomic diversity than on speciation in recent years (Alroy 1996, 1998b, 2000; Miller & Foote 1996; Sepkoski 1997; Alroy et al. 2001, 2008; Connolly & Miller 2001; Peters & Foote 2001; Smith 2001; Jablonski et al. 2003; Bush et al. 2004; Krug & Patzkowsky 2004; Allen et al. 2006; Crampton et al. 2006).

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Speciation and Patterns of Diversity
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