Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: March 2020

4 - The Politics of Participatory Sustainability Assessments: An Analysis of Power

from Part I - Theoretical Background


The participation of societal actors has been advanced as the gold standard of sustainability assessment processes and is thought essential to dealing with the plurality of normative claims surrounding sustainability and the need to take decisions in a context of trade-offs. However, participation per se does not guarantee these outcomes. In this chapter, we put the spotlight on the politics of participatory sustainability assessments and look at the entanglements of knowledge and power in such processes. First, we introduce different conceptualisations of participation and show that participation is a contested concept that goes beyond methodological questions. Second, to equip ourselves for a discussion of the politics of participatory sustainability assessments, we present an analytical framework for studying diverse facets of power (‘power over’, ‘power to’, and ‘power with’) throughout participatory sustainability assessment processes. By means of a literature analysis, we illustrate how, depending on the design of the process and the socio-political context in which it takes place, different power relations pervade and shape participation processes and their outcomes. The analytical framework presented can support reflexivity in tackling power dynamics in participatory sustainability assessments.

Adelle, C., & Weiland, S. (2015). Sustainability assessment at the policy level. In Handbook of Sustainability Assessment. Cheltenham & Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 103–124.
Allen, A. (1998). Rethinking power. Hypatia, 13(1), 2140.
Arendt, H. (1970). On Violence. San Diego, New York, London: Harcourt Brace jovanovich.
Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216224.
Avelino, F. (2017). Power in sustainability transitions: Analysing power and (dis)empowerment in transformative change towards sustainability. Environmental Policy and Governance, 27(6), 505–20.
Bachrach, P., & Baratz, M. (1962). Two faces of power. American Political Science Review, 56, 947–995.
Bäckstrand, K. (2003). Civic science for sustainability: Reframing the role of experts, policy-makers and citizens in environmental governance. Global Environmental Politics, 3(4), 2441.
Beierle, T. C. (1999). Using social goals to evaluate public participation in environmental decisions. Review of Policy Research, 16(3–4), 75103.
Bell, S., Morse, S., & Shah, R. A. (2012). Understanding stakeholder participation in research as part of sustainable development. Journal of Environmental Management, 101, 1322.
Berg, M., & Lidskog, R. (2018). Deliberative democracy meets democratised science: A deliberative systems approach to global environmental governance. Environmental Politics, 27(1), 120.
Binder, C. R., Baldi, M. G., Gex, B., & Massaro, E. (2020b). The sustainability solution space. In Binder, C. R., Massaro, E, & Wyss, R (eds.), Sustainability Assessment in Urban Systems. Cambridge University Press, (pp. 181208).
Binder, C. R., Feola, G., & Steinberger, J. K. (2010). Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30(2), 7181.
Blok, A. (2007). Experts on public trial: On democratizing expertise through a Danish consensus conference. Public Understanding of Science, 16(2), 163182.
Bloomfield, D., Collins, K., Fry, C., & Munton, R. (1998). Deliberative and inclusionary processes: Their contributions to environmental governance. ESRC DIPs in Environmental Decision-Making, 17.
Brand, U. (2016). “Transformation” as a new critical orthodoxy: The strategic use of the term “transformation” does not prevent multiple crises. GAIA-Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 25(1), 2327.
Burton, B., & Rowell, A. (2002). British American tobacco’s socially responsible smoke screen. PR Watch, 9(4), 612.
Button, M., & Mattson, K. (1999). Deliberative democracy in practice: Challenges and prospects for civic deliberation. Polity, 31(4), 609637.
Cashmore, M., & Richardson, T. (2013). Power and environmental assessment: Introduction to the special issue. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 39, 14.
Chambers, R. (1997). Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd (ITP).
Chilvers, J., & Kearnes, M. (2015). Remaking Participation: Science, Environment and Emergent Publics. Abington and New York: Routledge.
Claudel, M., Massaro, E., Santi, P., Murray, F., & Ratti, C. (2017). An exploration of collaborative scientific production at MIT through spatial organization and institutional affiliation. PloS one, 12(6), e0179334.
Collins, H. M., & Evans, R. (2002). The third wave of science studies: Studies of expertise and experience. Social Studies of Science, 32(2), 235296.
Cook, B. R., Kesby, M., Fazey, I., & Spray, C. (2013). The persistence of “normal” catchment management despite the participatory turn: Exploring the power effects of competing frames of reference. Social Studies of Science, 43(5), 754779.
Cornwall, A. (2004). Spaces for transformation? Reflections on issues of power and difference in participation in development. In Hickey, S & Mohan, G (eds.), Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation. London and New York: Zed Books, pp. 7591.
Cornwall, A. (2008). Unpacking ‘participation’: Models, meanings and practices. Community Development Journal, 43(3), 269283.
Cornwall, A., & Coelho, V. S. (2007). Spaces for Change? The Politics of Citizen Participation in New Democratic Arenas, vol. 4. Zed Books.
Dahl, R. A. (1957). The concept of power. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 2(3), 201215.
Digeser, P. (1992). The fourth face of power. The Journal of Politics, 54(4), 9771007.
Dryzek, J. (1993). Policy analysis and planning: From science to argument. In Fischer, F & Forester, J (eds.), The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis and Planning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Dryzek, J. (2000). Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dryzek, J., & Pickering, J. (2017). Deliberation as a catalyst for reflexive environmental governance. Ecological Economics, 131, 353360.
Eyben, R., Harris, C., & Pettit, J. (2006). Introduction: exploring power for change. IDS Bulletin, 37(6), 110.
Farrell, K. N. (2011). Snow White and the wicked problems of the west: A look at the lines between empirical description and normative prescription. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 36(3), 334361.
Felt, U. (2009). Knowing and living in academic research: Convergences and heterogeneity in research cultures in the European context. Prague: Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
Fiorino, D. J. (1989). Environmental risk and democratic process: A critical review. Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 14, 501.
Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.
Frame, B., & Brown, J. (2008). Developing post-normal technologies for sustainability. Ecological Economics, 65(2), 225241.
Fritz, L. (2018). (De-)constructing participation in transdisciplinary sustainability research: A critical review of key concepts. In Engelschalt, J, Maibaum, A, Engels, F, & Odenwald, J (eds.), Schafft Wissen–Gemeinsames und geteiltes Wissen in Wissenschaft und Technik (SSOAR). München: SSOAR, pp. 106–124.
Fritz, L., & Binder, C. R. (2018). Participation as relational space: A critical approach to analysing participation in sustainability research. Sustainability, 10(8), 2853.
Funtowicz, S. O., & Ravetz, J. R. (1993). The emergence of post-normal science. In Von Schomberg, R (ed.), Science, Politics and Morality. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 85123.
Garmendia, E., & Stagl, S. (2010). Public participation for sustainability and social learning: Concepts and lessons from three case studies in Europe. Ecological Economics, 69(8), 17121722.
Gaventa, J. (2006). Finding the spaces for change: A power analysis. IDS Bulletin, 37(6), 2333.
Gaventa, J., & Cornwall, A. (2001). Power and knowledge. In Reason, P & Bradbury, H (eds.), Handbook of Action Research, Concise Paperback Edition. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, pp. 7281.
Gaventa, J., & Cornwall, A. (2008). Power and knowledge. In Reason, P & Bradbury, H (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice, 2nd edition. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, pp. 172189.
Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. Los Angeles: Sage.
Gibson, B., Hassan, S., & Tansey, J. (2013 ). Sustainability Assessment: Criteria and Processes. London: Routledge.
Glass, J. H., Scott, A. J., & Price, M. F. (2013). The power of the process: Co-producing a sustainability assessment toolkit for upland estate management in Scotland. Land Use Policy, 30(1), 254265.
Habermas, J. H. (1981). Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
Hage, M., Leroy, P., & Petersen, A. C. (2010). Stakeholder participation in environmental knowledge production. Futures, 42(3), 254264.
Halla, P. & Binder, C. R. (2020). Sustainability Assessment: Introduction and Framework. In Binder, C.R., Massaro, E, & Wyss, R (eds.), Sustainability Assessment in Urban Systems. Cambridge University Press, (pp. 729).
Hardy, C., & Clegg, S. R. (2006). Some dare call it power. In Clegg, S. R., Hardy, C, Lawrence, T. B. & Nord, W. R. (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage Publications, pp. 754–775.
Hartz-Karp, J., Pope, J., & Petrova, S. (2015). A deliberative collaborative governance approach to sustainability assessment. In Morrison-Saunders, A, Pope, J, & Bond, A (eds.), Handbook of Sustainability Assessment, Cheltenham and Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar, pp. 375402.
Haugaard, M. (2002). Power: A Reader. Manchester Manchester University Press.
Haugaard, M. (2003). Reflections on seven ways of creating power. European Journal of Social Theory, 6(1), 87113.
Haugaard, M. (2012). Rethinking the four dimensions of power: Domination and empowerment. Journal of Political Power, 5(1), 3354.
Hayward, C. R. (2000). De-facing Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hegger, D., & Dieperink, C. (2015). Joint knowledge production for climate change adaptation: What is in it for science? Ecology and Society, 20(4).
Hirsch Hadorn, G., Bradley, D., Pohl, C., Rist, S., & Wiesmann, U. (2006). Implications of transdisciplinarity for sustainability research. Ecological Economics, 60(1), 119128.
Holmes, T. (2001). A participatory approach in practice: Understanding fieldworkers’ use of participatory rural appraisal in ActionAid The Gambia. IDS Working Papers, 123.
Holmes, T., & Scoones, I. (2000). Participatory environmental policy processes: Experiences from North and South. IDS Working Paper, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Brighton.
Hoppe, R. (1999). Policy analysis, science and politics: From “speaking truth to power” to “making sense together.” Science and Public Policy, 26(3), 201210.
Igelsböck, J. (2016). Designing “integration machines.” In Krings, B-J, Rodríguez, H, & Schleisiek, A (eds.), Scientific Knowledge and the Transgression of Boundaries. Wiesbaden: Springer, pp.133160.
Jacobs, M. (1997). Environmental valuation, deliberative democracy and public decision-making institutions. Valuing Nature, 211231.
Jasanoff, S. (2003). Technologies of humility: Citizen participation in governing science. Minerva, 41(3), 223244.
Jasanoff, S. (2004). States of Knowledge: The Co-production of Science and the Social Order. London and New York: Routledge.
Kallis, G., Hatzilacou, D., Mexa, A., Coccossis, H., & Svoronou, E. (2009). Beyond the manual: Practicing deliberative visioning in a Greek island. Ecological Economics, 68(4), 979989.
Kallis, G., Videira, N., Antunes, P., et al. (2006). Participatory methods for water resources planning. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 24(2), 215234.
Kasemir, B. (2003). Public Participation in Sustainability Science: A Handbook. Cambridge University Press.
Kates, R. W., Clark, W. C., Corell, R., et al. (2001). Sustainability science. Science, 292(5517), 641642.
Kemp, R., & Martens, P. (2007). Sustainable development: How to manage something that is subjective and never can be achieved? Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 3(2), 514.
Klenk, N., & Meehan, K. (2015). Climate change and transdisciplinary science: Problematizing the integration imperative. Environmental Science & Policy, 54(Supplement C), 160167.
Klenk, N., Reed, M. G., Lidestav, G., & Carlsson, J. (2013). Models of representation and participation in model forests: Dilemmas and implications for networked forms of environmental governance involving indigenous people. Environmental Policy and Governance, 23(3), 161176.
Kothari, U., & Cooke, B. (Eds.) (2001). Participatory development: Power, knowledge and social control. In Participation: The New Tyranny? London: Zed Books, pp. 139152.
Kristiansen, M., & Bloch-Poulsen, J. (2013). Participatory knowledge production and power. In Phillips, L, Kristiansen, M, Vehviläinen, M, & Gunnarsson, E (eds.), Knowledge and Power in Collaborative Research: A Reflexive Approach. Taylor & Francis, pp. 193212.
Kropp, C. (2013). Demokratische Planung der Klimaanpassung? Über die Fallstricke partizipativer Verfahren im expertokratischen Staat. In Knierim, A, Baasch, S, & Gottschick, M (eds.), Partizipation und Klimawandel–Ansprüche, Konzepte und Umsetzung München: Oekonom, pp. 5574.
Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory, vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lawrence, D. P. (2013). Impact Assessment: Practical Solutions to Recurrent Problems and Contemporary Challenges. Wiley Online Library. DOI 10.1002/9781118678381.
Leeuwis, C. (2000). Reconceptualizing participation for sustainable rural development: Towards a negotiation approach. Development and Change, 31(5), 931959.
Lövbrand, E., & Stripple, J. (2013). Bringing governmentality to the study of global climate governance. In Stripple, J & Bulkeley, H (eds.), Governing the Climate: New Approaches to Rationality, Power and Politics. Cambridge University Press, pp. 2741.
Lukes, S. (1974). Power: A Radical View. London and New York: Macmillan.
Martinez-Alier, J., Munda, G., & O’Neill, J. (1998). Weak comparability of values as a foundation for ecological economics. Ecological Economics, 26(3), 277286.
McCool, S. F., & Stankey, G. H. (2004). Indicators of sustainability: Challenges and opportunities at the interface of science and policy. Environmental Management, 33(3), 294305.
McCullum, C., Pelletier, D., Barr, D., Wilkins, J., & Habicht, J.-P. (2004). Mechanisms of power within a community-based food security planning process. Health Education & Behavior, 31(2), 206222.
Meinherz, F., Fritz, L., & Schneider, F. (2020). How Values Play into Sustainability Assessments: Challenges and a Possible Way Forward. In Binder, C. R., Massaro, E, & Wyss, R (eds.), Sustainability Assessment in Urban Systems. Cambridge University Press, (pp. 6586).
Merino-Saum, A. (2020). Assessing sustainability through participatory multi-criteria approaches (PMCAs): An updated comparative analysis. In Binder, C. R., Massaro, E, & Wyss, R (eds.), Sustainability Assessment in Urban Systems. Cambridge University Press, (pp. XX).
Merton, R. K. (1973). The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. University of Chicago Press.
Mielke, J., Vermassen, H., Ellenbeck, S., Milan, B. F., & Jaeger, C. (2016). Stakeholder involvement in sustainability science: A critical view. Energy Research & Social Science, 17, 7181.
Morrison-Saunders, A., Pope, J., Bond, A., & Retief, F. (2014). Towards sustainability assessment follow-up. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 45, 3845.
Mouffe, C. (2000). Deliberative Democracy or Agonistic Pluralism. Vienna: Institute for Advanced Studies.
Munda, G. (2006). Social multi-criteria evaluation for urban sustainability policies. Land Use Policy, 23(1), 8694.
Muro, M., & Jeffrey, P. (2008). A critical review of the theory and application of social learning in participatory natural resource management processes. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 51(3), 325344.
O’Brien, F., & Meadows, M. (2001). How to develop visions: A literature review, and a revised CHOICES approach for an uncertain world. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 14(4), 495515.
Partzsch, L. (2015). Kein Wandel ohne Macht: Nachhaltigkeitsforschung braucht ein mehrdimensionales Machtverständnis. GAIA-Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 24(1), 4856.
Pellizzoni, L. (2003). Uncertainty and participatory democracy. Environmental Values, 12(2), 195224.
Pellow, D. N. (1999). Negotiation and confrontation: Environmental policymaking through consensus. Society & Natural Resources, 12(3), 189203.
Polatidis, H., Haralambopoulos, D. A., Munda, G., & Vreeker, R. (2006). Selecting an appropriate multi-criteria decision analysis technique for renewable energy planning. Energy Sources, Part B, 1(2), 181193.
Popa, F., Guillermin, M., & Dedeurwaerdere, T. (2015). A pragmatist approach to transdisciplinarity in sustainability research: From complex systems theory to reflexive science. Futures, 65, 4556.
Power, M. (1997). The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Raik, D. B., Wilson, A. L., & Decker, D. J. (2008). Power in natural resources management: An application of theory. Society and Natural Resources, 21(8), 729739.
Rametsteiner, E., Pülzl, H., Alkan-Olsson, J., & Frederiksen, P. (2011). Sustainability indicator development: Science or political negotiation? Ecological Indicators, 11(1), 6170.
Rauschmayer, F., van den Hove, S., & Koetz, T. (2009). Participation in EU biodiversity governance: How far beyond rhetoric? Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 27(1), 4258.
Reed, M. S., Graves, A., Dandy, N., et al. (2009). Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(5), 19331949.
Renn, O., & Schweizer, P.-J. (2009). Inclusive risk governance: concepts and application to environmental policy making. Environmental Policy and Governance, 19(3), 174185.
Robinson, J. (2004). Squaring the circle? Some thoughts on the idea of sustainable development. Ecological Economics, 48(4), 369384.
Rosendahl, J., Zanella, M. A., Rist, S., & Weigelt, J. (2015). Scientists’ situated knowledge: Strong objectivity in transdisciplinarity. Futures, 65, 1727.
Rubio, F. D., & Baert, P. (2012). The politics of knowledge: An introduction. In Rubio, F.D. & Baert, P (eds.), The Politics of Knowledge. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 110.
Sala, S., Ciuffo, B., & Nijkamp, P. (2015). A systemic framework for sustainability assessment. Ecological Economics, 119, 314325.
Sanderson, I. (1999). Participation and democratic renewal: from ‘instrumental’ to ‘communicative rationality’? Policy & Politics, 27(3), 325341.
Santos, R., Antunes, P., Baptista, G., Mateus, P., & Madruga, L. (2006). Stakeholder participation in the design of environmental policy mixes. Ecological Economics, 60(1), 100110.
Schikowitz, A. (2016). Choreographies of togetherness: Re-ordering collectivity and individuality in transdisciplinary sustainability research in Austria (Doctoral thesis). Wien.
Schilling, T., Mühlemeier, S., Wyss, R., & Binder, C.R. (2020). A Concept for Sustainability Transition Assessment (STA): A Dynamic Systems Perspective Informed by Resilience Thinking. In Binder, C. R., Massaro, E, & Wyss, R (eds.), Sustainability Assessment in Urban Systems. Cambridge University Press, pp. 123138.
Schneider, F. (2020). A mixed-method, dialogue based approach to sustainability assessments: Fostering learning towards sustainable development. In Binder, C. R., Massaro, E, & Wyss, R (eds.), Sustainability Assessment in Urban Systems. Cambridge University Press, pp. 141160.
Schneider, F., Bonriposi, M., Graefe, O., et al. (2015). Assessing the sustainability of water governance systems: The sustainability wheel. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 58(9), 15771600.
Schneider, F., & Buser, T. (2018). Promising degrees of stakeholder interaction in research for sustainable development. Sustainability Science, 13(1), 129142.
Sharifi, A., & Murayama, A. (2013). A critical review of seven selected neighborhood sustainability assessment tools. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 38, 7387.
Siew, T. F., Aenis, T., Spangenberg, J. H., et al. (2016). Transdisciplinary research in support of land and water management in China and Southeast Asia: Evaluation of four research projects. Sustainability Science, 813829.
Sinclair, A. J., Diduck, A. P., Vespa, M., Morrison-Saunders, A., Pope, J., & Bond, A. (2015). Public participation in sustainability assessment: Essential elements, practical challenges and emerging directions. In Morrison-Saunders, A, Pope, J, & Bond, A (eds.), Handbook of Sustainability Assessment. Camberley: Edward Elgar, pp. 349375.
Spash, C. L. (2007). Deliberative Monetary Valuation (DMV) in Theory. CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems Working Paper Series.
Spash, C. L., & Vatn, A. (2006). Transferring environmental value estimates: Issues and alternatives. Ecological Economics, 60(2), 379388.
Stauffacher, M., Flüeler, T., Krütli, P., & Scholz, R. W. (2008). Analytic and dynamic approach to collaboration: A transdisciplinary case study on sustainable landscape development in a Swiss prealpine region. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 21(6), 409422.
Stave, K. A. (2002). Using system dynamics to improve public participation in environmental decisions. System Dynamics Review, 18(2), 139167.
Stirling, A. (2008). “Opening up” and “closing down” power, participation, and pluralism in the social appraisal of technology. Science, Technology & Human Values, 33(2), 262294.
Stirling, A., & Mayer, S. (1999). Rethinking Risk: A Pilot Multicriteria Mapping of a Genetically Modified Crop in Agricultural Systems in the UK. Brighton: Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex.
Tewdwr-Jones, M., & Thomas, H. (1998). Collaborative action in local plan-making: Planners’ perceptions of “planning through debate.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 25(1), 127144.
Turnhout, E. (2009). The effectiveness of boundary objects: The case of ecological indicators. Science and Public Policy, 36(5), 403412.
van Asselt Marjolein, B. A., & Rijkens-Klomp, N. (2002). A look in the mirror: Reflection on participation in Integrated Assessment from a methodological perspective. Global Environmental Change, 12(3), 167184.
van den Hove, S. (2006). Between consensus and compromise: Acknowledging the negotiation dimension in participatory approaches. Land Use Policy, 23(1), 1017.
Vatn, A. (2005). Rationality, institutions and environmental policy. Ecological Economics, 55(2), 203217.
Vennix, J. A. (1996). Group Model Building: Facilitating Team Learning Using System Dynamics. Chichester and New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Videira, N., Antunes, P., Santos, R., & Lobo, G. (2006). Public and stakeholder participation in European water policy: A critical review of project evaluation processes. Environmental Policy and Governance, 16(1), 1931.
Videira, N., Antunes, P., Santos, R., & Lopes, R. (2010). A participatory modelling approach to support integrated sustainability assessment processes. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 27(4), 446460.
Videira, N., Lopes, R., Antunes, P., Santos, R., & Casanova, J. L. (2012). Mapping maritime sustainability issues with stakeholder groups. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 29(6), 596619.
Waas, T., Hugé, J., Block, T., Wright, T., Benitez-Capistros, F., & Verbruggen, A. (2014). Sustainability assessment and indicators: Tools in a decision-making strategy for sustainable development. Sustainability, 6(9), 55125534.
Weber, M. (1972). Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. 5. rev. edition. Tübingen: Mohr.
Whitmarsh, L., Swartling, A. G., & Jäger, J. (2009). Participation of experts and non-experts in a sustainability assessment of mobility. Environmental Policy and Governance, 19(4), 232250.
Wiek, A., & Binder, C. (2005). Solution spaces for decision-making: A sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 25(6), 589608.
Wynne, B. (2007). Public participation in science and technology: Performing and obscuring a political–conceptual category mistake. East Asian Science, Technology and Society, 1(1), 99110.
Wynne, B., & Felt, U. (2007). Taking European Knowledge Society Seriously: Report of the Expert Group on Science and Governance to the Science, Economy and Society Directorate, Directorate-General for Research, European Commission. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Zurek, M. B., & Henrichs, T. (2007). Linking scenarios across geographical scales in international environmental assessments. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(8), 12821295.