Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter 9 - Functional neuroimaging

from Section 1 - Technology of neurorehabilitation: outcome measurement and diagnostic technology
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation
  • Online ISBN: 9780511995590
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


1. Twitchell TE. The restoration of motor function following hemiplegia in man. Brain 1951; 74: 443–80.
2. Bury SD, Jones TA. Unilateral sensorimotor cortex lesions in adult rats facilitate motor skill learning with the unaffected forelimb and training-induced dendritic structural plasticity in the motor cortex. J Neurosci 2002; 22: 8597–606.
3. Schallert T, Leasure JL, Kolb B. Experience-associated structural events, subependymal cellular proliferative activity, and functional recovery after injury to the central nervous system. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2000; 20: 1513–28.
4. Nudo RJ, Wise BM, SiFuentes F, et al. Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery after ischemic infarct. Science 1996; 272: 1791–4.
5. Feeney DM. From laboratory to clinic: noradrenergic enhancement of physical therapy for stroke or trauma patients. Adv Neurol 1997; 73: 383–94.
6. Price CJ, Friston KJ. Scanning patients with tasks they can perform. Hum Brain Mapp 1999; 8: 102–8.
7. Ward NS, Frackowiak RSJ. Age-related changes in the neural correlates of motor performance. Brain 2003; 126: 873–88.
8. Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, et al. Neural correlates of outcome after stroke: a cross-sectional fMRI study. Brain 2003; 126: 1430–48.
9. Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, et al. Neural correlates of motor recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain 2003; 126: 2476–96.
10. Heller A, Wade DT, Wood VA, et al. Arm function after stroke: measurement and recovery over the first three months. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 1987; 50: 714–19.
11. Sunderland A, Tinson D, Bradley L, et al. Arm function after stroke. An evaluation of grip strength as a measure of recovery and a prognostic indicator. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 1989; 52: 1267–72.
12. Poldrack RA. Imaging brain plasticity: conceptual and methodological issues – a theoretical review. Neuroimage 2001; 12: 1–13.
13. Chollet F, DiPiero V, Wise RJ, et al. The functional anatomy of motor recovery after stroke in humans: a study with positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol 1991; 29: 63–71.
14. Cramer SC, Nelles G, Benson RR, et al. A functional MRI study of subjects recovered from hemiparetic stroke. Stroke 1997; 28: 2518–27.
15. Seitz RJ, Hoflich P, Binkofski F, et al. Role of the premotor cortex in recovery from middle cerebral artery infarction. Arch Neurol 1998; 55: 1081–8.
16. Weiller C, Chollet F, Friston KJ, et al. Functional reorganization of the brain in recovery from striatocapsular infarction in man. Ann Neurol 1992; 31: 463–72.
17. Weiller C, Ramsay SC, Wise RJ, et al. Individual patterns of functional reorganization in the human cerebral cortex after capsular infarction. Ann Neurol 1993; 33: 181–9.
18. Pineiro R, Pendlebury S, Johansen-Berg H, et al. Functional MRI detects posterior shifts in primary sensorimotor cortex activation after stroke: evidence of local adaptive reorganization? Stroke 2001; 32: 1134–9.
19. Cruz MA, Tejada J, Diez TE. Motor hand recovery after stroke. Prognostic yield of early transcranial magnetic stimulation. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1999; 39: 405–10.
20. Heald A, Bates D, Cartlidge NE, et al. Longitudinal study of central motor conduction time following stroke. 2. Central motor conduction measured within 72 h after stroke as a predictor of functional outcome at 12 months. Brain 1993; 116: 1371–85.
21. Pennisi G, Rapisarda G, Bella R, et al. Absence of response to early transcranial magnetic stimulation in ischemic stroke patients: prognostic value for hand motor recovery. Stroke 1999; 30: 2666–70.
22. Soteropoulos DS, Edgley SA, Baker SN. Lack of evidence for direct corticospinal contributions to control of the ipsilateral forelimb in monkey. J Neurosci 2011; 31: 11208–19.
23. Boudrias MH, Belhaj-Saif A, Park MC, et al. Contrasting properties of motor output from the supplementary motor area and primary motor cortex in Rhesus macaques. Cereb Cortex 2006; 16: 632–8.
24. Maier MA, Armand J, Kirkwood PA, et al. Differences in the corticospinal projection from primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area to macaque upper limb motoneurons: an anatomical and electrophysiological study. Cereb Cortex 2002; 12: 281–96.
25. Boudrias MH, Lee SP, Svojanovsky S, et al. Forelimb muscle representations and output properties of motor areas in the mesial wall of Rhesus macaques. Cereb Cortex 2010; 20: 704–19.
26. Boudrias MH, McPherson RL, Frost SB, et al. Output properties and organization of the forelimb representation of motor areas on the lateral aspect of the hemisphere in Rhesus macaques. Cereb Cortex 2010; 20: 169–86.
27. Lindenberg R, Zhu LL, Rüber T, et al. Predicting functional motor potential in chronic stroke patients using diffusion tensor imaging. Hum Brain Mapp 2012; 33: 1040–51.
28. Baker SN. The primate reticulospinal tract, hand function and functional recovery. J Physiol 2011; 589: 5603–12.
29. Mazevet D, Meunier S, Pradat-Diehl P, et al. Changes in Propriospinally mediated excitation of upper limb motoneurons in stroke patients. Brain 2003; 126: 988–1000.
30. Stinear JW, Byblow WD. The contribution of cervical propriospinal premotoneurons in recovering hemiparetic stroke patients. J Clin Neurophysiol 2004; 21: 426–34.
31. Mazevet D, Pierrot-Deseilligny E. Pattern of descending excitation of presumed propriospinal neurones at the onset of voluntary movement in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1994; 150: 27–38.
32. Pierrot-Deseilligny E. Transmission of the cortical command for human voluntary movement through cervical propriospinal premotoneurons. Prog Neurobiol 1996; 48: 489–517.
33. Dum RP, Strick PL. The origin of corticospinal projections from the premotor areas in the frontal lobe. J Neurosci 1991; 11: 667–89.
34. Rouiller EM, Moret V, Tanne J, et al. Evidence for direct connections between the hand region of the supplementary motor area and cervical motoneurons in the Macaque monkey. Eur J Neurosci 1996; 8: 1055–9.
35. Fridman EA, Hanakawa T, Chung M, et al. Reorganization of the human ipsilesional premotor cortex after stroke. Brain 2004; 127: 747–58.
36. Johansen-Berg H, Dawes H, Guy C, et al. Correlation between motor improvements and altered fMRI activity after rehabilitative therapy. Brain 2002; 125: 2731–42.
37. Lotze M, Markert J, Sauseng P, et al. The role of multiple contralesional motor areas for complex hand movements after internal capsular lesion. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 6096–102.
38. Riecker A, Groschel K, Ackermann H, et al. The role of the unaffected hemisphere in motor recovery after stroke. Hum Brain Mapp 2010; 31: 1017–29.
39. Ward NS, Newton JM, Swayne OB, et al. the relationship between brain activity and peak grip force is modulated by corticospinal system integrity after subcortical stroke. Eur J Neurosci 2007; 25: 1865–73.
40. Dettmers C, Fink GR, Lemon RN, et al. Relation between cerebral activity and force in the motor areas of the human brain. J Neurophysiol 1995; 74: 802–15.
41. Thickbroom GW, Phillips BA, Morris I, et al. Differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging of sensorimotor cortex during static and dynamic finger flexion. Exp Brain Res 1999; 126: 431–8.
42. Ward NS, Swayne OB, Newton JM. Age-dependent changes in the neural correlates of force modulation: an FMRI study. Neurobiol Aging 2008; 29: 1434–46.
43. Ward NS, Newton JM, Swayne OB, et al. Motor system activation after subcortical stroke depends on corticospinal system integrity. Brain 2006; 129: 809–19.
44. Newton J, Sunderland A, Butterworth SE, et al. A pilot study of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of monitored wrist movements in patients with partial recovery. Stroke 2002; 33: 2881–7.
45. Verleger R, Adam S, Rose M, et al. Control of hand movements after striatocapsular stroke: high-resolution temporal analysis of the function of ipsilateral activation. Clin Neurophysiol 2003; 114: 1468–76.
46. Serrien DJ, Strens LH, Cassidy MJ, et al. Functional significance of the ipsilateral hemisphere during movement of the affected hand after stroke. Exp Neurol 2004; 190: 425–32.
47. Bestmann S, Swayne OBC, Blankenburg F, et al. The role of contralesional premotor cortex after stroke. J Neuroscience 2010; 30: 11926–37.
48. Murase N, Duque J, Mazzocchio R, et al. Influence of interhemispheric interactions on motor function in chronic stroke. Ann Neurol 2004; 55: 400–9.
49. Grefkes C, Nowak DA, Eickhoff SB, et al. Cortical connectivity after subcortical stroke assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 2008; 63: 236–46.
50. Talelli P, Rothwell J. Does brain stimulation after stroke have a future? Curr Opin Neurol 2006; 19: 543–50.
51. Calautti C, Leroy F, Guincestre JY, et al. Dynamics of motor network overactivation after striatocapsular stroke: a longitudinal PET study using a fixed-performance paradigm. Stroke 2001; 32: 2534–42.
52. Marshall RS, Perera GM, Lazar RM, et al. Evolution of cortical activation during recovery from corticospinal tract infarction. Stroke 2000; 31: 656–61.
53. Feydy A, Carlier R, Roby-Brami A, et al. Longitudinal study of motor recovery after stroke: recruitment and focusing of brain activation. Stroke 2002; 33: 1610–17.
54. Small SL, Hlustik P, Noll DC, et al. Cerebellar hemispheric activation ipsilateral to the paretic hand correlates with functional recovery after stroke. Brain 2002; 125: 1544–57.
55. Grefkes C, Fink GR. Reorganization of cerebral networks after stroke: new insights from neuroimaging with connectivity approaches. Brain 2011; 134: 1264–76.
56. Rehme AK, Eickhoff SB, Wang LE, et al. Dynamic causal modeling of cortical activity from the acute to the chronic stage after stroke. Neuroimage 2011; 55: 1147–58.
57. Wang L, Yu C, Chen H, et al. Dynamic functional reorganization of the motor execution network after stroke. Brain 2010; 133: 1224–38.
58. Carey JR, Kimberley TJ, Lewis SM, et al. Analysis of fMRI and finger tracking training in subjects with chronic stroke. Brain 2002; 125: 773–88.
59. Jang SH, Kim YH, Cho SH, et al. Cortical reorganization induced by task-oriented training in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. NeuroReport 2003; 14: 137–41.
60. Miyai I, Yagura H, Hatakenaka M, et al. Longitudinal optical imaging study for locomotor recovery after stroke. Stroke 2003; 34: 2866–70.
61. Pariente J, Loubinoux I, Carel C, et al. Fluoxetine modulates motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke. Ann Neurol 2001; 50: 718–29.
62. Schaechter JD, Kraft E, Hilliard TS, et al. Motor recovery and cortical reorganization after constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke patients: a preliminary study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2002; 16: 326–38.
63. Hodics T, Cohen LG, Cramer SC. Functional imaging of intervention effects in stroke motor rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 87: S36–42.
64. Luft AR, McCombe-Waller S, Whitall J, et al. Repetitive bilateral arm training and motor cortex activation in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292: 1853–61.
65. Whitall J, Waller SM, Sorkin JD, et al. Bilateral and unilateral arm training improve motor function through differing neuroplastic mechanisms: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2011; 25: 118–29.
66. Ameli M, Grefkes C, Kemper F, et al. Differential effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over ipsilesional primary motor cortex in cortical and subcortical middle cerebral artery stroke. Ann Neurol 2009; 66: 298–309.
67. Ward NS. Getting lost in translation. Curr Opin Neurol 2008; 21: 625–7.
68. Cramer SC, Parrish TB, Levy RM, et al. Predicting functional gains in a stroke trial. Stroke 2007; 38: 2108–14.
69. Riley JD, Le V, Der-Yeghiaian See J, et al. Anatomy of stroke injury predicts gains from therapy. Stroke 2011; 42: 421–6.
70. Jang SH. A review of diffusion tensor imaging studies on motor recovery mechanisms in stroke patients. NeuroRehabil 2011; 28: 345–52.
71. Stinear CM, Barber PA, Coxon JP, et al. Priming the motor system enhances the effects of upper limb therapy in chronic stroke. Brain 2008; 131: 1381–90.
72. Marshall RS, Zarahn E, Alon L, et al. Early imaging correlates of subsequent motor recovery after stroke. Ann Neurol 2009; 65: 596–602.
73. Swayne OBC, Rothwell JC, Ward NS, et al. Stages of motor output reorganisation after hemispheric stroke suggested by longitudinal studies of cortical physiology. Cereb Cortex 2008; 18: 1909–22.
74. Talelli P, Ewas A, Waddingham W, et al. Neural correlates of age-related changes in cortical neurophysiology. Neuroimage 2008; 40: 1772–81.
75. Goldstein LB. Pharmacology of recovery after stroke. Stroke 1990; 21: III139–42.
76. Kleim JA, Chan S, Pringle E, et al. BDNF val66met polymorphism is associated with modified experience-dependent plasticity in human motor cortex. Nat Neurosci 2006; 9: 735–7.