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    Priestley, Jessica 2009. TMESIS IN HERODOTUS. Glotta, Vol. 85, Issue. 1-4, p. 118.

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The years covered by this volume saw events and developments of major significance in the Mediterranean world. The first section of the book examines the Persian empire, the regions it comprised and its expansion during the reigns of Cyrus, Darius and Xerxes. In Greece, Sparta was attending maturity as the leader of a military coalition and Athens passed through a period of enlightened tyranny to a moderate democracy of dynamic energy and clear-sighted intelligence. Given the contrast between Greek ideas and Persian absolutism a clash between Greece and Persia became inevitable, and important chapters deal with the revolt of the Ionian Greeks against the Persians, and the two Persian invasions of Greece including the epic battles of Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis. The third part of the volume turns to the Western Mediterranean. Italy now becomes a significant factor in the history of the area and this section covers the Italic peoples and their languages from the Bronze to the Iron age, and examines the Etruscans and their culture. Sicily is the subject of the final chapter. There the Greek city-states under Gelon of Syracuse and Theron ruler of Acragas repelled a Carthaginian onslaught at the battle of Himera. This new edition has been completely replanned and rewritten in order to reflect the advances in scholarship and changes in perspective which have been taking place in the sixty years since the publication of its predecessor.


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  • 1 - The early history of the Medes and the Persians and the Achaemenid empire to the death of Cambyses
    pp 1-52
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    The Median and Achaemenid periods define a critical disjunction in history. Iranians, more particularly the Medes and the Persians, first appear in history in the ninth-century BC cuneiform texts touching on the western half of the plateau. For some time thereafter the Medes and Persians are only two of several ethnic and political groups found in the Zagros mountains. Only late in the seventh century BC do the Medes apparently begin to become the dominant power even in Media. Cyrus is the son of Cambyses, grandson of Cyrus, and a descendant of Teispes. Cambyses succeeded to the throne in September 530 BC after Cyrus' death. Four years after ascending the throne Cambyses marched against Egypt. Amasis, the shrewd penultimate ruler of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, attempted to bolster his defences by securing the aid of the Cypriots and other islanders in order to cut off any possibility of a Persian invasion by sea.
  • 3a - Babylonia from Cyrus to Xerxes
    pp 112-138
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    This chapter presents an outline of the history of Babylonia from Cyrus II to Xerxes. The historiographic texts from Babylonia providing an outline of the main political events are very sparse, the major one being the Nabonidus Chronicle, which covers the whole reign of Nabonidus, last king of Babylonia, the rise of Cyrus and his conquest of Babylonia. The major political event which is partly reflected in Babylonian documents is the seizure of royal power by Bardiya, the brother of Cambyses. Bardiya was killed by Darius and his fellow conspirators on 29 September, and no Babylonian text dated by him later than 20 September has yet been found. On Bardiya's assassination Babylonia revolted immediately under the leadership of the Babylonian Nidintu-Bel who took the name Nebuchadrezzar (III). Xerxes' relations with Babylonia have been generally sought in the development of his titulature; the earliest texts like those of his Achaemenid predecessors regularly call him 'King of Babylon and Lands'.
  • 3b - Syria-Palestine under Achaemenid rule
    pp 139-164
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    In 539 BC Cyrus overcame Nabonidus, the last king of Babylonia; as a consequence, Syria-Palestine fell into the Persian king's hands, and thus began the period of Persian rule in the history of these countries. Until 525, Palestine marked the farthest limit of Persian rule. However, as a result of Cambyses' conquest of Egypt in that same year, the entire region west of the Euphrates took on a unique geopolitical significance in the context of the Persian Empire. This chapter explores the history of the region in the general context of the Achaemenid Empire from the standpoint of the imperial authorities. The area extending from the Euphrates to southern Palestine is designated in the Eastern sources from the Persian period by the territorial term 'Beyond the River', which is Mesopotamian in origin. One question of paramount significance for the history of Palestine in the Persian period concerns the ethnic composition of the population of the province of Samaria.
  • 3c - Central Asia and Eastern Iran
    pp 165-193
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    Achaemenid culture in Central Asia is rooted in a distinctive local tradition and differs markedly from what one finds in Persia. The sequence of Achaemenid conquests include: Babylon (539), Bactria, Saka (530 and death of Cyrus), Egypt (Cambyses, 525). The whole of Central Asia was not won by conquest, however; between 550 and 547 the remnants of the Median Empire fell into the hands of Cyrus. According to many writers, the so-called 'Achaemenid' assemblage in Central Asia could begin as early as the beginning of the seventh or even the eighth century. This period is characterized by the appearance of a distinctive type of white wheel-made pottery whose distribution coincides with Central Asia. Parthia-Hyrcania and Seistan are within the Iranian sphere of influence, pottery of the plateau. It is a fact that the whole of East Iranian mythology is linked to a concept of mounted warrior.
  • 3d - The Indus Lands
    pp 194-210
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    In 517 BC, after the reconquest of Egypt by Darius, that the king of Gandara put in hand a reconnaissance of his eastern frontier, now effectively defined by the river Indus, which so often in subsequent centuries was to represent the boundary between India and Iran. The exact details of the voyage of Scylax of Caryanda, the navigator whose story later became known to the Greek world, have long been a subject of debate among historians in Europe. It has to be noted that no such place as Caspatyrus is known in ancient times along the Indus. A better reading of the name is provided by Stephanus Byzantinus in his entry under Caspapyrus. In any event, the Achaemenid provinces of Arachosia, Sattagydia and Gandara, with the tribal lands of Pactyica, the Aparytae and the Dadicae, and finally the province of Hindus were neatly skirted by the voyage of Scylax on the Indus.
  • 3e - Anatolia
    pp 211-233
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    The Persian rule over Anatolia under Darius and Xerxes was a continuation of the take-over initiated by Cyrus when he pushed across the Halys to Lydia and captured Sardis. The major problem of controlling Western Anatolia was symbiosis with the Greeks. The districts along the south coast of Anatolia, from Caria to Pamphylia, with their orientation to the Mediterranean and their Bronze Age heritage any more than they had been culturally dominated by Hittites, Phrygians and Lydians. The neighbours of Pamphylia were the inhabitants of the mountainous stretch of Cilicia. The pattern of Persian domination in the heartland of Phrygia, part of the satrapy of Dascylium, can be reconstructed tentatively from the excavations of the citadel and tombs of Gordium. A Pontic blend of Greek and Persian art decorated façades of rock-cut tombs in Paphlagonia in the later fifth and fourth centuries BC.
  • 3f - Persia in Europe, apart from Greece
    pp 234-253
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    The revenge motive arising from Scythian attacks on the Medes in Asia a century or so earlier hardly accounts for a Persian king attacking Scythians in Europe. The real intention of Darius was made clear by the building of a bridge across the Bosporus. Darius commemorated the bridge by erecting two columns of white stone with inscriptions in cuneiform and in Greek letters. Herodotus described the campaign from the Scythian point of view, which shows that he relied chiefly on Scythian informants. The existence of a satrapy in Europe, called 'Skudra', is known from Persian inscriptions. The name 'Skudra' was probably Phrygian for the homeland which the Phrygians had left in migrating to Asia. In cultural terms, Thrace looked not to Greece but to Scythia, Asia Minor and Persia. In the last decades of the sixth century large tombs with gifts of gold and silver vessels and jewellery, and sometimes bronze helmets and cuirasses, became much more frequent.
  • 3g - Egypt 525–404 B.C.
    pp 254-286
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    Egypt may have recognized Darius from 522 onwards. A greater memorial to Darius is his codification of the laws of the Persian Empire, when the satrap was instructed to assemble 'the wise men among the warriors, priests, and all the scribes of Egypt' presumably the last period of normal life in Egypt. The polyglot nature of Achaemenid Egypt is nowhere better shown than in the accounts of the Memphite dockyards, which survive in several fragmentary Aramaic papyri, including the newly-discovered ones from Saqqara. One Egyptian institution created almost intractable problems for any foreign administration: the temples. The new Saqqara texts can add a magnificent marriage document of the eleventh year of Darius, and an interesting record of self-sale or hire to a temple, a practice not otherwise known until much later. The Persian conquest left its impression, shaping the whole of Egyptian foreign policy and determining many of its national attitudes.
  • 4 - The tyranny of the Pisistratidae
    pp 287-302
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    Pisistratus died in spring 527, but tyranny survived at Athens until 510. Pisistratus left three legitimate sons, Hippias, Hipparchus and Thessalus. Pisistratus' notion of tyranny had certainly included efforts to reach friendly relations with atleast some noble families and there is one clear case of his having recalled an exile, Cimon, towards the end of his life. For his sons' relationships with the nobles, little material existed until the publication in 1939 of a fragment of the archon-list for the first years of their rule, which has thrown valuable light on their use of the eponymous archonship for control and conciliation. When Pisistratus first came to power, Attica had been a country in which the local power of the great dynasts had been all-important. Athens itself had been not much more than the largest centre of population and the seat of some of the more important generally accepted cults.
  • 5 - The reform of the Athenian state by Cleisthenes
    pp 303-346
    • By Martin Ostwald, William R. Kenan, Jr, Professor of Classics, Swarthmore College, and Professor of Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvani
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    There is little contemporary evidence for the history of Athens in the decade following the fall of the Pisistratid tyranny. Herodotus wrote some sixty or seventy years after Cleisthenes' reforms, and the internal history of Athens is for him incidental to other concerns. Membership in a deme constituted the most important indication of Athenian citizenship. The substitution of the deme for the phratry as the smallest political unit was one way in which the influence of the noble families was fragmented. The new tribal organization will have had an impact on legislation and policy-making. The Solonian constitution became much more populist than it had been under Solon. For disuse under the tyranny had brought about an eclipse of Solon's laws and had made Cleisthenes enact new legislation in his attempt to gain the favour of the masses. It was in this connexion that the law on ostracism was enacted.
  • 6 - Greece before the Persian invasion
    pp 347-367
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    This chapter concerns the general situation in Greece during the last quarter of the sixth century and the start of the fifth: the years when Persia's defeat and annexation of the non-Greek kingdoms which bordered the Aegean to east and south brought the power of her empire significantly near to the Greeks of the Aegean and the mainland itself. Sparta herself had recently been expending her military resources in challenging successfully the power of Argos for control of the districts north and east of Parnon: the Thyreatis and Cynuria down to and including Cythera. In 519, Cleomenes and the military League entered Boeotian politics. At the request of Athens, King Cleomenes undertook to arrest the Aeginetan medizers. He went, apparently, with little or no military support, and this gave his opponents at Sparta, foremost among them his co-king Demaratus, the chance to stiffen the Aeginetan resistance.
  • 7a - Religion and the state
    pp 368-388
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    In a well-known story, Herodotus records how the Samians rescued three hundred boys whom Periander of Corinth was sending from Corcyra to Alyattes of Lydia to become eunuchs. The story illustrates the vocabulary and syntax of Greek ritual. More important, it throws light on the relationship between two ways of defining a community. On the one hand the political decision which the Samians have by implication taken is portrayed as one taken purely within the matrix of cult and ritual. On the other hand the story represents the political society of the Samians as being in full charge of their own religious practices. Neither Samos nor any Greek state was controlled by priests or prophets. It is this relationship between a society conceived of as embedded in cult and ritual and the same society conceived of as an autonomous political actor. Religion became a dependent appendage of national sentiment, and individual piety received an out and out deathblow'.
  • 7b - The development of ideas, 750 to 500 B.C.
    pp 389-413
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    The development of thought and ideas during the period, 750 to 500 BC, in which the city state came into being have been heavily affected by three factors: the continuing influence of the epic tradition, the spread of literacy, and the social, political and economic changes associated with the polis itself. Individuals like Hesiod and Archilochus as well as self-declared sages played their part like the earlier Presocratics. The period was one of major changes in the whole literary and intellectual sphere, beginning as it did with Homer and ending with the rise of philosophy and drama. In tracing the development of ideas, one is at least entitled to assume that the mental capacities implied in Homer were the equal possession of many of his contemporaries. Finally the development of law and order that had been an essential part of social and political evolution depended heavily on the control of vendetta and the rationalizing of archaic ideas about pollution.
  • 7c - Material culture
    pp 414-430
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    Athens' achievements in the Persian Wars, the brilliance of Periclean Athens and the activity of her own historians have ensured that even of the archaic period, before the Persian Wars, Athens occupies the centre of the stage. Almost all the substantial building activity of archaic Athens appears to fall in the period of the tyrants. The Athens left by the tyrants was already remarkable for the variety and number of its public buildings. Most plentiful source of material evidence for late archaic Athens is pictorial, mainly figure-decorated vases and to a lesser degree works of sculpture in the round or in relief. The Thessalians were the cavalrymen par excellence of the mainland and had been much involved in the local wars of central Greece, from the Lelantine to the first Sacred War. The ordinary Greek cavalryman is shown on vases bare-headed and fighting with spear only, and the occasional mounted archer appears.
  • 7d - Coinage
    pp 431-445
    • By Colin Kraay, Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
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    This chapter describes the origin of coinage in mainland Greece. But coinage certainly started at an earlier date in Asia Minor, where the most readily available metal was alluvial electrum rather than silver. In the Peloponnese the transition from a utensil currency to a currency of silver appears to have begun under Pheidon in the first half of the seventh century but true coins are unlikely to have been minted at Aegina before the sixth century. The earliest datable context for an Aeginetan coin is the foundation deposit of the audience-hall of Darius I at Persepolis, which can be no earlier than circa 515. The most remarkable characteristic of the archaic coinage of South Italy is its uniformity in both weight standard and fabric. The practice of coining is seen to have been spreading across the Greek world during the sixth century though it was still a rather recent phenomenon in the West.
  • 7e - Trade
    pp 446-460
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    By the time of the Persian Wars, when the great sea battles, Lade in 494 BC, Salamis and Mycale in 480 and 479, brought sea power into the political reckoning of Greeks and Persians, the Greeks had worked out a far-ranging trade by sea. The Aegean region had become an important market centre. Pottery and metal-working establishments served the local market and offered their goods for sale to traders collecting a cargo for export. The goods carried for trade were conditioned by the nature of the markets that they had to serve in Aegean cities, Greek colonies and foreign lands. Until the latter part of the seventh century Greek trade was relatively simple in organization and on a small scale. The trade in metals was enlarged by iron from the region of Sinope in the Black Sea and by new sources of precious metals. Regular Greek trade with Egypt began relatively late, in the last quarter of the seventh century.
  • 8 - The Ionian Revolt
    pp 461-490
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    The narrative of the Ionian Revolt marks the beginning of the full-scale account in Herodotus of political and military events shows that he and his contemporaries regarded it as an intrinsic part of the series of wars between Greece and Persia. For the Ionian Revolt, Herodotus is our only surviving literary source; yet his narrative has generally been regarded as one of the most problematical sections of his history. Many attempts have been made to place Herodotus in a literary context that would provide him with written sources for his information, and also perhaps explain the origins of his conception of history. The absence of a politically oriented oral tradition in Ionia may reflect certain characteristics of Ionian society, where aristocratic dominance was perhaps less marked than on the Greek mainland. The immediate cause of the Ionian Revolt lay in the failure of the Persian attack on Naxos.
  • 9 - The expedition of Datis and Artaphernes
    pp 491-517
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    In the Persian records 'the lands beyond the sea' were mentioned first at the time of Darius' campaign in Europe. In this campaign only some of the Allies were involved. The Allies as a whole were Boeotia, Phocis and the Peloponnesian states, apart from Argos and probably Achaea. For the campaign, Darius appointed Datis, a distinguished Mede, as commander in the field and Artaphernes, his own nephew, as his personal representative. The ratio between the fighting men and the other personnel is much as in the expedition sent by Athens to Sicily. A few days were spent in organizing the base at Eretria. The Greeks were superior in armament for hand-to-hand fighting. The Greeks attacked with a 2.4 metre long spear and a sword, whereas the Persians relied on a short spear and scimitar and on the archery in which they excelled.
  • 10 - The expedition of Xerxes
    pp 518-591
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    Datis and Artaphernes had shown how vulnerable Athens was to a seaborne attack in order to make a landing on the coast of Attica. Paros was one of the states which had sent a trireme and a crew to serve under Persian command against Athens. Like the Egyptians and the Phoenicians, the Persians relied on huge labour forces for the construction of such public works as the canal dug in the reign of Darius from the Nile to the Red Sea. Persia was justly famous for the royal roads, of which Herodotus described one, from Sardis to Susa. These roads were built by hand by large labour-forces; thus a third of Xerxes' army built a road across the Pierian range. The expeditionary force of Xerxes was certainly much larger than the army left with Mardonius. The Greeks on the League Council had chosen Thermopylae and Artemisium as stations close enough together for intercommunication some weeks before the Persians reached Macedonia.

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

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R. J. Buck The reforms of 487 B.C. in the selection of archons’, Classical Philology 60 (1965) 96–101

J. A. Davison Peisistratus and Homer’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 86 (1955) 1–21

C. W. J. Eliot and M. F. McGregor Kleisthenes: Eponymous archon 525/4’, Phoenix 14 (1960) 27–35

C. W. Fornara The diapsephismos of Ath.Pol, 13.5’, Classical Philology 65 (1970) 243–6

N. G. L. Hammond Strategia and hegemonia in fifth-century Athens’, Classical Quarterly n.s. 19 (1969) III–44 (= C 315, 346–94)

A. R. Hands Ostraka and the law of ostracism. Some possibilities and assumptions’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 79 (1959) 69–79

K. H. Kinzl Athens: Between tyranny and democracy’, in Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean in Ancient History and Prehistory, ed. K. H. Kinzl , 199–223. Berlin, 1977

J. A. O. Larsen A note on the representation of demes in the Athenian boule’, Classical Philology 57 (1962) 104–8

D. M. Lewis The archon of 497/6 B.C..’, Classical Review n.s. 12 (1962) 201

D. J. McCargar Isagoras, son of Teisandros, and Isagoras, eponymous archon of 508/7: A case of mistaken identity’, Phoenix 28 (1974) 275–81

D. J. McCargar New evidence for the Kleisthenic Boule’, Classical Philology 71 (1976) 248–52

M. Ostwald The Athenian legislation against tyranny and subversion’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 86 (1955) 103–28

A. E. Raubitschek The gates of the Agora’, American Journal of Archaeology 60 (1956) 279–82

A. E. Raubitschek The origin of ostracism’, American Journal of Archaeology 55 (1951) 221–9

R. Seager Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία 22.4’, Classical Review N.S. 12 (1962) 201–2

A. M. Snodgrass The hoplite reform and history’, Journal of Hellenic Studies85 (1965)

G. V. Sumner Notes on chronological problems in the Aristotelian ‘Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία’, Classical Quarterly N.S. 11 (1961)

W. E. Thompson Notes on Attic demes’, Hesperia 39 (1970) 64–7

W. E. Thompson Thedeme in Kleisthenes’ reforms’, Symbolae Osloenses 46 (1971) 72–9

E. Vanderpool The ostracism of the Elder Alcibiades’, Hesperia 21 (1952) 1–8

W. Burkert Greek Religion. Tr. by J. Raffan . Oxford. 1985.

J. H. Croon The Paiici. An autochthonous cult in ancient Sicily’, Mnemosyne ser. 4.5 (1952) 116–29

J. K. Davies Demosthenes on liturgies: a note’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 87 (1967) 33–40

J. P. Gould Hiketeia’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 93 (1973) 74–103

L. H. Jeffery The boustrophedon sacral inscriptions from the Athenian Agora’, Hesperia 17 (1948)

J. S. Morrison Hyperesia in naval contexts in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 104 (1984)

C. Sourvinou-Inwood Persephone and Aphrodite at Locri: a model for personality definitions in Greek religion’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 98 (1978) 101–21

C. Sourvinou-Inwood Theseus lifting the rock and a cup near the Pithos Painter’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 91 (1971) 94–109

W. G. Forrest Two chronographic notes: 1, The tenth thalassocracy in Eusebius’, Classical Quarterly NS 19 (1969)

J. P. Barron New light on old walls’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 92 (1972) 20–45

L. Basch Trières grecques, phéniciennes et égyptiennes’.Journal of Hellenic Studies 97 (1977) 1–10

J. Boardman Exekias’, American Journal of Archaeology 82 (1978) 11–25

J. Boardman Painted funerary plaques and some remarks on prothesis’, Annual of the British School at Athens 50 (1955) 51–66

J. N. Coldstream Geometric Greece. London, 1977

R. Glynn Herakles, Nereus and Triton’, American Journal of Archaeology 85 (1981) 121–32

E. B. Harrison The south frieze of the Nike temple and the Marathon painting in the Painted Stoa’, American Journal of Archaeology 76 (1972) 353–78

A. W. Johnston Trademarks on Greek vases’, Greece & Rome 21 (1974) 138–52

M. Miller Herodotus as chronographer’, Klio 46 (1965)

M. Roaf and J. Boardman A Greek painting at Persepolis’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 100 (1980) 204–6

H. A. Shapiro Herakles and Kyknos’, American Journal of Archaeology 88 (1984) 523–9

H. A. Thompson Buildings on the west side of the Agora’, Hesperia 6 (1937) 127–40

H. A. Thompson and R. E. Wycherley The Athenian Agora xiv: The Agora of Athens. Princeton, 1972

R. S. Young An industrial district of ancient Athens’, Hesperia 20 (1951) 135–288

P. Jacobsthal The date of the Ephesian foundation deposit’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 71 (1951) 85–95

C. M. Kraay Hoards, small change and the origin of coinage’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 84 (1964) 76–91

M. J. Price Thoughts on the beginnings of coinage’, in Studies in Numismatic Method presented to Philip Grierson, edd. C. N. L. Brooke , I. Stewart et al., 1–10. Cambridge, 1983

C. Roebuck The organization of Naukratis’, Classical Philology 46 (1951)

L. Casson Speed under sail of ancient ships’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 82 (1951)

C. Roebuck Some aspects of urbanization in Corinth’, Hesperia 41 (1972) 117–25

P. Gardner The coinage of the Ionian Revolt’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 31 (1911) 151–60

N. G. L. Hammond The campaign and the battle of Marathon’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 88 (1968) 13–57; revised and augmented in c 315

R. B. Henderson Marathon’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 52 (1932) 302

A. T. Hodge and L. A. Losada The time of the shield signal at Marathon’, American Journal of Archaeology 74 (1970)

L. H. Jeffery Comments on some archaic Greek inscriptions’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 69 (1949)

W. McLeod The bowshot and Marathon’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 90 (1970)

W. K. Pritchett New light on Thermopylae’, American Journal of Archaeology 62 (1958)

A. E. Raubitschek Two monuments erected after the victory of Marathon’, American Journal of Archaeology 44 (1940)

N. Robertson The decree of Themistocles in its contemporary setting’, Phoenix 36 (1982)

G. Roux Éschyle, Heacute;rodote, Diodore, Plutarque racontent la bataille de Salamine’, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique 98 (1974)

G. Shrimpton The Persian cavalry at Marathon’, Phoenix 34 (1980)

H. D. Westlake The Medism of Thessaly’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 56 (1936)

R. J. Buck Boeotarchs at Thermopylae’, Classical Philology 69 (1974)

A. R. Burn Hammond on Marathon: a few notes’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 89 (1969)

S. Burstein The recall of the ostracized and the Themistocles Decree’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity 4 (1971) 93ff

N. G. L. Hammond The origins and nature of the Athenian alliance of 478–7 B.C.’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 87 (1967) (= c 315)

W. F. J. Knight The defence of the Acropolis and the panic before Salamis’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 51 (1931)

J. A. O. Larsen The constitution and original purpose of the Delian League’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 51 (1940)

F. Maurice The campaign of Marathon’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 52 (1932) 13ff

F. Maurice The size of the army of Xerxes in the invasion of Greece, 480 B.C.’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 50 (1930) 210–35

B. M. Mitchell Herodotus and Samos’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 95 (1975)

J. A. R. Munro Some observations on the Persian Wars: 2’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 22 (1902)

W. K. Pritchett Towards a restudy of the Battle of Salamis’, American Journal of Archaeology 63 (1959) 261

C. Roebuck The grain trade between Greece and Egypt’, Classical Philology 45 (1950)

R. Sealey Again the siege of the Acropolis’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity 5 (1972)

J. S. Traill Diakris, the inland trittys of Leontis’, Hesperia 47 (1978) 89–109

E. Vanderpool The marble trophy from Marathon in the British Museum’, Hesperia 36 (1967) 108ff

P. W. Wallace The Anopaia Path at Thermopylai’, American Journal of Archaeology 84 (1980)

P. W. Wallace Kleomenes, Marathon, the Helots and Arkadia’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 74 (1954)

N. Whatley On the possibility of reconstructing Marathon and other ancient battles’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 84 (1964)

R. M. Berthold Which way to Marathon?’, Revue des études anciennes (1976–7)

J. M. Bigwood Ctesias as historian of the Persian Wars’, Phoenix 32 (1978) 19ff

J. Delorme Deux notes sur la bataille de Salamine’, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique 102 (1978)

F. J. Frost Troizen and the Persian War: some new data’, American Journal of Archaeology 82 (1978)

A. W. Gomme Herodotus and Marathon’, Phoenix 6 (1952)

J. R. Grant Leonidas’ last stand’, Phoenix 15 (1961) 14ff

F. G. Allinson The original Marathon runner’, Classical Weekly 24 (1931)

J. P. Barron Religious propaganda of the Delian League’, Journal of Hellenic Studies84 (1964)

A. R. Burn Thermopylae revisited and some topographical notes on Marathon and Plataiai’, Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean in Ancient History and Prehistory ed. K. H. Kinzl . Berlin, 1977

N. G. L. Hammond The narrative of Herodotus VII and the Decree of Themistocles’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 102 (1982)

N. Robertson The Thessalian Expedition of 480 B.C.’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 96 (1976) Iooff

E. Vanderpool An archaic inscribed stele from Marathon’, Hesperia 11 (1942)

W. C. West The trophies of the Persian Wars’, Classical Philology 64 (1969)

E. J. Bickerman Origines gentium’, Classical Philology 47 (1952) 65–81

T. J. Dunbabin Contribution to the bibliography of the Greek cities in Sicily and South Italy’, Papers of the British School at Rome 18 (1950)

M. Pallottino Servius Tullius à la lumière des nouvelles dècouvertes archéologiques et épigraphiques’, Comptes-rendues de l'Académic des inscriptions et belles lettres 1977

D. Ridgway and O. T. P. K. Dickinson Pendent semicircles at Veii: a glimpse’, Annual of the British School at Athens 68 (1973) 191–2

M. Lejeune Une bilingue gauloise-latine à Verceil’, Comptes-rendues de l'Académic des inscriptions et belles lettres 1977, 582–610

R. G. G. Coleman The central Italic languages in the period of Roman expansion’, Transactions of the Philological Society 1986, 100–31

J. Heurgon À propos de l'inscription “tyrrhénienne” de Lemnos’, Comptes-rendues de l'Académic des inscriptions et belles lettres 1980, 578–600

D. M. Jones The relations of Latin to Osco-Umbrian’, Transactions of the Philological Society 1950, 60–87

R. Martin Histoire de Sélinonte d'après les fouilles récentes’, Comptes-rendues de l'Académic des inscriptions et belles lettres 1977

J. Alexander The spectacle fibulae of southern Europe’, American Journal of Archaeology 69 (1965)

A. Andrewes Kleisthenes’ reform bill’, Classical Quarterly 27 (1977)

A. Andrewes Philochoros on phratries’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 81 (1961)

O. K. Armayor Herodotus’ catalogues and the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 108 (1978) 1–9

K. M. T. Atkinson The legitimacy of Cambyses and Darius as Kings of Egypt’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 76 (1956)

H. C. Avery Herodotus 6.112.2’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 103 (1972)

E. Badian Archons and strategoi’, Antichthon 5 (1971)

G. A. Barton Some contracts of the Persian Period from the KH2 collection of the University of Pennsylvania’, American Journal of Semitic Languages (and Literature) 16 (1899/1900) 65ff

J. D. Beazley Death of Hipparchos’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 68 (1948)

M. S. Beeler The relations of Latin and Osco-Umbrian’, Language 28 (1952)

E. Benveniste L'Iran – Vež et l'origine légendaire des Iraniens’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies, University of London 7 (1934) 265–74

P. Bicknell The command structure and generals of the Marathon campaign’, Antiquité classique 39 (1970) 427ff

P. Bicknell The date of Miltiades’ Parian Expedition’, Antiquité classique 41 (1972) 225ff

A.M. Bietti Sestieri The metal industry of continental Italy, 13th-11th century, and its Aegean connections’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 39 (1973) 383–424

J. Boardman Herakles, Peisistratos and Eleusis’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 95 (1975)

R. Bodéüs Le premier cours occidental sur la royauté achéménide’, Antiquité classique 42 (1973) 458–72

R. A. Bowman An Aramaic journal page’, American Journal of Semitic Languages (and Literature) 58 (1941)

R. A. Bowman An Aramaic religious text in demotic script’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 3 (1944)

D. Briquel À propos du nom des Ombriens’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 85 (1973) 357–93

D. Briquel Sur les faits d'écriture en Sabine et dans l'ager Capenas’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 84 (1972) 789–845

R. J. Buck The formation of the Boeotian League’, Classical Philology 67 (1972)

T. J. Cadoux The Athenian archons from Kreon to Hypsichides’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 68 (1948)

P. Calligas An inscribed lead plaque from Korkyra’, Annual of the British School at Athens 66 (1971)

Cambridge History of Judaism i: Introduction; the Persian Period, edd. W. D. Davies and L. Finkelstein . Cambridge, 1984

G. G. Cameron Persepolis treasury tablets old and new’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 17 (1958)

G. G. Cameron The Elamite version of the Bisitun inscriptions’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 14 (1960)

G. G. Cameron The Old Persian text of the Bisitun inscription’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 5 (1951)

M. Caspari (Cary) The Ionian Confederacy’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 35 (1915) 173–88

J. W. Cole Alexander Philhellene and Themistocles’, Antiquité classique 47 (1978) 37ff

R. M. Cook A note on the absolute chronology of the 8th and 7th centuries B.C.’, Annual of the British School at Athens 64 (1969)

M. Crosby The Altar of the Twelve Gods in Athens’, Hesperia Suppl. 8 (1949) 82–103

F. Daumas Le problème de la monnaie dans l'Égypte antique avant Alexandre’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 89 (1977) 425–46

Th. David La position de la femme en Asie centrale’, Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 2 (1970) 129–62

P. de Miroschedji La fin du royaume d'Anšan et de Suse et la naissance de l'empire perse’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 75 (1985)

P. de Miroschedji Stratigraphie de la période Néo–Élamite à Suse’, Paléorient 4 (1978) 213–27

R. Develin Miltiades and the Parian Expedition’, Antiquité classique 46 (1977) 571ff

K. DeVries Attic pottery in the Achaemenid Empire’, American Journal of Archaeology 81 (1977) 544–8

C. H. Dodd The Samians at Zancle-Messana’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 28 (1908)

K. J. Dover Androtion on ostracism’, Classical Review N.S. 13 (1963) 256–7

R. Drews The earliest Greek settlements on the Black Sea’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 96 (1976)

J. Ducat La confédération béotienne et l'expansion thébaine à l'époque archaique’, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique 97 (1973)

C. W. J. Eliot Kleisthenes and the creation of the ten phylai’, Phoenix 22 (1968)

G. Erdosy Early historic cities of northern India’, South Asian Studies 3 (1987)

H. H. Figulla Lawsuit concerning a sacrilegious theft at Erech’, Iraq 13 (1951)

C. W. Fornara A note on Ἀθ.π. 22’, Classical Quarterly n.s. 13 (1963) 101–4

C. W. Fornara The hoplite achievement at Psyttaleia’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 86 (1966)

A. Foucher Les satrapies orientales de l'empire achéménide’, Comptes-rendues de l'Académic des inscriptions et belles lettres, 1938

A. French A note on Thucydides iii 68.5’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 80 (1960)

F. J. Frost Themistocles’ place in Athenian polities’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity 1 (1968)

D. Gill Trapezomata; a neglected aspect of Greek sacrifice’, Harvard Theological Review 67 (1974)

D. F. Graf Medism: the origin and significance of the term’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 104 (1984)

J. C. Greenfield Studies in Aramaic lexicography I’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (1962)

O. R. Gurney The Sultantepe Tablets (continued)’, Anatolian Studies 7 (1957)

R. T. Hallock A new look at the Persepolis Treasury tablets’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 19 (1960)

N. G. L. Hammond The battle of Salamis’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 76 (1956) ; revised in c 315

N. G. L. Hammond The main road from Boeotia to the Peloponnese through the northern Megarid’, Annual of the British School at Athens 49 (1954) (= C 315)

G. M. A. Hanfmann Letters from Sardis. Cambridge, Mass., 1972

E. B. Harrison Preparations for Marathon, the Niobid Painter and Herodotus’, The Art Bulletin 54.4 (1972)

W. B. Henning Two Manichaean magical texts’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies, University of London 12 (1947) 39–66

W. Hinz The Elamite version of the record of Darius's palace at Susa’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 9 (1950)

N. Hirschland Ramage Studies in early Etruscan bucchero’, Papers of the British School at Rome 38 (1970) 1–61

A. T. Hodge Marathon to Phaleron’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 95 (1975)

A. T. Hodge Marathon. The Persians' voyage’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 105 (1975) 155ff

I. L. Holt Tablets from the R. Campbell Thompson collection in Haskell Oriental Museum, the University of Chicago’, American Journal of Semitic Languages (and Literature) 27 (1910/1911) 193ff (some of these may be fakes cf. E. Leichty , Expedition 12/111, 17ff)

H. Hommel Die dreissig Trittyen des Kleisthenes’, Klio 33 (1940)

R. Hope Simpson Leonidas’ decision’, Phoenix 26 (1972) 1–11

R. J. Hopper The Attic silver mines in the fourth century B.C.’, Annual of the British School at Athens 48 (1953)

F. Jacoby Patrios Nomos: state burial in Athens and the public cemetery in the Kerameikos’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 64 (1944) (= A 32)

M. H. Jameson A decree of Themistocles from Troezen’, Hesperia 29 (1960) ; and Hesperia 31 (1962)

L. H. Jeffery and A. Morpurgo-Davies An Archaic Greek inscription from Crete’, British Museum Quarterly 36 (1971–2)

L. H. Jeffery The campaign between Athens and Aegina in the years before Salamis’, American Journal of Philology 83 (1962) 44ff

A. Jochmus Notes on a journey into the Balkan, or Mount Haemus, in 1847’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 24 (1854)

D. Kagan The origin and purposes of ostracism’, Hesperia 30 (1961)

U. Kahrstedt Untersuchungen zu attischen Behörden, iv: Bemerkungen zur Geschichte des Rats der Fünfhundert’, Klio 33 (1940) 1–12

K. Kamioka Philological observations on the Aramaic texts from Persepolis’, Orient 11 (1975)

D. H. Kelly The Athenian archonship 508/6–487/6’, Antichthon 12 (1978)

J. P. Kesteman Les ancêtres de Gélon’, Antiquité classique 39 (1970) 395–413

A. M. Khazanov The early state among the Scythians’, in The Early State, edd. H. J. M. Claessen and P. Skalnik , 42539. The Hague, 1978

J. H. Kroll and N. M. Waggoner Dating the earliest coins of Athens, Corinth and Aegina’, American Journal of Archaeology 88 (1984)

J. La Genière Ségeste et l'hellénisme’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 90 (1978) 33–48.

J. Labarbe Léonidas et l'astre des tempêtes’, Revue belge de philologie 37 (1959) 69ff

W. G. Lambert Booty from Egypt?Journal of Jewish Studies 33 (1982)

M. J. Mellink Excavations at Karataş-Semayük and Elmah, Lycia, 1970, 1971. 1972, 1973’. American Journal of Archaeology 75 (1971) 245–55; 76 (1972) 257–69; 77 (1973) 293–303; 78 (1974) 351–9; 79 (1975) 349–55

A. R. Millard and P. Bordreuil A statue from Syria with Assyrian and Aramaic Inscriptions’, Biblical Archaeologist 45 (1982)

M. B. Moore Lydos and the Gigantomachy’, American Journal of Archaeology 83 (1979)

P. R. S. Moorey Iranian troops at Deve Hüyük’, Levant 7 (1975)

J. P. Morel L'expansion phocéenne en Occident: dix années de recherches (1966–1975)’, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique 99 (1975)

C. Mossé Classes sociales et régionalisme à Athènes au début du VIe siecle’, Antiquité classique 33 (1964) 401–13

J. A. R. Munro The ancestral laws of Cleisthenes’, Classical Quarterly 33 (1939)

J. L. Myres Persia, Greece and Israel’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 1953.

E. O. Negahban Notes on some objects from Marlik’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 24 (1965)

R. T. Noonan The grain trade of the northern Black Sea in antiquity’, American Journal of Philology 94 (1973). 231–43

J. A. Notopoulos The slaves at the Battle of Marathon’, American Journal of Philology 62 (1941) 352ff

J. Ober Edward Clarke's Ancient Road to Marathon a.d. 1801’, Hesperia 51 (1982)

A. L. Oppenheim “The Eyes of the Lord”’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (1968)

B. Porten Aramaic papyri and parchments’, Biblical Archaeologist 42 no. 2 (Spring, 1979)

J. N. Postgate The place of šaknu in Assyrian government’, Anatolian Studies 30 (1980)

W. K. Pritchett New light on Plataea’, American Journal of Archaeology 61 (1957)

E. Pulgram The Tongues of Italy. Cambridge, Mass., 1958

F. Py Les amphores étrusques de Vaunage et de Villevielle (Gard)’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 86 (1974) 141–205

T. B. Rasmussen Bucchero Pottery from Southern Etruria. Cambridge, 1979

A. E. Raubitschek The covenant of Plataea’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 91 (1970) 178–83

A. E. Raubitschek The ostracism of Xanthippos’, American Journal of Archaeology 51 (1947)

G. Richter Greeks in Persia’, American Journal of Archaeology 50 (1946)

D. Ridgway Archaeology in central Italy and Etruria, 1962–67’, Archaeological Reports 1967–8

D. Ridgway Archaeology in central Italy and Etruria, 1968–73’, Archaeological Reports 1973–4

C. A. Robinson Jr.Medizing Athenian aristocrats’, Classical Weekly 35 (1941)

C. A. Robinson Jr . ‘Athenian politics 510–486 B.C.’, American Journal of Philology 66 (1945) 243–54

C. A. Robinson Jr . ‘Cleisthenes and ostracism’, American Journal of Archaeology 56 (1952)

C. A. Robinson , Jr. ‘The struggle for power at Athens in the early fifth century’, American Journal of Philology 60 (1939) 232–7

E. S. G. Robinson Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 66 (1946)

C. Roebuck The early Ionian League’, Classical Philology 50 (1955)

S. I. Rotroff An anonymous hero in the Athenian agora’, Hesperia 47 (1978)

A. J. Sachs A classification of the Babylonian Astronomical Tablets of the Seleucid Period’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 2 (1948)

O. Schroeder Aus den keilschriftlichen Sammlungen des Berliner Museums’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 32 (1918/1919)

R. Seager Herodotus and Ath.PoI. on the date of Cleisthenes’ reforms’, American Journal of Philology 84 (1963) 287–9

H. A. Shapiro Exekias, Ajax and Salamis’, American Journal of Archaeology 85 (1981)

W. H. Shea The Carpentras stela: a funerary poem’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (1981)

A. F. Shore A rare example of a dedicatory inscription in early demotic’, British Museum Quarterly 29 (1965) 19–21

A. F. Shore A silver libation-bowl from Egypt’, British Museum Quarterly 29 (1965) 21–5

H. S. Smith and A. Kuhrt A letter to a foreign general’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 68 (1972) 199–209

A. M. Snodgrass Barbarian Europe and Early Iron Age Greece’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 31 (1965)

E. A. Speiser Southern Kurdistan in the Annals of Ashurnasirpal and today’, Annals of the American Schools of Oriental Research 8 (1928) 1–42

M. Sprengling Shahpuhr I, the Great, on the Kaaba of Zoroaster (KZ)’, American Journal of Semitic Languages (and Literature) 57 (1940)

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J. N. Strassmaier Arsaciden-Inschriften’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 3 (1888) and. no. 16

D. Stronach Achaemenid village I at Susa and the Persian migration to Farsi’, Iraq 36 (1974)

G. V. Sumner Androtion F 6 and Ath.PoI. 22’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies of the University of London 11 (1964)

G. V. Sumner Notes on chronological problems in the Aristotelian ‘Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία’, Classical Quarterly N.S. 11 (1961) 31–54

W. E. Thompson Kleisthenes and Aigeis’, Mnemosyne series 4.22 (1969)

L. Vagnetti Appunti sui bronzi egei e ciprioti del ripostiglio di Contigliano (Rieti)’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 86 (1974) 657–71

E. Vanderpool The Deme of Marathon and the Herakleion’, American Journal of Archaeology 70 (1966)

G. Vlastos Isonomia’, American Journal of Philology 74 (1935) 337–66

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H. T. Wade-Gery Themistokles’archonship’, Annual of the British School at Athens 37 (1940) 263–70 =a 62, 171–9

N. M. Waggoner , review of c 621, in American Journal of Archaeology 81 (1977)

C. B. F. Walker A recently identified fragment of the Cyrus Cylinder’, Iran 10 (1972)

P. W. Wallace Psyttaleia and the trophies of the Battle of Salamis’, American Journal of Archaeology 73 (1969)

J. D. Whitehead Some distinctive features of the language of the Aramaic Arsames correspondence’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 37 (1948) 119–40

H. Winckler and J. N. Strassmaier Einige neuveröffentlichte Texte Hammurabis, Nabopolassars und Nebukadnezars’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 2 (1887) (nos. 214, 375, 57, 135)

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D. J. Wiseman Review of b 275, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies, University of London 40 (1977) 373–5

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T. C. Young Jr.A comparative ceramic chronology for western Iran, 1500–500 B.C.’, Iran 3 (1965)


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