Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 1988
  • Online publication date: March 2008

1 - The early history of the Medes and the Persians and the Achaemenid empire to the death of Cambyses

The Median and Achaemenid periods define a critical disjunction in history. Iranians, more particularly the Medes and the Persians, first appear in history in the ninth-century BC cuneiform texts touching on the western half of the plateau. For some time thereafter the Medes and Persians are only two of several ethnic and political groups found in the Zagros mountains. Only late in the seventh century BC do the Medes apparently begin to become the dominant power even in Media. Cyrus is the son of Cambyses, grandson of Cyrus, and a descendant of Teispes. Cambyses succeeded to the throne in September 530 BC after Cyrus' death. Four years after ascending the throne Cambyses marched against Egypt. Amasis, the shrewd penultimate ruler of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, attempted to bolster his defences by securing the aid of the Cypriots and other islanders in order to cut off any possibility of a Persian invasion by sea.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge Ancient History
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054317
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Adams, R. McC. Heartland of Cities. Chicago, 1981
Adamson, P. B.The spread of rabies into Europe, and the probable origin of this disease in antiquity’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1977
Adcock, F. E. The Greek and Macedonian Art of War. Berkeley–Los Angeles, 1957
Altheim, F. and Stiehl, R. Die aramäische Sprache unter den Achaimeniden 1. Frankfurt am Main, 1963
Aly, W. Volksmärchen, Sage und Novelle bei Herodot und seinen Zeitgenossen. 2nd edn ed. Huber, L. . Göttingen, 1969
Amiet, P.La glyptique de la fin de l'Elam’, Arts Asiatiques 28 (1973)
Amiet, P. Glyptique Susienne des orgines à l'époque des Perses Achéménides: Cachets, sceaux-cylindres et empreintes antiques découverts à Suse de 1913 à 1967 (Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran, 43. Mission de Susiane sous la direction de R. Ghirshman). Paris, 1972
Andrewes, A.Thucydides and the Persians’, Historia 10 (1961)
Armayor, O. K.Herodotus’ catalogues and the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 108 (1978)
Balcer, J. M.The date of Herodotus iv. 1. Darius’ Scythian expedition’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 76 (1972)
Balcer, J. M. Sparda by the Bitter Sea: Imperial Interaction in Western Anatolia (Brown Judaic Studies 52). Chico, Ca, 1984
Baumgartner, W.Herodots babylonische und assyrische Nachrichten’, Archiv Orientálni 18. (1950)
Beloch, K. J. Griechische Geschichte. 4 vols, in 8. Strassburg–Berlin, 1912–27
Bengtson, H. and others. The Greeks and the Persians: from the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries. London–New York, 1969 (Trans, of Griechen und Perser: die Mittelmeerwelt im Altertum. Frankfurt am Main, 1965)
Benveniste, E.L'Iran – Vež et l'origine légendaire des Iraniens’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies, University of London 7 (1934)
Benveniste, E.Traditions indo-iraniennes sur les classes sociales’, Journal asiatique 230 (1938)
Benveniste, E. Le vocabulaire des institutions indo-européennes 1. Paris, 1969
Benveniste, E. The Persian Religion According to the Chief Greek Texts. Paris, 1929
Benveniste, E. Titres et noms propres en iranien ancien. Paris, 1966
Berger, P.–R.Der Kyros-Zylinder mit dem Zusatzfragment Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of J. B. Nies 11 Nr. 32 und die akkadischen Personennamen im Danielbuch’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 64 (1975)
Bernard, P.Les mortiers et pilons inscrits de Persepolis’, Studia Iranica 1 (1972)
Bickerman, E. J.The Seleucids and the Achaemenids’, in B 159
Bickerman, E. J. and Tadmor, H.Darius I, Pseudo-Smerdis and the Magi’, Athenaeum N.S. 56 (1978)
Bigwood, J.Ctesias’ description of Babylon’, American Journal of Ancient History 3 (1978)
Bivar, A. D. H.Achaemenid coins’, Cambridge History of Iran 11. Cambridge, 1985
Boardman, J. The Greeks Overseas. 2nd edn. London, 1980
Bodéüs, R.Le premier cours occidental sur la royauté achéménide’, Antiquité classique 42 (1973)
Boehmer, R. M.Volkstum und Städte der Mannäer’, Bagh. Mitt. 3 (1964)
Boer, W. . ‘Herodot und die Systeme der Chronologie’, Mnemosyne ser. iv 20 (1967)
Bogaert, R. Les origines antiques de la banque de dépôt. Leiden, 1966
Borger, R. Die Inschriften Asarhaddons Königs von Assyrien (Archiv für Orient for schung Beiheft 9). Graz, 1956
Borger, R. Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur 111. Berlin, 1967–75
Bowman, R. A. Aramaic Ritual Texts from Persepolis (Oriental Institute Publication 91). Chicago, 1970
Boyce, M. A History of Zoroastrianism 111 (Handbuch der Orientalistik, Erste Abteilung, viii 1.2A). Leiden, 1975–82
Boyce, M. Zoroastrians, their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London, 1979
Breitenbach, H. R.Xenophon von Athen’ in Pauly–Wissowa–Kroll–Mittelhaus, , Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertum swissen schaft. Stuttgart, 1893– ser.2, ix a 2 (1966)
Briant, P.Colonisation hellénistique et populations indigènes’, Klio 60 (1978)
Briant, P.Contrainte militaire, dépendance rurale et exploitation des territoires en Asie achéménide’, Index 8 (1978/1979)
Briant, P.La Perse avant l'empire (un état de la question)’, Iranica Antiqua 19 (1984)
Briant, P. États et pasteurs au Moyen-Orient ancien. Cambridge–Paris, 1982
Briant, P. Rois, tributs et paysans. Paris, 1982
Brinkman, J. A.Babylonia under the Assyrian Empire, 745–627 B.C.’, in Power and Propaganda, a Symposium on Ancient Empires, ed. Larsen, M. T. , 22350. Copenhagen, 1979
Brinkman, J. A. A Political History of Post–Kassite Babylonia (Analecta Orientalia 43). Rome, 1968
Brinkman, J. A. Prelude to Empire: Babylonian Society and Politics, 747–626 B.C. Philadelphia, 1984
Burn, A. R. Persia and the Greeks: the Defence of the West, c. 546–478 B.C. 2nd edn, with a Postscript by Lewis, D. M. . London–Stanford, 1984
Burstein, S. M. The Babyloniaca of Berossos (Sources from the Ancient Near East 1.5). Malibu, 1978
Calmeyer, P.Textual sources for the interpretation of Achaemenian palace decorations’, Iran 18 (1980)
Calmeyer, P.The subject of the Achaemenid tomb reliefs’, in Procs. of the 3rd Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, 23342. Tehran, 1974
Calmeyer, P.Zur Genese altiranischer Motive viii. Die “Statistische Landcharte des Perserreiches” – 1’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 15 (1982)
Calmeyer, P.Zur Genese altiranischer Motive’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 6 (1973)
Cambridge History of Iran ii: The Median and Achaemenid Periods, ed. Gershevitch, I. . Cambridge, 1985
Cambridge History of Judaism i: Introduction; the Persian Period, edd. Davies, W. D. and Finkelstein, L. . Cambridge, 1984
Cameron, G. G.Cyrus the “Father” and Babylonia’, in Acta Iranica Ser.1.1 (1974)
Cameron, G. G.Darius and Xerxes in Babylonia’, American Journal of Semitic Languages (and Literature) 58 (1941)
Cameron, G. G.Darius the Great and his Scythian (Saka) campaign: Bisutun and Herodotus’, in Acta Iranica. Ser.2, 4 (1975) = Monumentum H. S. Nyberg (1975)
Cameron, G. G.Darius, Egypt and “The Lands beyond the Sea”’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 2 (1943)
Cameron, G. G.New tablets from the Persepolis Treasury’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 24 (1965)
Cameron, G. G.Persepolis treasury tablets old and new’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 17 (1958)
Cameron, G. G.The “Daiva” inscription of Xerxes: in Elamite’, Die Welt des Orients. 2 (1954/1959)
Cameron, G. G.The Elamite version of the Bisitun inscriptions’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 14 (1960)
Cameron, G. G.The Old Persian text of the Bisitun inscription’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 5 (1951)
Cameron, G. G.The Persian satrapies and related matters’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 32 (1973)
Cameron, G. G. History of Early Iran. Chicago, 1936
Cameron, G. G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets (Oriental Institute Publication 65). Chicago, 1948
Cardascia, G.Le fief dans la Babylonie achémenide’, Recueil de la Societé Jean Bodin 1 (1958)
Cardascia, G. Les archives des Murašu, une famille d'hommes d'affaires babyloniens à I'époque perse (455–403 av. J.-C.). Paris, 1951
Cargill, J.The Nabonidus Chronicle and the fall of Lydia: consensus with feet of clay’, American Journal of Ancient History 2 (1977)
Carter, E. and Stolper, M. W. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology (University of California Publications in Semitic Philology, Near Eastern Studies 25). Berkeley, 1984
Casson, L. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton, 1971
Cocquerillat, D. Palmeraies et cultures d'Eanna d'Uruk (556–520) (Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschung sgemein schaft in Uruk-Warka 8). Berlin, 1968
Cook, J. M.The rise of the Achaemenids’, Cambridge History of Iran 11. Cambridge, 1985
Cook, J. M. The Persian Empire. London, 1983
Culican, W. The Medes and Persians. London, 1965
Curtis, J.Industrial interlude in the dark ages in Iraq’, British Museum Society Bulletin (May 1985) (see also Iraq 47 (1985))
Curtis, J. Nush-i Jan III: the Small Finds. London, 1984
Dandamaev, M. A. Persien unter den ersten Achämeniden (6. Jahrhundert v. Chr.). Trans. Heinz-Dieter, Pohl . Wiesbaden, 1976
Dandamaev, M. A. and Lukonin, V. G. Kultura i ekonomika drevnevo Irana. Moscow, 1980 (Eng. transl. ed. Kohl, P. L . Cambridge, 1988)
Dandamayev, M. A.Die Lehensbeziehungen in Babylonien unter. den ersten Achämeniden’, in Festschrift für W. Eilers ed. Wiessner, G. , 3542. Wiesbaden, 1967
Dandamayev, M. A.Forced labour in the palace economy in Achaemenid Iran’, Altorientalische For schungen 2 (1975)
Dandamayev, M. A.On the fiefs in Babylonia in the early Achaemenid period’, in B 113
Dandamayev, M. A.Royal Paradeisoi in Babylonia’, in Orientalia J. Duchesne-Guillemin Emerito Oblata (Acta Iranica: Hommages et Opera Minora 9), 11417. Leiden, 1984
Dandamayev, M. A.State and temple in Babylonia in the first millennium B.C.’, in State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East, ed. Lipinskí, E. (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 6), 2, 5. Leuven, 1979
Dandamayev, M. A.The Diaspora A: Babylonia in the Persian age’, in Cambridge History of Judaism 1. Cambridge, 1984
Dandamayev, M. A.The Neo-Babylonian citizens’, Klio 63 (1981)
Dandamayev, M. A.The Neo-Babylonian Elders’, in Societies and Languages of the Ancient Near East. Studies in Honour of I. M. Diakonoff, edd. Dandamayev, M. A. et al., 3841. Warminster, 1982
Dandamayev, M. A. Rabstvo v Vavilonii. Moscow, 1974. (Translated and revised as Slavery in Babylonia from Nabopolassar to Alexander the Great (626–331 B.C.). De Kalb, 1984)
Dandamayev, M. A. Vavilonskie Piststy. Moscow, 1983
de Miroschedji, P.La fin du royaume d'Anšan et de Suse et la naissance de l'empire perse’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 75 (1985)
de Miroschedji, P.Stratigraphie de la période Néo–Élamite à Suse’, Paléorient 4 (1978)
Delaunay, J. A.A propos des “Aramaic Ritual Texts from Persepolis” de R. A. Bowman’, Acta Iranica Set. 1.2 (1974)
Delaunay, J. A.Remarques sur quelques noms de personne des archives Élamites de Persepolis’, Studia Iranica 5 (1976)
DeVries, K.Attic pottery in the Achaemenid Empire’, American Journal of Archaeology 81 (1977)
Diakonoff, I. M.Media’, in Cambridge History of Iran 11. Cambridge, 1985
Dougherty, R. P. Nabonidus and Belshazzar. New Haven, 1929
Drews, R.The fall of Astyages and Herodotus’ chronology of the eastern kingdoms’, Historia 18 (1969)
Drews, R. The Greek Accounts of Eastern History. Cambridge, Mass., 1973
Dubberstein, W. H.Comparative prices in later Babylonia (625 to 400 B.C.)’, American Journal of Semitic Languages (and Literature) 56 (1939)
Dubberstein, W. H.The chronology of Cyrus and Cambyses’, American Journal of Semitic Languages (and Literature) 55 (1938)
Duchesne-Guillemin, J.La religion des Achéménides’, in B 215
Duchesne-Guillemin, J.Religion et politique, de Cyrus à Xerxes’, Persica 3 (1967–8)
Duchesne-Guillemin, J. Religion of Ancient Iran (English translation of La religion de l'Iran ancien . Paris, 1962). Bombay, 1973
Duchesne-Guillemin, J. The Western Response to Zoroaster. Oxford, 1958
Dumézil, G. Idéologic tripartite des Indo-Européens. Brussels, 1958
Dyson, R. H. Jr , ‘Problems of protohistoric Iran as seen from Hasanlu’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 24 (1965)
Dyson, R. H. Jr , ‘The architecture of Hasanlu: Periods I to IV, American Journal of Archaeology 81 (1977)
Eilers, W.Der Keilschrifttext des Kyros-Zylinders’, in Festgabe deutscher Iranisten zur 2500 Jahrfeier Irans ed. Eilers, W. , 15666. Stuttgart, 1971
Eilers, W.Kyros – Eine namenkundliche Studie’, Beiträge zur Namen for schung 15 (1964)
Eilers, W.Le texte cunéiforme du cylindre de Cyrus’, Acta Iranica 2 (1974)
Ellis, R. S. Foundation Deposits in Ancient Mesopotamia (Yale Near Eastern Researches 2). New Haven–London, 1968
Empire: the Murašu Archive, the Murašu Firm, and Persian Rule in Babylonia. Leiden, 1985
Eph'al, I.The western minorities in Babylonia in the 6th–5 th centuries B.C.: maintenance and cohesion’, Orientalia 47 (1978)
Fales, F. M. (ed.) Assyrian Royal Inscriptions: New Horizons in Literary, Ideological and Historical Analysis. Rome, 1981
Fales, M.Observations on the Neirab Texts’, Iranica Antiqua 12 (1973)
Fornara, C. W. Herodotus. Oxford, 1971
Francis, E. D.Greeks and Persians: the art of hazard and triumph’, in Ancient Persia: The Art of an Empire, ed. Schmandt-Besserat, D. , 5386. Malibu, 1980
Freeman, E. A. History of Federal Government in Greece and Italy. 2nd edn. London, 1893
Frye, R. N.Gestures of deference to royalty in ancient Iran’, Iranica Antiqua 9 (1972)
Frye, R. N.The charisma of kingship in ancient Iran’, Iranica Antiqua 4 (1964)
Frye, R. N.The Institutions’, in B 215
Frye, R. N. The Heritage of Persia. Cleveland, 1963
Frye, R. N. The History of Ancient Iran (Handbuch der Altertums wissenschaft in.7). Munich, 1983
Gadd, C. H.The Harran inscriptions of Nabonidus’, Anatolian Studies. 8 (1958)
Gadd, C. J. , Legrain, L. and Smith, S. Ur Excavation Texts 1: Royal Inscriptions. London, 1928
Gershevitch, I.An Iranianist's view on the Soma controversy’, in Mémorial jean de Menasce, edd. Ph. Gignoux and Tafozzoli, A. , 4575. Tehran, 1974
Gershevitch, I.Iranian nouns and names in Elamite garb’, Transactions of the Philological Society 1969
Gershevitch, I. The Avestan Hymn to Mithra. Cambridge, 1959
Gharib, B.A newly found Old Persian inscription’, Iranica Antiqua 8 (1968)
Ghirshman, R.À propos de l'écriture cunéiforme vieux-perse’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 24 (1965)
Ghirshman, R. Fouilles de Sialk, près de Kashan ii. Paris, 1939
Ghirshman, R. Iran. Harmondsworth, 1954
Ghirsman, R. L'lran et la migration des Indo-Aryens et des iraniens. Leiden, 1977
Gibson, McG. The City and Area of Kish. Miami, 1972
Gnoli, G. Zoroaster's Time and Homeland. Naples, 1980
Goff, C. L.Excavations at Baba Jan: the pottery and metal from levels III and II’, Iran 16 (1978)
Goff, C. L.Lūristān before the Iron Age’, Iran 9 (1971)
Gomme, A. W. , Andrewes, A. and Dover, K. J. A Historical Commentary on Thucydides iv. Oxford, 1945–81
Gottlieb, G. Das Verhältnis der ausserherodoteischen Überlieferung zu Herodot. Bonn, 1963
Graf, D. F.Greek tyrants and Achaemenid polities’, in The Craft of the Ancient Historian: Essays in Honor of Chester G. Starr, edd. Eadie, J. W. and Ober, J. , 79123. Lanham, 1985
Graf, D. F.Medism: the origin and significance of the term’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 104 (1984)
Grayson, A. K.Chronicles and the Akitu Festival’, in Actes de la 16. rencontre assyriologique internationale, ed. Finet, A. , 16070. Ham-sur-Heure, 1970
Grayson, A. K. Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (Texts from Cuneiform Sources 5). Locust Valley, 1975
Grayson, A. K. Assyrian Royal Inscriptions 11. Wiesbaden, 1976
Grayson, A. K. Babylonian Historical-Literary Texts (Toronto Semitic Texts and Studies 3). Toronto, 1975
Greenfield, J. C. and Porten, B. The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great: Aramaic Version. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum. Pt 1: Inscriptions of Ancient Iran. Vol. v Texts 1. London, 1983
Gurney, O. R.The Assyrian Tablets from Sultantepe’, Proceedings of the British Academy 41 (1955)
Gurney, O. R.The Sultantepe Tablets (continued)’, Anatolian Studies 7 (1957)
Gurney, O. R. and Finkelstein, J. J. The Sultantepe Tablets 1. London, 1957
Haerinck, E.La neuvieme satrapie: archéologie confronte histoire?’, in B 173
Haerinck, E.Le palais achéménide de Babylone’, Ir. Ant. 10 (1973)
Hallock, R. T.A new look at the Persepolis Treasury tablets’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 19 (1960)
Hallock, R. T.New light from Persepolis’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 9 (1950)
Hallock, R. T.On the Old Persian signs’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 29 (1970)
Hallock, R. T.Selected Fortification texts’, Cahiers de la Délégation archéologique française en Iran 8 (1978)
Hallock, R. T.The “One Year” of Darius I’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 19 (1960)
Hallock, R. T.The evidence of the Persepolis tablets’, in Cambridge History of Iran ii. Cambridge, 1985. (Separately printed, Cambridge, 1971)
Hallock, R. T.The Persepolis fortification archive’, Orientalia N.S. 42 (1973)
Hallock, R. T.The use of seals on the Persepolis Fortification texts’, in Seals and Sealings in the Ancient Near East, edd. Gibson, M. and Biggs, R. D. (Bibliotheca Mesopotamiaca 6), 12733. Malibu, 1977
Hallock, R. T. Persepolis Fortification Tablets (Oriental Institute Publication 92). Chicago, 1969
Hammond, N. G. L.Studies in Greek chronology of the sixth and fifth centuries B.C.’, Historia 4 (1955)
Hammond, N. G. L. A History of Greece to 322 B.C. 2nd edn. Oxford, 1967 (3rd edn 1986)
Hammond, N. G. L. Atlas of the Greek and Roman World in Antiquity. New Jersey, 1983
Hanfmann, G. M. A.Lydian relations with Ionia and Persia’, Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of Classical Archaeology 1. Ankara, 1978
Harmatta, J.Darius’ expedition against the Saka Tigraxauda’, Acta antiqua academiae scientiarum Hungaricae 24 (1976)
Harmatta, J.The literary patterns of the Babylonian edict of Cyrus’, Acta Antiqua 19 (1971) 217–31 (= ‘Les modèles littéraires de l'édit babylonien de Cyrus’ in Acta Iranica Ser.1.1 (1974))
Harmatta, J.Two economic documents from the Sasanian age’, Oikoumene i (1976)
Harper, R. F. Assyrian and Babylonian Letters. London–Chicago, 1892–1914
Helm, P. R.Herodotus’ Medikos Logos and Median history’, Iran 19 (1981)
Henning, W. G. Zoroaster, Politician or Witch Doctor? Oxford, 1951
Herrenschmidt, CI.Désignation de l'empire et concepts politiques de Darius Ier d'après ses inscriptions en vieux-perse’, Studia Iranica 5 (1976)
Herzfeld, E. E. Archaeological history of Iran. London, 1935
Herzfeld, E. E. The Persian Empire: Studies in the Geography and Ethnography of the ancient Near East. Wiesbaden, 1968
Herzfeld, E. E. Zoroaster and his world. Princeton, 1947
Hinz, W.Achämenidische Hofverwaltung’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 61 (1971)
Hinz, W.Die elamischen Buchungstäfelchen der Darius-Zeit’, Orientalia N.S. 39 (1970)
Hinz, W.Die Entstehung der altpersischen Keilschrift’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 1 (1968)
Hinz, W.Die Untere Grabinschrift des Dareios’, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 115 (1965)
Hinz, W.Die Zusätze zur Darius-Inschrift von Behistan’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 5 (1972)
Hinz, W.The Elamite version of the record of Darius's palace at Susa’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 9 (1950)
Hinz, W.Xerxes’, in Pauly–Wissowa–Kroll–Mittelhaus, , Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertum swissen schaft. Stuttgart, 1893ix a.2 (1967) Latomus Collection Latomus
Hinz, W.Zu den Mörsern und Stösseln aus Persepolis’, Acta Iranica Ser.2. Monumentum H.S. Nyberg (1975) 1 371–85
Hinz, W. Darius und die Perser 111. Baden-Baden, 1976–9
Hinz, W. Altiranische Funde und Forschungen. Berlin, 1969
Hinz, W. Das Reich Flam. Stuttgart, 1964
Hinz, W. Neue Wege im Altpersischen. Wiesbaden, 1973
Hirsch, S. W. The Friendship of the Barbarians: Xenophon and the Persian Empire. Hanover–London, 1985
Homeyer, H.Zu den Anfängen der Griechischen Biographie’, Philologus 106 (1962)
How, W. W. and Wells, J. A Commentary on Herodotus. Oxford, 1912
Huber, L.Herodots Homerverständis’, Synusia. Festgabe für W. Schadewaldt, edd. Flashar, H. and Gaiser, K. , 2952. Neske, 1965
Hunger, H.Das Archiv des Nabu-ušallim’, Bagh. Mitt. 5 (1970)
Immerwahr, H. R. Form and Thought in Herodotus. Cleveland, 1960
Jackson, A. V. W. Zoroaster. The Prophet of Ancient Iran. New York, 1899
Jacoby, F.Herodotos’, Pauly–Wissowa–Kroll–Mittelhaus, , Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertum swissen schaft. Stuttgart, 1893– Suppl. 11 (1913) (= Griechische Historiker, 7164. Stuttgart, 1956)
Jacoby, F.Ktesias’, in Pauly–Wissowa–Kroll–Mittelhaus, , Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertum swissen schaft. Stuttgart, 1893xi (1922) (= Griechische Historiker, 31132. Stuttgart, 1956)
Jacoby, F. Abhandlmgen zur griechischen Geschichtsschreibung, ed. Leiden, H. , 1956
Jacoby, F. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, 3 pts in 15 vols. Berlin, 1926; Leiden, 1943–58 3 2.
Jeffery, L. H. Archaic Greece. London, 1976
Kamioka, K.Philological observations on the Aramaic texts from Persepolis’, Orient 11 (1975)
Kent, R. G. Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. 2nd edn. New Haven, 1953
Killick, R.Ancient Babylon's Median wall’, Illustrated London News (Archaeology 3004), 77. June 1984
Klauber, E. Politisch-religiöse Texte aus der Sargonidenzeit. Leipzig, 1913
Kleiss, W. and Calmeyer, P.Das unvollendete achaemenidische Felsgrab bei Persepolis’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 8 (1975)
Knudtzon, J. A. Assyrische Gebete an den Sonnengott. Leipzig, 1893
Koch, H. Die religiösen Verhältnisse der Dareioszeit. Wiesbaden, 1977
Koch, H. and Mackenzie, D. N. (edd.) Kunst, Kultur and Geschichte der Achämenidenzeit und ihr Fortleben (Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran Ergänzungsband 10). Berlin, 1983
Koldewey, R. Das wiederer stehende Babylon. 4th edn. Leipzig, 1925
Koldewey, R. Die Königsburgen von Babylon. 1: Die Südburg (Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 54). Leipzig, 1931
Komorczy, G.Berossos and the Mesopotamian Literature’, Acta antiqua academiae scientiarum Hungaricae 21 (1973)
König, F. W. Älteste Geschichte der Meder und Perser. Leipzig, 1934
König, F. W. Die Persika des Ktesias von Knidos. Graz, 1972
König, F. W. Hand buch der chaldischen Inschriften (Archiv für Orient for schung Bh. 8). Graz, 1955–7
Kraus, F. R.Der Brief des Gilgamesh’, Anatolian Studies. 30 (1980)
Krefter, F. Persepolis Rekonstruktionen (Teheraner Forschungen 3). Berlin, 1971
Kroll, S. Keramik Urartäischer Festungen in Iran (Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran Ergänzungsband 2). Berlin, 1976
Krückmann, O.Herodots Beschreibung von Babylon’, in 6. Internationaler Kongress für Arcbäologie, 2303. Berlin, 1939
Kuhrt, A. T. L.Usurpation, conquest and ceremonial: from Babylon to Persia’, in Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies (Past and Present Publications), edd. Cannadine, D. and Price, S. , 2055. Cambridge, 1987
Kuhrt, A. T. L. and Sherwin-White, S. M.Xerxes’ destruction of Babylonian temples’, in B 174
Kuhrt, A.Berossos’ Babyloniaka and Seleucid Rule in Babylonia’, in Hellenism in the East, edd. Kuhrt, A. T. L. and Sherwin-White, S. M. , 3256. London–Berkeley, 1987
Kuhrt, A.Classical authors on Babylonian and Assyrian traditions’, in Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn (25 recontre assyriologique), edd. Nissen, H.-J. and Renger, J. , 2.. Berlin, 1982
Kuhrt, A.Survey of written sources available for the history of Babylonia under the later Achaemenids’, in B 173
Kuhrt, A.The Cyrus cylinder and Achaemenid imperial policy’, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 25 (1983)
Kümmel, H. M. Familie, Beruf und Amt im spätbabylonischen Uruk: Prosopographische Unter suchungen zu des 6. Jh. v.Chr. in Uruk (Abhandlungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 20). Berlin, 1979
Labat, R.Kaštariti, Phraorte et les débuts de l'histoire Mède’, Journal asiatique 249 (1961)
Lambert, W. G. The Background of Jewish Apocalyptic (Ethel Wood, M. Lecture). London, 1979
Langdon, S. Die neubabylonischen Königsinschriften. Leipzig, 1912
Larsen, M. T. Old Assyrian Caravan Procedures. Istanbul, 1967
Lecoq, P.Le problème de l'écriture cunéiforme vieux-perse’, Acta. Ir. Ser. 1, 3 (1974)
Lehmann-Haupt, C. F.Darius und der Achämeniden-Stammbaum’, Klio 8 (1908)
Levine, B. A.Aramaic texts from Persepolis’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 92 (1972)
Levine, L. D.East–West trade in the late Iron age: a view from the Zagros’, in B 549
Levine, L. D.Geographical studies in the Neo-Assyrian Zagros’, Iran 11 (1973) and Iran 12 (1974)
Levine, L. D.Sargon's eighth campaign’, in Mountains and Lowlands: Essays in the Archaeology of Greater Mesopotamia, edd. Levine, L. D. and Young, T. C. Jr , 13551. Malibu, 1977
Levine, L. D.The Iron Age’, in Archaeological Perspectives on Western Iran, ed. Hole, F. (Smithsonian Series in Archaeological Inquiry). Washington, D.C., forthcoming
Lewis, D. M.Datis the Mede’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 100 (1980)
Lewis, D. M.Persians in Herodotus’, in The Greek Historians: Literature and History, 10117. Stanford, 1985
Lewis, D. M. Sparta and Persia. Leiden, 1977
Littauer, M. A. and Crouwel, J. H. Wheeled Vehicles and Ridden Animals in the Ancient Near East. Leiden, 1979
Lloyd, A. B.The inscription of Udjahorresnet: a collaborator's testament’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 68 (1982)
Luckenbill, D. D. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia 1 and 11. Chicago, 1926–7
Luschey, H.Bisutun: Geschichte und Forschungsgeschichte’, Archäologischer Anzeiger 1974
Luschey, H.Neues zu der Darius-Statue aus Susa’, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft Suppl. 4 (1980)
Luschey, H.Studien zu dem Darius–Relief in Bisutun’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 1 (1968)
Markwart, H. Wehrot und Arang. Leiden, 1938
Mayrhofer, M.Altpersische Spane’, Orientalia 33 (1964)
Mayrhofer, M.Nachlese altpersischer Inschriften’, Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachaiissenschaft 19 (1978)
Mayrhofer, M. Onomastica Persepolitana. Das Altiranische Namengut der Persepolis-Täfelchen. Vienna, 1973
Mayrhofer, M. Supplement zur Sammlung der altpersischen Inschriften. Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 338, 7. Vienna, 1978
Mazzarino, S. Fra Oriente e Occidente. Florence, 1947
Mazzetti, C.Voina Dariya so Skifami i Vavilonskaya prorocheskaya literatura’, Vestnik Drevnei Istorii 3 (1982) (in Russian)
McCown, D. E. and others. Nippur I: Temple of Enlil, Scribal Quarter and Soundings (Oriental Institute Publication 78). Chicago, 1967. Nippur II: The North Temple and Sounding E (Oriental Institute Publication 97). Chicago, 1978
Meauleau, M.Mesopotamia under Persian rule’, in a 5, 3 (=id. in Griechen und Perser: die Mittelmeerwelt im Altertum 1. Frankfurt am Main, 1965)
Medvedskaya, I. N.On the Iranian association of the grey ceramics of early Iron Age Iran’, Vestnik Drevnei Istorii 2 (1977) (in Russian)
Medvedskaya, I. N. Iran: Iron Age 1 (British Archaeological Reports International Series 126). Oxford, 1982
Meiggs, R. The Athenian Empire. Oxford, 1972
Michel, E.Die Assur–Texte Salmanassars III. (858–824)’, Die Welt des Orients 2 (1954–9)
Miller, M.Herodotus as chronographer’, Klio 46 (1965)
Mitchell, B. M.Herodotus and Samos’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 95 (1975)
Momigliano, A. D.Tradizione e invenzione in Ctesia’, in Quarto Contributo alla Storia degli Studi Classici e del Mondo Antico, 181212. Rome, 1969
Momigliano, A.Eastern elements in post-exilic Jewish and Greek historiography’, in Essays in Ancient and Modern Historiography, 2535. Oxford, 1977
Momigliano, A.Persian empire and Greek freedom’ in The Idea of Freedom: Essays in honour of Isaiah Berlin, ed. Ryan, A. , 13951. Oxford, 1979
Momigliano, A. Alien Wisdom: the Limits of Hellenization, Cambridge, 1975
Momigliano, A. The Development of Greek Biography. Harvard, 1971
Moorey, P. R. S. Catalogue of the ancient Persian bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum. Oxford, 1971
Moorey, P. R. S. Kish Excavation 1923–33. Oxford, 1978
Muhly, J. D. Review of a 14, Journal of New Eastern Studies 35 (1976)
Murray, O. Early Greece. London, 1980
Muscarella, O. W.Excavated and unexcavated Achaemenian art’, in Ancient Persia: the Art of an Empire, ed. Schmandt-Besserat, D. . Malibu,.1980
Muscarella, O. W. The Catalogue of Ivories from Hasanlu, Iran (Univ. Mus. Monograph 40). Philadelphia, 1980
Muscarella, O. W. Review of B 116, Journal of New Eastern Studies 33 (1974)
Muscarella, O. W. Review of B 214, Journal of New Eastern Studies 28 (1969)
Myres, J. L. Herodotus: Father of History. Oxford, 1953
Nagel, W.Frada, Skuncha und der Saken-Feldzug des Darius I’, in b 113
Nagel, W. Ninus und Semiramis in Sage und Geschichte: iranische Staaten und Keiternomaden vor Darius (Berliner Beiträge zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte, N.F.2). Berlin, 1982
Naveh, J. and Shaked, Sh.Ritual texts or Treasury documents?’, Orientalia 42 (1973)
Negahban, E. O.Notes on some objects from Marlik’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 24 (1965)
Negahban, E. O.The seals of Marlik Tepe’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 36 (1977)
Negahban, E. O. Preliminary report on Marlik excavation, Gohar Rud expedition, Rudbar, 1961–1962. Tehran, 1964
Neugebauer, O. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. Princeton, 1957
Nicol, M. B.Dorudzan’, Iran 5 (1967)
North, R.Status of the Warka Excavations’, Orientalia 26 (1957)
Nyberg, H. S. Die Religionen des alten Iran. Leipzig, 1938
Nylander, C.Achaemenid imperial art’, in Power and Propaganda: a symposium of ancient empires, ed. Larsen, M. T. . Copenhagen, 1979
Nylander, C.Who wrote the inscriptions of Pasargadae?’, Orientalia Suecana 16 (1967)
Nylander, C. Ionians in Parsargadae: Studies in Old Persian Architecture. Uppsala, 1970
Oded, B. Mass Deportations and Deportees in the Neo–Assyrian Empire. Wiesbaden, 1979
Oelsner, J.Erwägungen zum Gesellschaftsaufbau Babyloniens von der neubabylonischen bis zur achämenidischen Zeit (7.–4. Jh. v.u.Z)’, Altorientalische For schungen 4 (1976)
Oelsner, J.Zwischen Xerxes und Alexander: babylonische Rechtsurkunden und Wirtschaftstexte aus der späten Achämenidenzeit’, Die Welt des Orients 8 (1975–6)
Olmstead, A. T. History of Assyria. New York, 1923
Olmstead, A. T. History of the Persian Empire. Chicago, 1948
Olmstead, A. T.Tattenai, governor of “Across the River'”, Journal of New Eastern Studies 3 (1944) 46
Oppenheim, A. L.“The Eyes of the Lord”’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (1968)
Oppenheim, A. L.A new Cambyses incident’, in A Survey of Persian Art from prehistoric times to the present xv, ed. Gluck, J. . Tokyo– London–New York–Tehran, 1974
Oppenheim, A. L.The Babylonian evidence of Achaemenian rule in Mesopotamia’, in Cambridge History of Iran 11. Cambridge, 1985
Oppenheim, A. L. The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society n.s., vol. 46, Part 3). Philadelphia, 1956
Parker, R. A. and Dubberstein, W. H. Babylonian Chronology 626 B.C–A.D. 75. Providence, 1956
Parpola, S. Letters from Assyrian scholars to the kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal. Part 1: Texts. Neukirchen–Vluyn, 1970
Parpola, S. Neo-Assyrian Toponyms. Neukirchen–Vluyn, 1970
Peiser, F. E.Studien zur altorientalischen Altertumskunde: chronologisches’, Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatisch-Aegyptischen Gesellschaft 2 (1897)
Perrot, J. and others. ‘Recherches dans le secteur est du tepe de l'Apadana’, Cahiers de la Délégation archéologique française en Iran 4 (1974)
Persia e il Mondo Greco-Romano (Accademia dei Lincei). Rome, 1966
Pinches, T. G. and Strassmaier, J. N. Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts, prepared by Sachs, A. J. . Providence, 1955
Pope, U. A.Persepolis as a ritual city’, Archaeology 10 (1957)
Porada, E. The Art of Ancient Iran. New York, 1965
Posener, G. La première domination perse en Égypte. Cairo, 1936
Postgate, J. N.The place of šaknu in Assyrian government’, Anatolian Studies 30 (1980)
Postgate, J. N. Taxation and Conscription in the Assyrian Empire (Studia Pohl: Series Major 3). Rome, 1974
Prašek, K. Forschungen zur Geschichte des Altertums. 1. Kambyses und die Überlieferung des Altertums. Leipzig, 1897
Pritchard, J. B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament. 3 rd edn with supplement. Princeton, 1969
Pugliese Carratelli, G.Greek inscriptions of the Middle East’, East and West 16 (1966)
Ravn, O. E. Herodotus’ Description of Babylon. Copenhagen, 1942
Reade, J. E.Kassites and Assyrians in Iran’, Iran 16 (1978)
Reiner, E.Tall-i Malyān, Epigraphic finds, 1971–72’, Iran 12 (1974) 176
Renger, J.Notes on the goldsmiths, jewellers and carpenters of the Neo-Babylonian Eanna’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1971)
Richter, G.Greeks in Persia’, American Journal of Archaeology 50 (1946)
Roaf, M. D.The subject peoples on the base of the statue of Darius’, Cahiers de la Délégation archéologique française en Iran 4 (1974)
Roaf, M.Sculptures and sculptors at Persepolis’, Iran 21 (1983)
Roaf, M.Texts about the sculptures and sculptors at Persepolis’, Iran 18 (1980)
Root, M. C. The King and Kingship in Achaemenid Art. Leiden, 1979
Sachs, A. J.A classification of the Babylonian Astronomical Tablets of the Seleucid Period’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 2 (1948)
Sachs, A. J.Achaemenid royal names in Babylonian astronomical texts’, American Journal of Ancient History 2 (1977)
San Nicolò, M.Einiges aus den neubabylonischen Rechtsurkunden’, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte 49/Röm. Abt. (1929)
San Nicolò, M.Parerga Babylonica XIII: Zur Chronologie des Bêl-šîmanni und scaron;amaš-erîba’, Archiv Orientálni 6 (1934)
San Nicolò, M.Zur Verproviantierung des kgl. Hoflagers in Abanu durch den Eanna-tempel in Uruk’, Archiv Orientálni 17.2 (1949)
San Nicolò, M. Babylonische Rechtsurkunden des ausgehenden 8. undj. Jht. v. Chr., 1. Hälfte (Nr. 1–86) (Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Ph.-hist. Kl. n.f. 34), Munich, 1951
San Nicolò, M. Beiträge zu einer Prosopographie der neubabylonischen Beamten der Zivil-und Tempelverwaltung (Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1941, 11.2). Munich, 1941
Sancisi Weerdenburg, H. W. A. M.Territorium in het Perzische Rijk: een externe en een interne vision’, in Stukken en Brokken: Een bundel beschouwingen rond het thema Territorialiteit in Vroege Staten, ed. Claessen, H. J. M. (Instituut voor Culturele Anthropologie Publications 59), 7882. Leiden, 1983
Sancisi Weerdenburg, H. W. A. M. (ed.) Achaemenid History 1: Sources, Structures, Synthesis. Leiden, 1987
Sancisi Weerdenburg, H. W. A. M. and Kuhrt, A. T. L. (edd.) Achaemenid History 11: The Greek Sources. Leiden, 1987
Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H.Exit Atossa: images of women in Greek historiography on Persia’, in Images of Women in Antiquity, edd. Cameron, A. and Kuhrt, A. , 20133. London–Canberra, 1983
Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H.The death of Cyrus: Xenophon's Cryopaedia as a source for Iranian history’, in Papers in Honour of Professor Mary Boyce, ed. Bivar, A. D. H. (Acta Iranica: Hommages et Opera Minora ii), 11. Leiden, 1985
Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H. Yauna en Persai: Grieken en Perzen in een ander perspectief. Groningen, 1980
Sancisi–Weerdenburg, H. W. A. M.De Behistun Inscriptie: Het eerste Geschreven Oudperzisch? (DB 1 1–74; iv 72–92)’, in Schrijvend Verleden. Documenten uit het Oude Nabije Oosten Vertaald en Toegelicht, ed. Veenhof, K. R. , Leiden, 1983
Sandars, N. K. The Sea Peoples: Warriors of the ancient Mediterranean, 1250–1150 B.C. London, 1978
Scheil, V. Inscriptions des Achéménides à Suse (Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique de Perse 21). Paris, 1929
Schlumberger, D. L'argent grec dans I'empire achemenide (Mémoires de la délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan 14). Paris, 1953
Schmidt, E. F. Persepolis 1. Structures, Reliefs, Inscriptions. Chicago, 1953
Schmidt, E. F. Persepolis 11. Contents of the Treasury and other Discoveries. Chicago, 1957
Schmidt, E. F. Persepolis 111. The Royal Tombs and other Monuments. Chicago, 1970
Schmitt, R.Deiokes’, Anzeiger der phil.-hist. Klasse der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften no (1973)
Schmitt, R.Die achaimenidische Satrapie tayaiy drayahyā’, Historia 21 (1972)
Schmitt, R. Altpersische Siegel-lnschriften (Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Ph.-Hist. K.I.: Veroffentlichungen der Iranischen Kommission Bd 10). Vienna, 1981
Schnabel, P. Berossos und die babylonisch-hellenistische Literatur. Leipzig, 1923
Schoff, W. H. (trans.). Parthian Stations by Isidore of Charax. Philadelphia, 1914
Schwenzner, H.Gobryas’, Klio 18 (1923)
Seidl, U.Ein Relief Dareios I. in Babylonien’, Ami n.f. 9 (1976)
Shahbazi, A. Sh.An Achaemenid symbol 1. A farewell to “Fravahr” and “Ahuramazda”’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 7 (1974)
Shahbazi, A. Sh.Darius in Scythia and Scythians in Persepolis’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 15 (1982)
Shahbazi, A. Sh.From Parsa to Taxt-e Jamsid’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 10 (1977)
Shahbazi, A. Sh.The Persepolis “Treasury Reliefs” once more’, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 9 (1976)
Shahbazi, A. Sh. Old Persian Inscriptions of the Persepolis platform. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum. Part 1 Inscriptions of Ancient Iran, Vol. 1 Portfolio 1. London, 1985
Shea, W.An unrecognized vassal-king of Babylon in the early Achaemenid Period’, Andrews University Seminary Studies 9 (1971) ; 10 (1972)
Smith, M.II Isaiah and the Persians’, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1963)
Smith, S. Babylonian Historical Texts relating to the Capture and Downfall of Babylon. London, 1924
Smith, S. Isaiah XL–LV: Literary Criticism and History (Schweich Lectures). London, 1944
Snodgrass, A. M. The Dark Age of Greece. Edinburgh, 1971
Speiser, E. A.Southern Kurdistan in the Annals of Ashurnasirpal and today’, Annals of the American Schools of Oriental Research 8 (1928)
Starr, C. G. Greeks and Persians in the Fourth Century B.C. Ann Arbor, 1979
Stolper, M. W.Three Iranian loan words in Late Babylonian texts’ (Uit-gaven van het Nederlands Instituut te Istanbul 54), in Mountains and Lowlands, edd. Levine, L. D. and Young, T. C. Jr , 25166. Malibu, 1977
Strasburger, H.Herodots Zeitrechnung’, Historia 5 (1956) (= Herodot, ed. Marg, W. , 688736. 2nd edn. Darmstadt, 1965)
Strasburger, H. Die Wesensbestimmung der Geschichte durch die antike Geschichtsschreibung (= Sitzungsberichte der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft Goethe-Universität, J. W. , Frankfurt 5, no. 3. 1966)
Strassmaier, J. N.Einige chronologische Daten aus astronomischen Rechnungen’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 7 (1892)
Strassmaier, J. N.Zur Chronologieder Seleuciden’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 8 (1893)
Strommenger, E. Gefässe aus Uruk von der neubabylonischen Zeit bis den Sasaniden (Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschung sgemein schaft in Uruk-Warka 7). Berlin, 1967
Stronach, D.Achaemenid village I at Susa and the Persian migration to Farsi’, Iraq 36 (1974)
Stronach, D.Tepe Nush-i Jan: the Median settlement’, Cambridge History of Iran ii. Cambridge, 1985
Stronach, D. Pasargadae. A Report on the excavations conducted by the Britishn Institute of Persian Studies from 1961 to 1963. Oxford, 1978
Stronach, D. and Roaf, M.Excavations at Tepe Nush–i Jan: Part 1, a third interim report’, Iran 16 (1978)
Sulimirski, T.Scythian antiquities in western Asia’, Art. A. 17 (1954)
Sumner, W. M.Achaemenid settlement in the Persepolis plain’, American Journal of Archaeology 90 (1986)
Tadmor, H.The inscriptions of Nabunaid: historical arrangement’, in Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger on his Seventy-Fifth Birthday, edd. Giiterbock, H. G. and Jacobsen, T. , 35163. Chicago, 1965
Taqizadeh, S. H. Old Iranian Calendars. London, 1938
Tarn, W. W. Alexander the Great. Cambridge, 1948
Tilia, A. B.A study on the methods of working and restoring stone and on the parts left unfinished in Achaemenian architecture and sculpture’, East and West n.s. 18 (1968)
Tilia, A. B.Discoveries at Persepolis 1972–1973’, in Procs. of the 2nd Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, 23953. Tehran, 1973
Tilia, A. B.Discovery of an Achaemenid palace near Takht-i Rustam to the north of the Terrace of Persepolis’, Iran 12 (1974)
Tilia, A. B.New contributions to the knowledge of the building history of the Apadana: discovery of a wall on the inside of the façade of the eastern Apadana stairway’, East and West n.s. 18 (1968)
Tilia, A. B.Recent discoveries at Persepolis’, American Journal of Archaeology 81 (1977)
Tilia, A. B. Studies and Restorations at Persepolis and other Sites of Fars. Rome, 1972
Toynbee, A. J.The administrative geography of the Achaemenid Empire’, in A Study of History vii. London, 1954
Trümpelmann, L.Das Heiligtum von Pasargadae’, Studia Iranica. 6 (1977)
Unger, E. Babylon die heilige Stadt. Berlin, 1931
Ungnad, A.Das Haus Egibi’, Archiv für Orient for schung 14 (1941–4)
Ungnad, A. Glossary den neubabylonischen Rechts- und Verivaltungsurkunden. Leipzig, 1937
Vallat, F.Deux inscriptions élamites de Darius Ier (DSf et DSz)’, Studia Iranica 1 (1972)
Vallat, F.Deux nouvelles “chartes de fondation” d'un palais de Darius Ier à Suse’, Syria 48 (1971)
Vallat, F.La triple inscription cunéiforme de la statue de Darius Ier (DSab)’, Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale 68 (1974)
Vallat, F. Suse et I'Elam (Recherches sur les grandes civilizations, Mémoires no. 1). Paris, 1980
Van der Spek, R. J.Cyrus de Pers in Assyrisch perspectief’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 96 (1983)
van Driel, G.Continuity or decay in the late Achaemenid period: evidence from Southern Mesopotamia’, in b 173
Vansina, J. Oral Tradition. Trans. Wright, H. M. . London, 1965
Vigneron, I. P. Le cheval dans l'antiquité. Nancy, 1968
von Soden, W.Kyros und Nabonid. Propaganda und Gegenpropaganda’, in b 113
von Soden, W. Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. Wiesbaden, 1959–81
von Soden, W. Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik (Analecta Orientalia 33/47). Rome, 1969
von Voigtlander, E. N. The Bisitun inscription of Darius the Great Babylonian Version. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum. Part 1: Inscriptions of Ancient Iran, Vol. II Texts 1. London, 1978
Wade-Gery, H. T. Essays in Greek History. Oxford, 1958
Walker, C. B. F.A recently identified fragment of the Cyrus Cylinder’, Iran 10 (1972)
Wallinga, H. T.The ancient Persian navy and its predecessors’, in B 173
Walser, G. Die Völkerschaften auf den Reliefs von Persepolis. Berlin, 1966
Walser, G. Hellas und Iran. Darmstadt, 1984
Walser, G. (ed.) Beiträge zur Achämenidengeschichte (Historia Einzelschrift 18). Wiesbaden, 1972
Waterman, L. Royal correspondence of the Assyrian empire. Ann Arbor, 1930
Weber, U. and Wiesehofer, J. Das Reich der Achaimeniden. Eine Bibliographie (Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran Erg¨nzungsband 14), Berlin, 1986
Weidner, E. F.Die älteste Nachricht üiber das persische Königshaus. Kyros I. ein Zeitgenosse Aššurbānapli’, Archiv für Orient for schung 7 (1931–32)
Weidner, E. F.Joachin, König von Juda, in babylonischen Keilschrifttexten’, in Mélanges offerts à Monsieur René Dussaud 11. Paris, 1939
Weissbach, F. H.Kyros’, in Pauly–Wissowa–Kroll–Mittelhaus, , Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertum swissen schaft. Stuttgart, 1893– Supplementband iv, Latomus Collection Latomus 1128–66. Stuttgart, 1924
Weissbach, F. H.Zur Chronologie des falschen Smerdis und des Darius Hystaspis’, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 51 (1897)
Weissbach, F. H.Zur neubabylonischen Chronologie’, Stud. Orientalia 1 (1925).
Weissbach, F. H.Zur neubabylonischen und achämenidischen Chronologie’, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 62 (1908)
Weissbach, F. H. Die Keilinschriften der Achdmeniden (Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 3). Leipzig, 1911
West, M. L. Early Greek Philosophy and the Orient. Oxford, 1971
Wetzel, F.Babylon zur Zeit Herodots’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie n.f. 14 (1944)
Wetzel, F. and others. Das Babylon der Spätlit (Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 62). Berlin, 1957
Widengren, G.Recherches sur le féodalisme iranien’, Orientalia Suecana 5 (1956)
Widengren, G. Der Feudalismus im alien Iran. Cologne, 1969
Widengren, G. Die Religionen Irans. Stuttgart, 1965 (= Les religions iraniennes. Paris, 1968)
Windfuhr, G. L.Notes on the Old Persian signs’, Indo-lranian Journ. 12 (1970)
Winter, I. J. A decorated breastplate from Hasanlu, Iran (Univ. Mus. Mon. 39). Philadelphia, 1980
Wiseman, D. J.A Late Babylonian Tribute List?’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies, University of London 30 (1967)
Wiseman, D. J.The vassal treaties of Esarhaddon’, Iraq 20 (1958)
Wiseman, D. J. Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings (626–556 B.C.) in the British Museum. London, 1956
Wiseman, D. J. Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon (The Schweich Lectures 1983). Oxford, 1985
Wiseman, D. J. Review of b 275, Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies, University of London 40 (1977)
Wolf, Eric R. Peasants. Englewood Cliffs, 1966
Woolley, L. Ur Excavations IX: The Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods. London, 1962
Young, T. C. Jr.A comparative ceramic chronology for western Iran, 1500–500 B.C.’, Iran 3 (1965)
Young, T. C. Jr.The Iranian migration into the Zagros’, Iran 5 (1967)
Young, T. C. Jr.Thoughts on the architecture of Hasanlu IV’, Iranica Antiqua 6 (1966)
Young, T. C. Jr. Review of B 75, Afghanistan Council Newsletter 5 (3) (1977)
Young, T. C. Jr. , and Levine, L. D. Excavations of the Godin Project: second progress report (Royal Ontario Museum Art and Arch. Occasional Paper 26). Toronto 1974
Young, T. C. Jr . ‘Kangavar Valley survey’, Iran 13 (1975)
Young, T. C Jr.Early Iron Age Iran revisited: preliminary suggestions for the re-analysis of old constructs’. In press.
Young, T. C Jr. Excavations at Godin Tepe: First Progress Report (Royal Ontario Museum Art and Arch. Occasional Paper 17). Toronto, 1969
Yoyotte, J.Sakas des marais et Sakas des plaines’, Journal asiatique 260 (1972)
Zadok, R.Iranians and individuals bearing Iranian names in Achaemenian Babylonia’, Israel Oriental Series 7 (1977)
Zadok, R.New documents from the Chaldean and Achaemenian periods’, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 15 (1984)
Zadok, R.On the connections between Iran and Babylonia in the sixth century B.C.’, Iran 14 (1976)
Zadok, R.The Nippur region during the Late Assyrian, Chaldaean and Achaemenian periods, chiefly according to written sources’, Israel Oriental Series 8 (1978)
Zadok, R. Geographical Names according to New and Late Babylonian Texts (Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Reihe b, 8). Wiesbaden, 1985
Zaehner, R. C. The dawn and twilight of Zoroastrianism. London–New York, 1961
Zettler, R. L.On the chronological range of Neo-Babylonian and Old Persian Seals’, Journal of New Eastern Studies 38 (1979)