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The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning
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  • Cited by 98
  • 2nd edition
  • Edited by Richard E. Mayer, University of California, Santa Barbara
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Book description

In recent years, multimedia learning, or learning from words and images, has developed into a coherent discipline with a significant research base. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning is unique in offering a comprehensive, up-to-date analysis of research and theory in the field, with a focus on computer-based learning. Since the first edition appeared in 2005, it has shaped the field and become the primary reference work for multimedia learning. Multimedia environments, including online presentations, e-courses, interactive lessons, simulation games, slideshows, and even textbooks, play a crucial role in education. This revised second edition incorporates the latest developments in multimedia learning and contains new chapters on topics such as drawing, video, feedback, working memory, learner control, and intelligent tutoring systems. It examines research-based principles to determine the most effective methods of multimedia instruction and considers research findings in the context of cognitive theory to explain how these methods work.

Reviews

'This handbook should be required reading by every PhD student in instructional technology. Much of the research reported represents a model for the type of research that I believe should be done by these doctoral students and by their mentors.'

M. David Merrill Source: Educational Technology

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Contents


Page 1 of 2


  • 5 - The Four-Component Instructional Design Model: Multimedia Principles in Environments for Complex Learning
    pp 104-148
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This introductory chapter provides a definition of multimedia learning, offers a rationale for multimedia learning, outlines the research base for multimedia learning, summarizes changes since the first edition, and draws distinctions between the two approaches to multimedia design, three metaphors of multimedia learning, three kinds of multimedia learning outcomes, and two kinds of active learning. Multimedia represents a potentially powerful learning technology that is, a system for enhancing human learning. A practical goal of research on multimedia is to devise design principles for multimedia presentations. In addressing this goal, it is useful to distinguish between two approaches to multimedia design a technology-centered approach and a learner-centered approach. Response, strengthening, information acquisition, and knowledge construction are three metaphors of multimedia learning. Research on learning shows that meaningful learning depends on the learner's cognitive activity during learning rather than on the learner's behavioral activity during learning.
  • 6 - Ten Common but Questionable Principles of Multimedia Learning
    pp 151-173
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter outlines the cognitive architecture used by cognitive load theory, and provides a general indicator of its relevance to instructional design issues associated with multimedia instruction. Cognitive load theory has been one of the theories used to integrate our knowledge of human cognitive structures and instructional design principles. It is concerned with the elements of that theory and its general implications for multimedia learning, specifically words presented in spoken or written form along with pictures or diagrams. The chapter considers categories of knowledge from an evolutionary perspective, followed by an outline of those aspects of human cognitive architecture relevant to instructional concerns, also considered from an evolutionary perspective. The chapter discusses three categories of cognitive load: intrinsic cognitive load, extraneous cognitive load and germane cognitive load. All categories of cognitive load are concerned with the acquisition, storage and use of biologically secondary information.
  • 7 - The Multimedia Principle
    pp 174-205
  • View abstract

    Summary

    Multimedia messages should be designed to facilitate multimedia learning processes. This chapter first explores three assumptions underlying a cognitive theory of multimedia learning: dual-channel assumption, limited-capacity assumption and active processing assumption. Three memory stores in the cognitive theory of multimedia learning are: sensory memory, working memory, long-term memory. For meaningful learning to occur in a multimedia environment, the learner must engage in five cognitive processes: selecting relevant words for processing in verbal working memory, selecting relevant images for processing in visual working memory, organizing selected words into a verbal model, organizing selected images into a pictorial model, and integrating the verbal and pictorial representations with each other and with relevant prior knowledge activated from long-term memory. The chapter also explores three demands on cognitive capacity during multimedia learning: extraneous processing, essential processing and generative processing.
  • 8 - The Split-Attention Principle in Multimedia Learning
    pp 206-226
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter presents an integrated model of text and picture comprehension (ITPC model) that takes into account that learners can use multiple sensory modalities combined with different forms of representation. Multimedia learning can occur in different forms. When learners understand texts and pictures, they construct multiple mental representations in their cognitive system. Research in cognitive psychology suggests that the architecture of the human cognitive system includes multiple memory systems. A common view proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin distinguishes three memory subsystems - sensory registers, working memory, and long-term memory with different functions and different constraints on processing texts and pictures. The ITPC model of text and picture comprehension provides a framework for the analysis of learning from multiple representations including spoken or written text, visual pictures, and sound pictures. Future research will clarify whether the ITPC model is a useful tool for the analysis of text-picture integration.
  • 9 - The Modality Principle in Multimedia Learning
    pp 227-246
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter presents a theory that is positioned at the third level, namely, the four-component instructional design model (4C/ ID) model, and discusses how this theory can be used to design multimedia learning environments for complex learning. It presents a general description of how people learn complex skills in environments that are built from the four components, how instructional control can be organized in these environments, and how different media can be used to implement each component and instructional control. The relationship between the four components and the assumed cognitive architecture is explained. Educational media and 22 multimedia principles are related to each of the four components and instructional control. The chapter reviews the contributions of the 4C/ID model to cognitive theory and instructional design, indicating the limitations of the model, and sketching directions for future research.
  • 11 - The Signaling (or Cueing) Principle in Multimedia Learning
    pp 263-278
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter is a cautionary description of 10 of the questionable principles that have developed and seem to be widely shared about multimedia learning. The updated questionable beliefs include the expectations that multimedia instruction: yields more learning than live instruction or older media; is more motivating than other instructional media; provides animated pedagogical agents that aid learning; accommodates different learning styles and so maximizes learning for more students; and facilitates student-managed constructivist and discovery approaches that are beneficial to learning. The more recent additions and the focus of this discussion are expectations that multimedia instruction benefits learning by providing autonomy and control over the sequencing of instruction; higher-order thinking skills; incidental learning of enriching information; interactivity; and an authentic learning environment and activities. Finally, multimedia is confounded with the content of instruction, such as critical and higher-order thinking skills.
  • 12 - Principles for Reducing Extraneous Processing in Multimedia Learning: Coherence, Signaling, Redundancy, Spatial Contiguity, and Temporal Contiguity Principles
    pp 279-315
  • View abstract

    Summary

    The term multimedia principle refers to the robust research finding that learning with words and pictures is more effective than learning with words alone. It should be noted that the multimedia principle refers generally to the (positive) impact of visual and verbal information on learning outcomes. However, basic principles and advanced principles of multimedia learning have been synthesized that provide a more nuanced approach to understanding how multimedia materials can be formatted for optimal impact and how learner strategies and processes can combine with multimedia materials to determine learning outcomes. That is, the multimedia principle provides a context for work that examines when, how, why, and under what conditions the multimedia principle applies. Research findings demonstrating the multimedia principle are consistent with the predictions of cognitive models of multimedia learning. Implications for instructional design and directions for future research are also discussed.
  • 13 - Principles for Managing Essential Processing in Multimedia Learning: Segmenting, Pre-training, and Modality Principles
    pp 316-344
  • View abstract

    Summary

    The split-attention principle states that in the design of instruction, including multimedia instruction, it is important to avoid materials that require learners to split their attention between, and mentally integrate, multiple sources of information. The sources of information should be both physically and temporally integrated in order to reduce unnecessary search for referents and so reduce extraneous cognitive load. Whether sources of information are intelligible in isolation, and whether the information is high in element interactivity, depends not only on the instructional material, but also on learner characteristics. Cognitive load theory, which gave rise to the split-attention principle, which is based on an understanding of human cognitive architecture, especially the relations between working and long term memory, provides theory-based and experimentally tested instructional guidelines. Those guidelines that are associated with the split-attention effect and that have been discussed in this chapter have the potential to substantially improve multimedia instruction.
  • 14 - Principles Based on Social Cues in Multimedia Learning: Personalization, Voice, Image, and Embodiment Principles
    pp 345-368
  • View abstract

    Summary

    The modality effect refers to a cognitive load learning effect that occurs when a mixed-mode (partly visual and partly auditory) presentation of information is more effective than a single-mode (either visual or auditory alone) presentation of the same information. For learning to occur, novel material must be organised and incorporated into long-term memory via a limited working memory. For instruction to be effective, it has to be designed in ways in which the limitations of working memory are overcome. As distraction and interference impose an additional memory load, their impact on the limited working memory system has to be taken into consideration in a multimedia context where the different formats of words and pictures allow for many possible ways of presenting information. The instructional predictions that flow from the experimental work on the modality effect are straightforward. From a practical perspective, the modality effect provides guidelines for effective instruction.
  • 15 - The Guided Discovery Learning Principle in Multimedia Learning
    pp 371-390
  • View abstract

    Summary

    The signaling principle, also known as the cueing principle, refers to the finding that people learn more deeply from a multimedia message when cues are added that guide attention to the relevant elements of the material or highlight the organization of the essential material. This chapter reviews the main findings from research on signaling in multimedia learning addressing the effects of incorporating cues into the text, the picture, or both. Text-based cues can consist of sentences that precede the learning materials and highlight their organization. Picture-based cues can consist, for instance, of arrows in which case they are extrinsic in the sense that an element is added to the picture. The chapter considers the design of cues based on eye movements and the effects of using eye movements as cues. The signaling principle may have some relation to other principles identified by the cognitive theory of multimedia learning as well.
  • 16 - The Worked Examples Principle in Multimedia Learning
    pp 391-412
  • View abstract

    Summary

    Extraneous overload occurs when essential cognitive processing (required to understand the essential material in a multimedia message) and extraneous cognitive processing (required to process extraneous material or to overcome confusing layout in a multimedia message) exceed the learner's cognitive capacity. According to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the five ways to handle an extraneous overload situation are to: eliminate extraneous material (coherence principle), insert signals emphasizing the essential material (signaling principle), eliminate redundant printed text (redundancy principle), place printed text next to corresponding parts of graphics (spatial contiguity principle), and eliminate the need to hold essential material in working memory for long periods of time (temporal contiguity principle). The research reviewed in this chapter shows that instructional designers should be sensitive to the limitations of working memory by being careful about the amount and layout of information that is presented to learners.
  • 17 - The Self-Explanation Principle in Multimedia Learning
    pp 413-432
  • View abstract

    Summary

    Essential overload occurs when the amount of essential cognitive processing required by the multimedia instructional message exceeds the learner's cognitive capacity. This chapter examines the research evidence concerning three principles of multimedia design aimed at minimizing the effects of essential overload: the segmenting principle, the pre-training principle, and the modality principle. According to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the three ways to handle an essential overload situation are to allow the learner to slow down the pace of presentation (segmenting principle), provide the learner with knowledge that reduces the need for cognitive processing of the presentation (pre-training principle), or off-load some of the visual information onto the auditory channel (modality principle). The research reviewed in the chapter shows that instructional designers should be sensitive to working memory constraints when presenting a complex multimedia lesson.
  • 18 - The Generative Drawing Principle in Multimedia Learning
    pp 433-448
  • View abstract

    Summary

    This chapter examines the research evidence concerning four principles of multimedia design that are based on social cues: the personalization, voice, image, and embodiment principles. The personalization principle is that people learn more deeply when the words in a multimedia presentation are in conversational style rather than formal style. The voice principle is that people learn more deeply when the words in a multimedia message are spoken in a human voice rather than in a machine voice. The image principle is that people do not necessarily learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when the speaker's image is on the screen rather than not on the screen. The embodiment principle is that people learn more deeply when on-screen agents display human like gesturing, movement, eye contact, and facial expressions. The research reviewed in the chapter shows that instructional designers should be sensitive to social considerations as well as cognitive considerations.