This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Ewout Frankema and Morten Jerven , “Writing History Backwards or Sideways: Towards a Consensus on African Population, 1850–2010,” Economic History Review, 67 (2014): 907–31
Daniel Domingues da Silva , David Eltis , Philip Misevich , and Olatunji Ojo , “The Diaspora of Africans Liberated from Slave Ships in the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of African History, 55 (2014): 369
James Epstein ’s Scandal of Colonial Rule: Power and Subversion in the British Atlantic during the Age of Revolution (Cambridge, 2012)
Children are studied in Gwyn Campbell , Suzanne Miers , and Joseph C. Miller (eds.), Child Slaves in the Modern World (Athens, OH, 2011).
Kevin Bales and Peter T. Robbins , “‘No One Shall Be Held in Slavery or Servitude’: A Critical Analysis of International Slavery Agreements and Concepts of Slavery,” Human Rights Review, 2 (2001): 21
Angela de Castro Gomes , “Labor Analogous to Slavery: The Constitution of a Problem,” Translating the Americas, 1 (2013): 119–40
Andrea Major , “‘The Slavery of East and West’: Abolitionists and ‘Unfree’ Labour in India, 1820–1833,” Slavery and Abolition, 31 (2010): 501–25
Andrea Major , “Enslaving Spaces: Domestic Slavery and the Spatial, Ideological and Practical Limits of Colonial Control in the Nineteenth-Century Rajput and Maratha States,” Indian Economic and Social History Review, 46 (2009): 318
Howard Temperley , “The Delegalization of Slavery in British India,” Slavery and Abolition, 21 (2000): 177–83
Alessandro Stanziani , “Serfs, Slaves, or Wage Earners? The Legal Status of Labour in Russia from a Comparative Perspective, from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Global History, 3 (2008): 185
Paul E. Lovejoy and Jan S. Hogendorn , Slow Death for Slavery: The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897–1936 (Cambridge, 1993), p. 261
B. D. Hopkins , “Race, Sex and Slavery: ‘Forced Labour’ in Central Asia and Afghanistan in the Early 19th Century,” Modern Asian Studies, 42 (2008): 669
Ray Jureidini and Nayla Moukarbel , “Female Sri Lankan Domestic Workers in Lebanon: A Case of ‘Contract Slavery’?” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30 (2004): 591
Elizabeth Frantz , “Jordan’s Unfree Workforce: State-Sponsored Bonded Labour in the Arab Region,” Journal of Development Studies, 49 (2013): 1072–87
Miranda Frances Spieler , Empire and Underworld: Captivity in French Guiana (Cambridge, MA, 2012)
Julia R. Pennington , A. Dwayne Ball , Ronald D. Hampton , et al., “The Cross-National Market in Human Beings,” Journal of Macromarketing, 29 (2009): 122–5
Ira L. Leeds , Patricia M. Engel , Kiersten S. Derby , et al., “Case Report: Two Cases of Restavek-Related Illness: Clinical Implications of Foster Neglect in Haiti,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 83 (2010): 1098
Jonathan Blagbrough , “Child Domestic Labour: A Modern Form of Slavery,” Children and Society, 22 (2008): 182–3
Hans van de Glind and Joost Kooijmans , “Modern-Day Child Slavery,” Children and Society, 22 (2008): 150
Gregory D. Smithers , Slave Breeding: Sex, Violence, and Memory in African American History (Gainesville, FL, 2012)
Alison K. Smith , “Freed Serfs without Free People: Manumission in Imperial Russia,” American Historical Review, 118 (2013): 1030–3
Robert Harms , Bernard K. Freamon , and David W. Blight (eds.), Indian Ocean Slavery in the Age of Abolition (New Haven, CT, 2013), pp. 27–8
Nicolas Brucato , Olivier Cassar , Laure Tonasso , et al., “The Imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American Population: Mitochondrial DNA, Y Chromosome and HTLV-1 Analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10 (2010): 1–19
Michael L. Deason , Antonio Salas , Simon P. Newman , et al., “Interdisciplinary Approach to the Demography of Jamaica,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12 (2012): 5
Wilson Araújo Silva , Maria Cátira Bortolini , Maria Paula Cruz Schneider , et al., “mtDNA Haplogroup Analysis of Black Brazilian and Sub-Saharan Populations: Implications for the Atlantic Slave Trade,” Human Biology, 78 (2006): 29–41
Richard B. Allen , “Satisfying the ‘Want for Labouring People’: European Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500–1850,” Journal of World History, 21 (2010): 45–73.
Richard B. Allen , “The Mascarene Slave-Trade and Labour Migration in the Indian Ocean during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,” Slavery and Abolition, 24 (2003): Table 3
David Northrup , “New Evidence of the French Slave Trade in the Bight of Benin,” Slavery and Abolition, 24 (2003): 64–5
Pedro Machado , “A Forgotten Corner of the Indian Ocean: Gujarati Merchants, Portuguese India and the Mozambique Slave-Trade, c.1730–1830,” Slavery and Abolition, 24 (2003): 17–32
Nicholas Thode Jensen , For the Health of the Enslaved: Slaves, Medicine and Power in the Danish West Indies, 1803–1848 (Copenhagen, 2012).
David Nicholls , Haiti in Caribbean Context: Ethnicity, Economy and Revolt (London, 1985).
Justin Roberts , however, has argued that amelioration began earlier. See Slavery and the Enlightenment in the British Atlantic, 1750–1807 (Cambridge, 2013)
Robert W. Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman , “Philanthropy at Bargain Prices: Notes on the Economics of Gradual Emancipation,” Journal of Legal Studies, 3 (1974): 377–401
Alvin O. Thompson , “‘African Recaptives’ under Apprenticeship in the British West Indies, 1807–1828,” Immigrants & Minorities, 9 (1990): 123–44
J. R. Ward , Poverty and Progress in the Caribbean, 1800–1960 (London, 1985), pp. 31–45
Lomarsh Roopnarine , “Re-Indenture, Repatriation and Remittances of Ex-Indentured Indians from Danish St. Croix to British India, 1863–1873,” Scandinavian Journal of History, 35 (2010): 247–267
Laird W. Bergad , The Comparative Histories of Slavery in Brazil, Cuba, and the United States (Cambridge, 2007).
David Martin Stark , Slave Families and the Hato Economy in Puerto Rico (Gainesville, FL, 2015).
David M. Stark , “A New Look at the African Slave Trade in Puerto Rico through the Use of Parish Registers: 1660–1815,” Slavery and Abolition, 30 (2009): 491–520
Laird W. Bergad , Fe Iglesias García , and Carmen Barcia , The Cuban Slave Market, 1790–1880 (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 40–1
Alejandro de la Fuente , “Slaves and the Creation of Legal Rights in Cuba: Coartación and Papel,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 87 (2007): 659–92
Seymour Drescher , Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge, 2009)
Laird W. Bergad , The Demographic and Economic History of Slavery in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1720–1888 (Cambridge, 1999).
Leslie Bethell , The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade: Britain, Brazil and the Slave Trade Question (Cambridge, 1970).
Sandra Graham , Caetana Says No: Women’s Stories from a Brazilian Slave Society (Cambridge, 2002).
Robin Law , “Ethnicity and the Slave Trade: ‘Lucumi’ and ‘Nagô’ as Ethnonyms in West Africa,” History in Africa, 24 (1997): 205–19
Maria Helena P. T. Machado , “From Slave Rebels to Strikebreakers: The Quilombo of Jabaquara and the Problem of Citizenship in Late-Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 86 (2006): 247–74
A very useful starting point is the recent collection of essays on slavery in the United States and Latin America: Robert Paquette and Mark Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Slavery in the Americas (New York, 2010). This contains excellent essays on many countries and topics of interest and provides a basic 173guide to both the history and historiography of slavery in the Americas. A magisterial study of slavery in world history are the four volumes by David Brion Davis, culminating in his recent The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Emancipation (New York, 2014). The major book on the history of blacks in America from start to date is the ninth edition of John Hope Franklin and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Black Americans (New York, 2010).
The current debate on the economics of slavery begins with the classic article by Alfred H. Conrad and John R. Meyer , “The Economics of Slavery in the Ante Bellum South,” Journal of Political Economy, 66 (1958): 95–130. A major work on various aspects of slavery as an economic institution was Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 2 vols. (Boston, MA, 1974), which became rather controversial and triggered numerous debates: see Paul A. David, Herbert G. Gutman, Richard Sutch, Peter Temin, and Gavin Wright, Reckoning with Slavery: A Critical Study in the Quantitative History of American Negro Slavery (New York, 1976); Herbert G. Gutman, Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of Time on the Cross (Urbana, IL, 1975); and Gavin Wright, Slavery and American Economic Development (Baton Rouge, LA, 2006). In turn, it was defended by Robert Fogel, Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery (New York, 1989).
For the end of slavery and its aftermath, see Robert Higgs , Competition and Coercion: Blacks in the American Economy, 1865–1914 (Cambridge, 1977); and Roger L. Ransom and Richard Sutch, One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation (Cambridge, 1977). For an excellent discussion of post-emancipation black economic developments, see Robert A. Margo, “Obama, Katrina and the Persistence of Racial Inequality,” Journal of Economic History, 76 (2016): 301–41.
Seymour Drescher , Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge, 2009)
Robert A. Margo , Race and Schooling in the South: 1880–1950: An Economic History (Chicago, IL, 1990)
William J. Collins , “When the Tide Turned: Immigration and the Delay of the Great Black Migration,” Journal of Economic History, 57 (1997): 607–32
Martin A. Klein , Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa (Cambridge, 1998). A fine account of the persistence and decline of slavery under colonial rule.
Paul E. Lovejoy and Jan S. Hogendorn , Slow Death for Slavery: The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897–1936 (Cambridge, 1993). Influential monograph.
Benedetta Rossi , From Slavery to Aid: Politics, Labour, and Ecology in the Nigerian Sahel, 1800–2000 (Cambridge, 2015). An incisive study of continuity and change in subsistence and recruitment on the edge of the Sahara.
John Thornton , Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1998)
Patrick Harries , “Slavery, Social Incorporation and Surplus Extraction: The Nature of Free and Unfree Labour in South-East Africa,” Journal of African History, 22 (1981): 309–30
W. G. Clarence-Smith , “Slaves, Commoners and Landlords in Bulozi, c. 1875 to 1906,” Journal of African History, 20 (1979): 230
Martin Klein , Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 252–6
Walter Rodney , “Slavery and Other Forms of Social Oppression on the Upper Guinea Coast in the Context of the Atlantic Slave Trade,” Journal of African History, 7 (1966): 431–43
Paul E. Lovejoy , “Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate,” Journal of African History, 19 (1978): 341–68
Paul E. Lovejoy and David Richardson , “British Abolition and Its Impact on Slave Prices along the Atlantic Coast of Africa, 1783–1850,” Journal of Economic History, 55 (1995): 113
Frederick Cooper , “The Problem of Slavery in African Studies,” Journal of African History, 20 (1979): 103–25
H. J. Nieboer , Slavery as an Industrial System (The Hague, 1900; revised edn. 1910)
Evsey D. Domar , “The Causes of Slavery or Serfdom: A Hypothesis,” Journal of Economic History, 30 (1970): 18–32
Gareth Austin , “Resources, Techniques and Strategies South of the Sahara: Revising the Factor Endowments Perspective on African Economic Development, 1500–2000,” Economic History Review, 61 (2008): 587–624
Donald Crummey , “Abyssinian Feudalism,” Past and Present, 89 (1980): 115–38
David Northrup , “Nineteenth-Century Patterns of Slavery and Economic Growth in Southeastern Nigeria,” International Journal of African Historical Studies, 12 (1979): 1–16
Gareth Austin , “Cash Crops and Freedom: Export Agriculture and the Decline of Slavery in Colonial West Africa,” International Review of Social History, 54 (2009): 1–37
Dylan Penningroth , “The Claims of Slaves and Ex-Slaves to Family and Property: A Transatlantic Comparison,” American Historical Review, 112 (2007): 1039–69
Ehud R. Toledano , “Abolition and Anti-Slavery in the Ottoman Empire: A Case to Answer?” in W. Mulligan and M. Bric (eds.), A Global History of Anti-Slavery Politics in the Nineteenth Century (Basingstoke, 2013), pp. 117–36.
Ehud R. Toledano , “Enslavement in the Ottoman Empire in the Early Modern Period,” in David Eltis and Stanley L. Engerman (eds.), Cambridge World History of Slavery, Vol. 3 (1420–1804) (Cambridge, 2011), pp. 25–46
Ehud R. Toledano , “Abolition and Anti-slavery in the Ottoman Empire: A Case to Answer?” in W. Mulligan and M. Bric (eds.), A Global History of Anti-Slavery Politics in the Nineteenth Century (Basingstoke, 2013), pp. 117–36
Esma Durugönül , “The Invisibility of Turks of African Origin and the Construction of Turkish Cultural Identity: The Need for a New Historiography,” Journal of Black Studies, 33 (2003): 289
Alison Frank , “The Children of the Desert and the Laws of the Sea: Austria, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and the Mediterranean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century,” American Historical Review, 117 (2012): 412, 426, 433–4
Ryan Gingeras , Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire, 1912–1923 (Oxford, 2009), pp. 24–5
Seteney Shami , “Prehistories of Globalization: Circassian Identity in Motion,” Public Culture, 12 (2000): 177–204
Malte Fuhrmann , “Down and Out on the Quays of Izmir: ‘European’ Musicians, Innkeepers, and Prostitutes in the Ottoman Port-Cities,” Mediterranean Historical Review, 24 (2009): 169–85
Sugata Bose , A Hundred Horizons. The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire (Cambridge, MA, 2006).
William S. Atwell , “Volcanism and Short-Term Climatic Change in East Asian and World History, c. 1200–1699,” Journal of World History, 12 (2001): 39–40
Gerda Lerner , “Women and Slavery,” Slavery and Abolition, 4 (1983): 179
Gwyn Campbell , “The State and Pre-Colonial Demographic History: The Case of Nineteenth Century Madagascar,” Journal of African History, 32 (1991): 415–45
Moses D. E. Nwulia , “The ‘Apprenticeship’ System in Mauritius: Its Character and Its Impact on Race Relations in the Immediate Post-Emancipation Period, 1839–1879,” African Studies Review, 21 (1978): 89–101
David Feeny , “The Decline of Property Rights in Man in Thailand, 1800–1913,” Journal of Economic History, 49 (1989): 285–96
Abdel Razzak Takriti , Monsoon Revolution. Republicans, Sultans, and Empires in Oman, 1965–1976 (Oxford, 2013)
Gwyn Campbell , Suzanne Miers , and Joseph Miller (eds.), Children in Slavery through the Ages (Athens, OH, 2009)
Kaushik Basu , “Child Labour: Causes, Consequences, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labour Standards,” Journal of Economic Literature, 37 (1999): 1083–119
Ravi Ahuja , “Labour Relations in Early Colonial Context: Madras, c. 1750–1800,” Modern Asian Studies, 36 (2002): 793–826.
Susan Bayly , Caste, Society, and Politics in India, from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (Cambridge, 1999).
Gyan Prakash , Bonded Histories. Genealogies of Labor Servitude in Colonial India (Cambridge, 1990).
Seymour Drescher , Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge, 2009)
Andrea Major , “The Slavery of East and West: Abolitionists and ‘Unfree Labor’ in India, 1820–1833,” Slavery and Abolition, 31 (2010): 501–25
Susan Bayly , Caste, Society, and Politics in India, from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (Cambridge, 1999)
Markus Vink , “‘The World’s Oldest Trade’: Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century,” Journal of World History, 14 (2003): 131–77
Ravi Ahuja , “Labour Relations in Early Colonial Context: Madras, c. 1750–1800,” Modern Asian Studies, 36 (2002): 793–826
Aisha K. Finch , Rethinking Slave Rebellion in Cuba: La Escalera and the Insurgencies of 1841–1844 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2015).
Nathaniel Millett , The Maroons of Prospect Bluff and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World (Gainesville, FL, 2013).
David Richardson , “Shipboard Revolts, African Coastal Violence, and the Structure of the Atlantic Slave Trade,” William and Mary Quarterly, 58 (2001): 69–92.
Suzanne Miers , “Slave Rebellion and Resistance in the Aden Protectorate in the Mid-Twentieth Century,” Slavery and Abolition, 25 (2004): 80–9
Kwasi Konadu , The Akan Diaspora in the Americas (Oxford, 2010).
Stephan Palmié , The Cooking of History: How Not to Study Afro-Cuban Religion (Chicago, IL, 2013).
Laird W. Bergard , The Comparative Histories of Slavery in Brazil, Cuba, and the United States (New York, 2007), pp. 118–29
Mariza de Carvalho Soares , People of Faith: Slavery and African Catholics in Eighteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro (Durham, NC, 2011), pp. 67–11 and 223–39
Cécile Fromont , “Dancing for the King of Congo from Early Modern Central Africa to Slavery-Era Brazil,” Colonial Latin American Review, 22 (2013): 184–208
Camillia Cowling , “Negotiating Freedom: Women of Colour and the Transition to Free Labour in Cuba, 1870–1886,” Slavery and Abolition, 26 (2005): 377–91, 378
John Garrigus , Before Haiti: Race and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue (New York, 2006).
Seymour Drescher and Pieter C. Emmer (eds.), Who Abolished Slavery? Slave Revolts and Abolitionism: A Debate with João Pedro Marques (New York, 2010)
Bruce Hall , A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960. Cambridge, 2011.
Martin Klein , Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa (Cambridge, 1998).
Thomas Vernet , “East Africa: Slave Migrations,” in Immanuel Ness (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration (Malden, MA, 2013), Vol. 3, pp. 1283–90.
Kenneth M. Cuno , “African Slaves in 19th Century Rural Egypt,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 41 (2009): 186
Barbara Cooper , “Reflections on Slavery, Female Seclusion, and Female Labor in the Maradi Region of Niger in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries,” Journal of African History, 35 (1994): 61–78
Thomas Vernet , “East Africa: Slave Migrations,” in Immanuel Ness (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration (Malden, 2013), Vol. 3, pp. 1283–90
Shamil Jeppie , “Leadership and Loyalties: The Imams of Nineteenth Century Colonial Cape Town, South Africa,” Journal of Religion in Africa, 26 (1996): 153
John E. Mason , “‘A Faith for Ourselves’: Slavery, Sufism, and Conversion to Islam at the Cape,” South African Historical Journal, 46 (2002): 3–24
Seymour Drescher , Capitalism and Antislavery: British Mobilization in Comparative Perspective (Oxford, 1986).
Richard Huzzey , Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (Ithaca, NY, 2012).
John Donoghue , “‘Out of the Land of Bondage: The English Revolution and the Atlantic Origins of Abolition,” American Historical Review, 115 (2010): 943–74
Seymour Drescher , From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery (New York, 1999), quotation on pp. 211–12
Martti Koskenniemi , The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870–1960 (Cambridge, 2001)
Bardo Fassbender and Anne Peter (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law (Oxford, 2012), esp. chs. 5, 8, 24, 37, and 38
Howard Temperley , “The Delegalization of Slavery in British India,” in Howard Temperley (ed.), After Slavery: Emancipation and Its Discontents (London, 2000), pp. 169–87
Richard Huzzey , Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (Ithaca, NY, 2012)
David V. Botsman , “Freedom without Slavery? ‘Coolies’, Prostitutes and Outcasts in Meiji Japan’s ‘Emancipation Movement,’” American Historical Review, 116 (2011): 1323–47
Seymour Drescher , Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (New York, 2009)
Osmane K. Poer-Green , Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle against the Colonization Movement (New York, 2014)
Beverley C. Tomek , Colonization and Its Discontents: Emancipation, Emigration and Antislavery in Pennsylvania (New York, 2011)
David Brion Davis , “The Emergence of Immediatism in British and American Antislavery Thought,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 49 (1962): 41–59
Kenneth Greenberg , Nat Turner: A Slave Rebellion in History and Memory (New York, 2003)
Kathryn Kish Sklar and James Brewer Stewart (eds.), Women’s Rights and Transatlantic Antislavery in the Era of Emancipation (New Haven, CT, 2007)
S. A. Eddie , Freedom’s Price: Serfdom, Subjection and Reform in Prussia 1648–1848 (Cambridge, 2013).
Francis W. Wcislo , Reforming Rural Russia: State, Local Society and National Politics 1855–1914 (Princeton, NJ, 1990).
Sunil Kumar , “Bandagi and Naukari: Studying Transitions in Political Culture and Service Under the North Indian Sultanates, 13th–16th Centuries,” in Samira Sheikh and Francesca Orsini (eds.), After Timur Left: Culture and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century North India (Delhi, 2014), pp. 60–110
Durba Ghosh , Sex and the Family in Colonial India (Cambridge, 2006)
Shihan de Silva Jayasuriya , “Recruiting Africans to the British Regiments in Ceylon: Spillover Effects of Abolition in the Atlantic,” African and Asian Studies, 10 (2011): 15–31
Edward Alpers , “On Becoming a British Lake: Piracy, Slaving and British Imperialism in the Indian Ocean During the First Half of the Nineteenth Century,” in Robert Harms , Bernard K. Freamon , and David W. Blight (eds.) Indian Ocean Slavery in the Age of Abolition (New Haven, CT, 2013), pp. 45–58
Andrea Major , Slavery, Abolitionism and Empire in India, 1772–1843 (Liverpool, 2012)
Rupa Viswanath , The Pariah Problem: Caste, Religion and the Social in Modern India (New York, 2014)
Stanley Engerman , “Comparative Approaches to the Ending of Slavery,” Slavery and Abolition, special issue on “Emancipation and Its Discontent,” 21 (2000): 297
Pieter Emmer , “‘A Spirit of Independence’ or Lack of Education for the Market? Freedmen and Asian Indentured Labourers in the Post-Emancipation Caribbean, 1834–1917,” Slavery and Abolition, 21 (2000): 165
Dale Tomich , “Une petite guinée: Provision Ground and Plantation in Martinique, 1830–1848,” Slavery and Abolition, 12 (1991): 68–91
Peter Blanchard , “An Institution Defended: Slavery and the English Invasions of Buenos Aires in 1806 and 1807,” Slavery and Abolition, 35 (2014): 253–72
Miranda Frances Spieler , “The Destruction of Liberty in French Guiana: Law, Identity, and the Meaning of Legal Space, 1794–1830,” Social History, 36 (2011): 260–79
Rebecca J. Scott and Jean M. Hébrard , Freedom Papers: An Atlantic Odyssey in the Age of Emancipation (Cambridge, MA, 2012), ch. 3
Robert E. Conrad , “Neither Slave Nor Free: The Emancipados of Brazil, 1818–1868,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 53 (1973): 50–70
George Reid Andrews , “Black and White Workers: São Paulo, Brazil, 1888–1928,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 68 (1988): 491–524, quote is on p. 89
Jesse Hoffnung-Garskof , “To Abolish the Law of Castes: Merit, Manhood and the Problem of Colour in the Puerto Rican Liberal Movement, 1873–1892,” Social History, 36 (2011): 313
Astrid Cubano-Iguina , “Political Culture and Male Mass-Party Formation in Late-Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 78 (1998): 631–2
Ileana Rodríguez-Silva , “Abolition, Race, and the Politics of Gratitude in Late-Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 93 (2013): 621–57
Seymour Drescher , “Brazilian Abolition in Comparative Perspective,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 68 (August 1988): 429–60.
Sandra Lauderdale Graham , “The Vintem Riot and Political Culture: Rio de Janeiro, 1880,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 60 (1980): 431–49
Celso Castilho , “Performing Abolitionism, Enacting Citizenship: The Social Construction of Political Rights in 1880s Recife, Brazil,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 93 (2013): 377–409
Roger A. Kittleson , “‘Campaign All of Peace and Charity’: Gender and the Politics of Abolitionism in Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1879–1888,” Slavery and Abolition, 22 (2001): 83–108
Bruce E. Baker and Brian Kelly (eds.), After Slavery: Race, Labor, and Citizenship in the Reconstruction South (Gainesville, FL, 2013).
Peter A. Coclanis , “In Retrospect: Ransom and Sutch’s One Kind of Freedom,” Reviews in American History 28 (2000): 478–89.
Thavolia Glymph , Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household (New York, 2008).
Robert Tracy McKenzie , One South or Many? Plantation Belt and Upcountry in Civil War-Era Tennessee (New York, 1994).
Roger L. Ransom and Richard Sutch , One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation, 2nd edn. (New York, 2001; 1st edn., 1977).
Martin Ruef , Between Slavery and Capitalism: The Legacy of Emancipation in the American South (Princeton, NJ, 2014).
Thomas C. Cochran , “Did the Civil War Retard Industrialization?” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 48 (1961): 197–210
Thomas L. Haskell , “Capitalism and the Origins of the Humanitarian Sensibility,” American Historical Review, 90 (1985): 339–61 and 547–66
Claudia D. Goldin and Frank D. Lewis , “The Economic Cost of the American Civil War: Estimates and Implications,” Journal of Economic History, 35 (1975): 299–326
Claudia D. Goldin and Frank D. Lewis , “The Post-Bellum Recovery of the South and the Cost of the Civil War: Comment,” Journal of Economic History, 38 (1978): 487–92
Peter Temin , “The Post-Bellum Recovery of the South and the Cost of the Civil War,” Journal of Economic History, 36 (1976): 898–907
Peter Temin , “Reply to Goldin and Lewis,” Journal of Economic History, 38 (1978): 493
J. David Hacker , “A Census-Based Count of the Civil War Dead,” Civil War History, 57 (2011): 307–48
Adam Fairclough , “Was the Grant of Black Suffrage a Political Error? Reconsidering the Views of John W. Burgess, William A. Dunning, and Eric Foner on Congressional Reconstruction,” Journal of the Historical Society, 12 (2012): 155–88
Robert Tracy McKenzie , One South or Many? Plantation Belt and Upcountry in Civil War-Era Tennessee (Cambridge, 1994)
George W. Pierson , “The M-Factor in American History,” American Quarterly, 14 (1962): 275–89
David L. Carlton , “The Revolution from Above: The National Market and the Beginnings of Industrialization in North Carolina,” Journal of American History, 77 (1990): 445–75
David L. Carlton and Peter A. Coclanis , “The Uninventive South? A Quantitative Look at Region and American Inventiveness,” Technology and Culture, 36 (1995): 220–44
Peter A. Coclanis , “Distant Thunder: The Creation of a World Market in Rice and the Transformations It Wrought,” American Historical Review, 98 (1993): 1050–78
Peter A. Coclanis , “White Rice: The Midwestern Origins of the Modern Rice Industry in the United States,” in Francesca Bray , Peter A. Coclanis , Edda L. Fields-Black , and Dagmar Schäfer (eds.), Rice: Global Networks and New Histories (Cambridge, 2015), pp. 291–317
Richard Bensel , The Political Economy of American Industrialization, 1877–1900 (Cambridge, 2000)
Angela Schottenhammer , “Slaves and Forms of Slavery in Late Imperial China (Seventeenth to Early Twentieth Centuries),” Slavery and Abolition, 24 (2003): 143–54.
Norma A. Kutcher , “Unspoken Collusions: The Empowerment of Yuanming Yuan Eunuchs in the Qianlong Period,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 70 (2010): 449–95.
Gail Herhatter , Women in China’s Long Twentieth Century (Berkeley, CA, 2007).
Sau-Chu Alison Yeung , “Fornication in the Late Qing Legal Reforms: Moral Teachings and Legal Principles,” Modern China, 29 (2003): 297–328.
Susan L. Glosser , Chinese Visions of Family and State, 1915–1953 (Berkeley, CA, 2003).
W. T. Rowe , “Social Stability and Social Change,” in W. J. Peterson (ed.), The Cambridge History of China (Cambridge, 2002), Vol. 9, pp. 473–562
A. M. McKeown , “Chinese Emigration in Global Context,” Journal of Global History 5 (2010): 95–124
Clare Anderson , Convicts in the Indian Ocean: Transportation from South Asia to Mauritius, 1815–1853 (London, 2000).
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