Skip to main content
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge World History
    • Online ISBN: 9780511978807
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The development of agriculture has often been described as the most important change in all of human history. Volume 2 of The Cambridge World History explores the origins and impact of agriculture and agricultural communities, and also discusses issues associated with pastoralism and hunter-fisher-gatherer economies. To capture the patterns of this key change across the globe, the volume uses an expanded timeframe from 12,000 BCE–500 CE, beginning with the Neolithic and continuing into later periods. Scholars from a range of disciplines, including archaeology, historical linguistics, biology, anthropology, and history, trace common developments in the more complex social structures and cultural forms that agriculture enabled, such as sedentary villages and more elaborate foodways, and then present a series of regional overviews accompanied by detailed case studies from many different parts of the world, including Southwest Asia, South Asia, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, and Europe.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

E.B.Banning, Housing Neolithic farmers.Near Eastern Archaeology, 66 (2003), 421.

S.C.Agarwal, and B.A. Glencross. Social Bioarchaeology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

L.Barton, , S.D. Newsome, F.-H. Chen, et al. ‘Agricultural origins and the isotopic identity of domestication in northern China.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (2009), 5523–8.

R.E.Blanton, and L. Fargher. Collective Action in the Formation of Pre-modern States. New York: Springer, 2008.

G.Barker, et al. ‘The “human revolution” in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity of anatomically modern humans, and of behavioural modernity, at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo).Journal of Human Evolution, 52 (2007), 243–61.

S.Badenhorst, Descent of Iron Age farmers in southern Africa during the last 2000 years.African Archaeological Review, 27 (2010), 87106.

E.Asouti, and D.Q. Fuller. ‘A contextual approach to the emergence of agriculture in Southwest Asia: reconstructing early Neolithic plant-food production.Current Anthropology, 54 (2013), 299345.

E.B.Banning, The Neolithic period: triumphs of architecture, agriculture, and art.Near Eastern Archaeology, 61 (1998), 188237.

V.G.Childe, Man Makes Himself. London: Watts, 1936.

B.K.Hanks, and K. Linduff (eds.). Social Complexity in Prehistoric Eurasia. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

P.Bogucki, Tactical and strategic settlements in the early Neolithic of lowland Poland.’ Journal of Anthropological Research, 35 (1979), 238–46.

E.Boaretto, et al. ‘Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan province, China.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (2009), 9595–600.

G.Barker, and M. Richards. ‘Foraging–farming transitions in island Southeast Asia.Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 20 (2013), 256–80.

R.Barrett, , C.W. Kuzawa, T. McDade, and G.J. Armelagos. ‘Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: the third epidemiological transition.Annual Review of Anthropology, 27 (1998), 247–71.

184M.Balasse, , S.H. Ambrose, A.B. Smith, and T.D. Price, ‘The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the south-western cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel.Journal of Archaeological Science, 29 (2002), 917–32.

A.F.C.Holl, Background to the Ghana empire: archaeological investigations on the transition to statehood in the Dhar Tichitt region (Mauritania).Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 4 (1985), 73115.

V.GChilde, . ‘The urban revolution.Town Planning Review, 21 (1950), 317.

M.Boyd, , T. Varney, C. Surette, and J. Surette. ‘Reassessing the northern limit of maize consumption in North America: stable isotope, plant microfossil, and trace element content of carbonized food residue.Journal of Archaeological Science, 35 (2008), 2545–56.

D.Q.Fuller, Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: a working synthesis.Journal of World Prehistory, 20 (2006), 186.

G.Barker, The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why did Foragers Become Farmers? Oxford University Press, 2006.

W.Creamer, , J. Haas, and A. Ruiz. ‘Archaeological investigation of late Archaic sites (3000–1800 bc) in the Pativilca valley, Peru.Fieldiana Anthropology, 40 (2007), 178.

G.L.Barnes, Landscape and subsistence in Japanese history.’ In I.P. Martini and W. Chesworth (eds.), Landscapes and Societies. New York: Springer, 2010. 321–40.

M.Brickley, and R. Ives. The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease. London: Academic Press, 2008.

123T.Brown, and K. Brown. Biomolecular Archaeology: An Introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

G.L.Cowgill, Origins and development of urbanism: archaeological perspectives.Annual Review of Anthropology, 33 (2004), 525–42.

G.Crawford, Advances in understanding early agriculture in Japan.Current Anthropology, Supplement 4, 52 (2011), S331–45.

N.Boivin, Landscape and cosmology in the south Indian Neolithic: new perspectives on the Deccan ashmounds.Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 14 (2004), 235–57.

T.D.Dillehay, From Foraging to Farming in the Andes: New Perspectives on Food Production and Social Organization. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

B.Bramanti, , M.G. Thomas, W. Haak, et al. ‘Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe’s first farmers.Science, 326 (2009), 137–40.

D.Q.Fuller, Harappan seeds and agriculture: some considerations.Antiquity, 75 (2001), 410–14.

R.Blust, The prehistory of the Austronesian-speaking peoples: a view from language.Journal of World Prehistory, 9/4 (1995), 453510.

R.Bendrey, Some like it hot: environmental determinism and the pastoral economies of the later prehistoric Eurasian steppe.Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, 1 (2011), 116.

O.Bar-Yosef, The Natufian culture in the Levant: threshold to the origins of agriculture.Evolutionary Anthropology, 6 (1998), 159–77.

L.Liu, The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press, 2004.

D.Q.Fuller, Finding plant domestication in the Indian subcontinent.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S347–62.

K.Mizoguchi, The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

W.Edwards, Buried discourse: the Toro site and Japanese national identity in the early postwar period.Journal of Japanese Studies, 17 (1991), 123.

L.Liu, and X. Chen. The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

513K.C.MacDonald, Betwixt Tichitt and the IND: the pottery of the Faïta Facies, Tichitt tradition.Azania, 46 (2011), 4969.

S.Bortenschlager, and K. Öggl (eds.). The Iceman and his Natural Environment: Palaeobotanical Results. The Man in the Ice 4. Vienna and New York: Springer, 2000.

G.Brandt, , W. Haak, C.J. Adler, et al. ‘Ancient DNA reveals key stages in the formation of central European mitochondrial genetic diversity.Science, 342 (2013), 257–61.

K.Chandler-Ezell, , D.M. Pearsall, and J.A. Zeidler. ‘Root and tuber phytoliths and starch grains document manioc (Manihot esculenta), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and llerén (Calathea sp.) at the Real Alto site, Ecuador.Economic Botany, 60 (2006), 103–20.

T.D.Dillehay, , H.H. Eiling, Jr, and J. Rossen. ‘Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102 (2005), 17241–4.

P.Bellwood, Asian farming diasporas? Agriculture, languages, and genes in China and Southeast Asia.’ In M. Stark (ed.), Archaeology of Asia. London: Blackwell, 2006. 96118.

M.D.Frachetti, et al. ‘Earliest direct evidence for broomcorn millet and wheat in the Central Eurasia steppe region.’ Antiquity, 84 (2010), 9931010.

J.E.Buikstra, and C.A. Roberts (eds.). The Global History of Paleopathology: Pioneers and Prospects. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

G.Rollefson, The greening of the badlands: pastoral nomads and the “conclusion” of Neolithization in the southern Levant.’ Paléorient, 37/1 (2011), 101–9.

M.J.Heckenberger, , J.C. Russell, C. Fausto, et al. ‘Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.Science, 321 (2008), 1214–17.

M.S.Copley, , R. Berstan, S.N. Dudd, et al. ‘Direct chemical evidence for widespread dairying in prehistoric Britain.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (2003), 1524–9.

P.Brotherton, , W. Haak, J. Templeton, et al. ‘Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans.Nature Communications, 4 (2013), 1764.

D.Q.Fuller, Neolithic cultures.’ In D.M. Pearsall (ed.), Encyclopedia of Archaeology. New York: Academic Press, 2008. 756–68.

C.H.Brown, Prehistoric chronology of the common bean in the New World: the linguistic evidence.’ In J.E. Staller and M.C. Carrasco (eds.), Pre-Columbian Foodways in Mesoamerica. New York: Springer, 2010. 273–89.

T.D.Dillehay, , J. Rossen, T.C. Andres, and D.E. Williams. ‘Preceramic adoption of peanut, squash, and cotton in northern Peru.Science, 316 (2007), 1890–3.

D.Q.Fuller, South Asia: archaeology.’ In I. Ness and P. Bellwood (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, vol. i. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

334X.Liu, , H.V. Hunt, and M.K. Jones. ‘River valleys and foothills: changing archaeological perceptions of North China’s earliest farms.Antiquity, 83 (2009), 8295.

D.Q.Fuller, Pathways to Asian civilizations: tracing the origins and spread of rice and rice cultures.Rice, 4 (2011), 7892.

A.Chamberlain, Demography in Archaeology. Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

G.Kron, Food production.’ In W. Schiedel (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Economy. Cambridge University Press, 2012. 156–74.

D.Q.Fuller, , T. Denham, M. Arroyo-Kalin, et al. ‘Convergent evolution and parallelism in plant domestication revealed by an expanding archaeological record.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (2014), 6147–52.

P.Bogucki, and R. Grygiel. ‘The household cluster at Brześć Kujawski 3: small-site methodology in the Polish lowlands.World Archaeology, 13 (1981), 5972.

X.Liu, , M.K. Jones, Z. Zhao, G. Liu, and T.C. O’Connell. ‘The earliest evidence of millet as a staple crop: new light on Neolithic foodways in North China.American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149 (2012), 238–90.

K.C.MacDonald, , R. Vernet, M. Martinon-Torres, and D.Q. Fuller. ‘Dhar Néma: from early agriculture to metallurgy in southeastern Mauritania.Azania, 44 (2009), 348.

R.P.Evershed, , S. Payne, A.G. Sherratt, et al. ‘Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding.Nature, 455 (2008), 528–31.

P.Bogucki, and R. Grygiel. ‘Early farmers of the North European Plain.Scientific American, 248/4 (1983), 104–12.

R.Braidwood, The agricultural revolution.Scientific American, 203 (1960), 130–41.

N.Fijn, Living with Herds: Human–Animal Coexistence in Mongolia. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

C.Ehret, Linguistic archaeology.African Archaeological Review, 29/2 (2012), 109–30.

T.P.Denham, Archaeological evidence for mid-Holocene agriculture in the interior of Papua New Guinea: a critical review.Archaeology in Oceania, 38 (2003), 159–76.

P.G.Johansen, Landscape, monumental architecture, and ritual: a reconsideration of the south Indian ashmounds.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 23 (2004), 309–30.

C.E.Peterson, and G. Shelach. ‘Jiangzhai: social and economic organization of a middle Neolithic Chinese village.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 31 (2012), 265301.

T.P.Denham, Early agriculture and plant domestication in New Guinea and island Southeast Asia.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S379–95.

K.W.Hillig, Genetic evidence for speciation in cannabis (Cannabaceae).Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 52 (2005), 161–80.

G.Shelach, Economic adaptation, community structure, and sharing strategies of households at early sedentary communities in northeast China.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 25 (2006), 318–45.

P.Bogucki, , D. Nalepka, R. Grygiel, and B. Nowaczyk. ‘Multiproxy environmental archaeology of Neolithic settlements at Osłonki, Poland, 5500–4000 bc.Environmental Archaeology, 17/1 (2012), 4565.

M.F.Deguilloux, , R. Leahy, M.H. Pemonge, and S. Rottiér. ‘European Neolithization and ancient DNA: an assessment.Evolutionary Anthropology, 21 (2012), 2437.

M.Donohue, and T.P. Denham. ‘Farming and language in island Southeast Asia: reframing Austronesian history.Current Anthropology, 51 (2010), 223–56.

K.D.Morrison, and L.L. Junker (eds.). Forager-Traders in South and Southeast Asia: Long-Term Histories. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

P.J.Munson, Archaeology and the prehistoric origins of the Ghana empire.Journal of African History, 21 (1980), 457–66.

J.M.Marston, Archaeological markers of agricultural risk management.’ Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 30 (2011), 190205.

C.Gamble, , W. Davies, P. Pettitt, L. Hazelwood, and M. Richards. ‘The archaeological and genetic foundations of the European population during the late Glacial: implications for “agricultural thinking”.Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 15 (2005), 193223.

K.V.Flannery, and J. Marcus. The Creation of Inequality: How our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery and Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.

H.V.Hunt, , M.G. Campana, M.C. Laws, et al. ‘Genetic diversity and phylogeography of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) across Eurasia.Molecular Ecology, 20 (2011), 4756–71.

P.Gerbault, , A. Liebert, Y. Itan, et al. ‘Evolution of lactase persistence: an example of human niche construction.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 366 (2011), 863–77.

T.Ingold, Hunters, Pastoralists and Ranchers. Cambridge University Press, 1980.

M.Hudson, Rice, bronze and chieftains: an archaeology of Yayoi ritual.Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 19 (1992), 139–89.

T.P.Denham, Envisaging early agriculture in the highlands of New Guinea: landscapes, plants and practices.World Archaeology, 37 (2005), 290306.

E.Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

M.Ould Khattar, Les sites Gangara, la fin de la culture de Tichitt et l’origine de Ghana.Journal des Africanistes, 65 (1995), 3141.

K.V.Flannery, The origins of the village revisited: from nuclear to extended households.American Antiquity, 67 (2002), 417–33.

Z.Zhao, New archaeobotanic data for the study of the origins of agriculture in China.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S295–304.

H.V.Hunt, , M.V. Linden, X. Liu, et al. ‘Millets across Eurasia: chronology and context of early records of the genera Panicum and Setaria from archaeological sites in the Old World.Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17 (2008), 518.

242J.Diamond, and P. Bellwood. ‘Farmers and their languages: the first expansions.Science, 300 (2003), 597603.

H.J.Greenfield, The secondary products revolution: the past, the present and the future.World Archaeology, 42 (2010), 2954.

R.Grygiel, and P. Bogucki. ‘Early farmers in north-central Europe: 1989–1994 excavations at Osłonki, Poland.Journal of Field Archaeology, 24 (1997), 161–78.

H.V.Hunt, et al. ‘Waxy phenotype evolution in the allotetraploid cereal broomcorn millet: mutations at the GBSSI locus in their functional and phylogenetic context.’ Molecular and Biological Evolution, 30 (2013), 109–22.

Y.Itan, , A. Powell, M.A. Beaumont, J. Burger, and M.G. Thomas. ‘The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.PLoS Computational Biology, 5 (2009), e1000491.

M.Hudson, and G. Barnes. ‘Yoshinogari: a Yayoi settlement in northern Kyushu.Monumenta Nipponica, 46 (1991), 211–35.

J.R.Harlan, Crops and Man. 2nd edn. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, 1992.

D.R.Piperno, The origins of plant cultivation and domestication in the New World tropics: patterns, process, and new developments.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S56–78.

D.Gifford-Gonzalez, and O. Hanotte, ‘Domesticating animals in Africa: implications of genetic and archaeological findings.Journal of World Prehistory, 24 (2011), 123.

M.K.Jones, , H.V. Hunt, E. Lightfoot, et al. ‘Food globalization in prehistory.World Archaeology, 43 (2011), 665–75.

S.K.McIntosh, Modeling political organization in large-scale settlement clusters: a case study from the inland Niger delta, Mali.’ In S.K. McIntosh (ed.), Beyond Chiefdoms: Pathways to Complexity in Africa. Cambridge University Press, 1999. 6679.

C.Higham, , X. Guangmao, and L. Qiang. ‘The prehistory of a friction zone: first farmers and hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia.’ Antiquity, 85 (2011), 529–43.

R.King, and P. Underhill. ‘Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages.Antiquity, 76 (2002), 707–14.

D.Q.Fuller, , E. Harvey, and L. Qin. ‘Presumed domestication? Evidence for wild rice cultivation and domestication in the fifth millennium bc of the lower Yangtze region.Antiquity, 81 (2007), 316–31.

B.Mutin, Cultural dynamics in southern Middle-Asia in the fifth and fourth millennia bc: a reconstruction based on ceramic traditions.Paléorient, 38 (2012), 159–84.

Y.V.Kuzmin, Two trajectories in the Neolithization of Eurasia: pottery versus agriculture (spatiotemporal patterns).Radiocarbon, 55 (2013), 1304–13.

M.Lacan, , C. Keyser, F.X. Ricaut, et al. ‘Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (2011), 18255–9.

D.R.Piperno, Prehistoric human occupation and impacts on neotropical forest landscapes during the late Pleistocene and early/middle Holocene.’ In M.B. Bush and J.R. Flenley (eds.), Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. Berlin and New York: Springer, 2007. 193218.

W.Lorkiewicz, Nonalimentary tooth use in the Neolithic population of the Lengyel culture in central Poland (4600–4000 bc).American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144 (2011), 538–51.

B.H.Menze, and J.A. Ur. ‘Mapping patterns of long-term settlement in northern Mesopotamia at a large scale.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 778–87.

D.Hofmann, and J. Smyth (eds.). Tracking the Neolithic House in Europe: Sedentism, Architecture, and Practice. New York: Springer, 2013.

T.P.Denham, , J. Golson, and P.J. Hughes. ‘Reading early agriculture at Kuk (phases 1–3), Wahgi valley, Papua New Guinea: the wetland archaeological features.Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 70 (2004), 259–98.

444C.L.King, , A. Bentley, C. Higham, et al. ‘Economic change after the agricultural revolution in Southeast Asia?Antiquity, 88 (2014), 112–25.

T.Ingold, The Perception of the Environment: Essays in Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. London: Routledge, 2000.

T.P.Denham, and S.G. Haberle. ‘Agricultural emergence and transformation in the upper Wahgi valley during the Holocene: theory, method and practice.The Holocene, 18 (2008), 499514.

W.Lorkiewicz, Skeletal trauma and violence among the early farmers of the North European Plain: evidence from Neolithic settlements of the Lengyel culture in Kuyavia, north-central Poland.’ In R. Schulting and L. Fibiger (eds.), Sticks, Stones, and Broken Bones: Neolithic Violence in a European Perspective. Oxford University Press, 2012. 5176.

54G.Larson, , U. Albarella, K. Dobney, et al. ‘Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (2007), 15276–81.

K.D.Morrison, The intensification of production: archaeological approaches.’ Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 1 (1994), 111–59.

G.A.Lee, , G.W. Crawford, L. Liu, Y. Sasaki, and X. Chen. ‘Archaeological soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: does size matter?PLoS ONE, 6 (2011), e26720.

D.R.Piperno, and T.D. Dillehay. ‘Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (2008), 19622–7.

C.A.Petrie, and K.D. Thomas. ‘The topographic and environmental context of the earliest village sites in western South Asia.Antiquity, 86 (2012), 1055–67.

J.Quilter, Late preceramic Peru.Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 387438.

A.Jones, Prehistoric Materialities: Becoming Material in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press, 2012.

E.Lightfoot, , X. Liu, and M.K. Jones. ‘Why move starchy cereals? A review of the isotopic evidence for prehistoric millet consumption across Eurasia.World Archaeology, 45 (2013), 574623.

A.K.Outram, , A. Kasparov, N.A. Stear, et al. ‘Patterns of pastoralism in later Bronze Age Kazakhstan: new evidence from faunal and lipid residue analyses.Journal of Archaeological Science, 39 (2012), 2424–35.

V.Macaulay, and M. Richards. ‘Mitochondrial genome sequences and phylogeographic interpretation.’ In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Chichester: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.20843.pub2. 2013.

AOgundiran, . ‘Four millennia of cultural history in Nigeria (ca. 2000 bcad 1900): archaeological perspectives.Journal of World Prehistory, 19 (2005), 133–68.

C.Kusimba, and S.B. Kusimba (eds.). East African Archaeology: Foragers, Potters, Smiths and Traders. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2003.

V.Paz, Rock shelters, caves, and archaeobotany in island Southeast Asia.Asian Perspectives, 44 (2005), 107–18.

T.A.Kohler, News from the northern American Southwest: prehistory from the edge of chaos.Journal of Archaeological Research, 1 (1993), 267321.

T.P.Denham, , S.G. Haberle, C. Lentfer, et al. ‘Origins of agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of New Guinea.Science, 301 (2003), 189–93.

H.Malmström, , M.T.P. Gilbert, M.G. Thomas, et al. ‘Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians.Current Biology, 19 (2009), 1758–62.

D.Rindos, The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984.

A.K.Outram, , N.A. Stear, R. Bendrey, et al. ‘The earliest horse harnessing and milking.Science, 323 (2009), 1332–5.

J.Lave, and E. Wenger. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press, 1991.

A.Matsui, and M. Kanehara. ‘The question of prehistoric plant husbandry during the Jomon period in Japan.World Archaeology, 38 (2006), 259–73.

R.J.Kelly, The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

R.Pinhasi, and J.T. Stock (eds.). Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

R.Fullagar, , J. Field, T.P. Denham, and C. Lentfer. ‘Early and mid-Holocene processing of taro (Colocasia esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea sp.) at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.Journal of Archaeological Science, 33 (2006), 595614.

R.Nielsen, and M.A. Beaumont. ‘Statistical inferences in phylogeography.Molecular Ecology, 18 (2009), 1034–47.

A.K.Outram, , N.A. Stear, A. Kasparov, et al. ‘Horses for the dead: funerary foodways in Bronze Age Kazakhstan’, Antiquity, 85 (2011), 116–28.

G.-A.Lee, The transition from foraging to farming in prehistoric Korea.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S307–29.

S.Payne, Kill-off patterns in sheep and goats: the mandibles from Asvan Kale.Anatolian Studies, 23 (1973), 281303.

M.Pala, , A. Olivieri, A. Achilli, et al. ‘Mitochondrial DNA signals of late Glacial re-colonization of Europe from Near Eastern refugia.American Journal of Human Genetics, 90 (2012), 915–24.

M.Tengberg, Crop husbandry at Miri Qalat Makran, SW Pakistan (4000–2000 bc).Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 8 (1999), 312.

A.Rosen, Civilizing Climate: Social Responses to Climate Change in the Ancient Near East. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2007.

E.J.Reitz, and E.S. Wing. Zooarchaeology. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

J.Golson, The New Guinea highlands on the eve of agriculture.Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 11 (1991), 8291.

M.Pala, , G. Chaubey, P. Soares, and M.B. Richards. ‘The archaeogenetics of European ancestry.’ In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Chichester: Wiley. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0024624. 2014.

D.M.Pearsall, and P.W. Stahl. ‘The origins and spread of early agriculture and domestication: environmental and cultural considerations.’ In J.A. Matthews (ed.), The Sage Handbook of Environmental Change. 2 vols. Los Angeles: Sage, 2012. vol. ii, 328–54.

M.Spriggs, Archaeology and the Austronesian expansion: where are we now?Antiquity, 85 (2011), 510–28.

F.Marshall, and E. Hildebrand. ‘Cattle before crops: the beginnings of food production in Africa.Journal of World Prehistory, 16 (2002), 99143.

M.Nishida, The emergence of food production in Neolithic Japan.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2 (1983), 305–22.

X.Yang, , Z. Wan, L. Perry, et al. ‘Early millet use in northern China.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 3726–30.

R.H.Steckel, and J.C. Rose (eds.). The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

J.Robb, The Early Mediterranean Village: Agency, Material Culture and Social Change in Neolithic Italy. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

D.R.Piperno, , A.J. Ranere, I. Holst, J. Iriarte, and R. Dickau. ‘Starch grain and phytolith evidence for early ninth millennium bp maize from the central Balsas River valley, Mexico.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (2009), 5020–4.

A.Simmons, , I. Köhler-Rollefson, G. Rollefson, R. Mandel, and Z. Kafafi. ‘ ’Ain Ghazal: a major Neolithic settlement in central Jordan.Science, 240 (1988), 35–9.

D.R.Piperno, and D.M. Pearsall. The Origins of Agriculture in the Lowland Neotropics. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998.

M.Richards, , V. Macaulay, E. Hickey, et al. ‘Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool.American Journal of Human Genetics, 67 (2000), 1251–76.

A.G.Sherratt, The secondary products revolution of animals in the Old World.World Archaeology, 15 (1983), 90104.

R.Schulting, and L. Fibiger (eds.). Sticks, Stones, and Broken Bones: Neolithic Violence in a European Perspective. Oxford University Press, 2012.

P.J.Mitchell, and P.J. Lane (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology. Oxford University Press, 2013.

A.Salas, , M. Richards, T. De la Fe, et al. ‘The making of the African mtDNA landscape.American Journal of Human Genetics, 71 (2002), 1082–111.

J.Golson, and P.J. Hughes. ‘The appearance of plant and animal domestication in New Guinea.Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 36 (1980), 294303.

J.W.Wood, , G.R. Milner, H.C. Harpending, and K.M. Weiss. ‘The osteological paradox: problems of inferring health from skeletal samples.Current Anthropology, 33 (1992), 343–70.

B.Trigger, Understanding Early Civilizations. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

K.C.Twiss, Transformations in an early agricultural society: feasting in the southern Levantine Pre-Pottery Neolithic.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 27 (2008), 418–42.

O.Semino, , G. Passarino, P.J. Oefner, et al. ‘The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective.Science, 290 (2000), 1155–9.

K.Neumann, , K. Boesten, A. Höhn, et al. ‘First farmers in the Central African rainforest: a view from southern Cameroon.Quaternary International, 249 (2012), 5362.

T.D.Price, (ed.). Europe’s First Farmers. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

V.Lebot, Biomolecular evidence for plant domestication in Sahul.Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 46 (1999), 619–28.

H.Silverman, and W.H. Isbell (eds.). Handbook of South American Archaeology. New York: Springer, 2008. 157–83.

B.Turner, and J. Sabloff. ‘Classic period collapse of the Central Maya lowlands: insights about human–environment relationships for sustainability.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 13908–14.

J.D.Vigne, , FBriois. , A. Zazzo, et al. ‘First wave of cultivators spread to Cyprus at least 10,600 y ago.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (2012), 8445–9.

P.Skoglund, , H. Malmström, M. Raghavan, et al. ‘Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe.Science, 336 (2012), 466–9.

R.Oslisly, , L. White, I. Bentaleb, et al. ‘Climatic and cultural changes in the West Congo basin forests over the past 5000 years.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 368 (2013), 20120304.

D.W.Phillipson, African Archaeology. 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

P.Soares, , T. Rito, J. Trejaut, et al. ‘Ancient voyaging and Polynesian origins.American Journal of Human Genetics, 88 (2011), 239–47.

J.Schibler, and S. Jacomet. ‘Short climatic fluctuations and their impact on human economies and societies: the potential of the Neolithic lake shore settlements in the Alpine foreland.Environmental Archaeology, 15 (2010), 173–82.

K.Takeuchi, , R.D. Brown, I. Washitani, A. Tsunekawa, and M. Yokohari (eds.). Satoyama: The Traditional Rural Landscape of Japan. Berlin: Springer, 2003.

J.M.Powell, The history of plant use and man’s impact on the vegetation.’ In J.L. Gressitt (ed.), Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea, vol. i. The Hague: Junk, 1982. 207–27.

T.Watkins, New light on Neolithic revolution in South-west Asia.Antiquity, 84 (2010), 621–34.

J.M.Powell, Plant resources and palaeobotanical evidence for plant use in the Papua New Guinea highlands.Archaeology in Oceania, 17 (1982), 2837.

P.Soares, , L. Ermini, N. Thomson, et al. ‘Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock.American Journal of Human Genetics, 84 (2009), 740–59.

P.Soares, , A. Achilli, O. Semino, et al. ‘The archaeogenetics of Europe.Current Biology, 20 (2010), R174–83.

M.Zeder, Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean basin: origins, diffusion, and impact.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (2008), 11597–604.

M.Zeder, ‘The origins of agriculture in the Near East.Current Anthropology, 52, Supplement 4 (2011), S221–35.

C.S.Troy, , D.E. MacHugh, J.F. Bailey, et al. ‘Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origins of European cattle.Nature, 410 (2001), 1088–91.

G.Willcox, and D. Stordeur. ‘Large-scale cereal processing before domestication during the tenth millennium cal bc in northern Syria.Antiquity, 86 (2012), 99114.

K.Wright, The social origins of cooking and dining in early villages of Western Asia.Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 66 (2000), 89121.