Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

1 - Why Tip-of-the-Tongue States Are Important


Angell, J. R. (1908). Psychology. New York: Henry Holt.
Barton, M. I. (1971). Recall of generic properties of words in aphasic patients. Cortex, 7, 7382.
Brown, A. S. (1991). A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 204223.
Brown, A. S. (2012). Tip of the tongue state. New York: Psychology Press.
Brown, A. S., Burrows, C. N., & Croft Caderao, K. (2013). Partial word knowledge in the absence of recall. Memory & Cognition, 41, 967–977.
Brown, R., & McNeill, D. (1966). The “tip of the tongue” phenomenon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Behavior, 5, 325337.
Bruce, C., & Howard, D. (1988). Why don’t Broca’s aphasics cue themselves? An investigation of phonemic cueing and tip of the tongue information. Neuropsychologia, 26, 253264.
Burke, D. M., MacKay, D. G., Worthley, J. S., & Wade, E. (1991). On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults?Journal of Memory & Language, 30, 542579.
Cleary, A. M., Brown, A. S., Sawyer, B. D., Nomi, J. S., Ajoku, A. C., & Ryals, A. J. (2012). Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: A virtual reality investigation. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 969975.
Dahlgren, D. J. (1998). Impact of knowledge and age on tip-of-the-tongue rates. Experimental Aging Research, 24, 139153.
Freedman, J. L., & Landauer, T. K. (1966). Retrieval of long-term memory: “Tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon. Psychonomic Science, 4, 309310.
Gardiner, J. M, Craik, F. I. M., & Bleasdale, F. A. (1973). Retrieval difficulty and subsequent recall. Memory & Cognition, 1, 213216.
Goodglass, H., Kaplan, E., Weintraub, S., & Ackerman, N. (1976). The “tip-of-the tongue” phenomenon in aphasia. Cortex, 12, 145153.
Gollan, T. H., & Brown, A. S. (2006). From tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) data to theoretical implications in two steps: When more TOTs means better retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 462483.
Hanley, J. R., & Chapman, E. (2008). Partial knowledge in a tip of the tongue state about two and three word proper names. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 156–160.
Harley, T. A., & Bown, H. E. (1998). What causes a tip-of-the-tongue state? Evidence for lexical neighbourhood effects in speech production. British Journal of Psychology, 89, 151174.
Hart, J. T.(1965). Memory and the feeling-of-knowing experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 56, 208216.
Hart, J. T. (1966). Methodological note on the feeling-of-knowing experiments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 57, 347349.
Heine, M. K., Ober, B. A., & Shenaut, G. K. (1999). Naturally occurring and experimentally induced tip-of-the-tongue experiences in three adult age groups. Psychology and Aging 14, 445457.
James, W. (1893). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.
Jones, G. V. (1989). Back to Woodworth: Role of interlopers in the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. Memory & Cognition, 17, 6976.
Koriat, A., & Lieblich, I. (1974). What does a person in a “TOT” state know that a person in a “don’t know” state doesn’t know?Memory & Cognition, 2, 647655.
Kikyo, H., Ohki, K., & Sekihara, K. (2001). Temporal characterization of memory retrieval processes: An fMRI study of the “tip of the tongue” phenomenon. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 887892.
Maril, A., Simons, J. S., Weaver, J. J., & Schacter, D. L. (2005). Graded recall success: An event-related fMRI comparison of tip of the tongue and feeling of knowing. NeuroImage, 24, 11301138.
Maril, A., Wagner, A. D., & Schacter, D. L. (2001). On the tip of the tongue: An event related fMRI study of semantic retrieval failure and cognitive conflict. Neuron, 31, 653660.
Miozzo, M., & Caramazza, A. (1997). Retrieval of lexical-syntactic features in tip-of the-tongue states. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 23, 14101423.
Reason, J. T., & Lucus, D. (1984). Using cognitive diaries to investigate naturally occurring memory blocks. In J. Harris & P. E. Morris (Eds.), Everyday memory, actions, and absent mindedness (pp. 5370). London: Academic Press.
Schwartz, B. L. (1998). Illusory tip-of-the-tongue states. Memory, 6, 623642.
Schwartz, B. L. (2001). The relation of tip-of-the-tongue states and retrieval time. Memory & Cognition, 29, 117126.
Schwartz, B. L. (2002). Tip-of-the-tongue states: Phenomenology, mechanism, and lexical retrieval. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Schwartz, B. L. (2006). Tip-of-the-tongue states as metacognition. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 149158.
Schwartz, B. L. & Metcalfe, J. (2011). Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states: Retrieval, behavior, and experience. Memory & Cognition, 39, 737–749.
Schwartz, B. L., Travis, D. M., Castro, A. M., & Smith, S. M. (2000). The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1827.
Smith, S. M. (1994). Frustrated feelings of imminent recall: On the tip-of-the tongue. In J. Metcalfe & A. P. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing. (pp. 2746) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Vigliocco, G., Antonini, T., & Garrett, M. F. (1997). Grammatical gender is on the tip of Italian tongues. Psychological Science, 8, 314–317.
Vigliocco, G., Vinson, D., Martin, R. C., & Garrett, M. F. (1999). Is “count” and “mass” information available when the noun is not? An investigation of tip of the tongue states and anomia. Journal of Memory and Language, 40(4).
Warriner, A. B., & Humphreys, K. R. (2008). Learning to fail: Reoccurring tip-of-the tongue states. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 535542.
Wellman, H. M. (1977). Tip of the tongue and feeling of knowing experiences: A developmental study of memory monitoring. Child Development, 48, 1321.
Yaniv, I., & Meyer, D. E. (1987). Activation and metacognition of inaccessible stored information: Potential bases for incubation effects in problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 13, 187205.