Amanuel, Hiruy. Head of IGAD Capacity Building Program Against Terrorism (ICPAT), Addis Ababa, September 24, 2007.
Anonymous. Embassy of Portugal Ethiopia (EU Presidency), Addis Ababa, September 14, 2007.
Anonymous. Embassy of Portugal in Ethiopia (EU Presidency), Addis Ababa, September 17, 2007.
Anonymous. African Union Mission in Sudan, DARFUR Integrated Task Force, Addis Ababa, September 19, 2007.
Anonymous. NATO Support to AU Mission in Sudan, Addis Ababa, September 19, 2007.
Anonymous. Botswana Embassy, Addis Ababa, September 25, 2007.
Anonymous. Embassy of United Kingdom in Zimbabwe, Harare, October 24, 2007.
Anonymous. French Embassy in Zimbabwe, Harare, October 29, 2007.
Anonymous. European Commission delegation to Zimbabwe, Harare, October 29, 2007.
Anonymous. European Commission delegation to Zimbabwe, Harare, October 30, 2007.
Anonymous. French Embassy in South Africa, Pretoria, November 6, 2007.
Anonymous. French Embassy in South Africa, Pretoria, November 7, 2007.
Anonymous. European Commission delegation to Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, November 12, 2007.
Attalla, H. B. Executive Secretary, IGAD, Djibouti City, October 16, 2007.
Chris, Ayangafac Chrysantus. Senior researcher, Direct Conflict Prevention Program, Institute Security Studies (ISS), Addis Ababa, September 18, 2007.
Bino, M. Diallo Boubacar. Political Officer, Peace and Security Department, African Union, Addis Ababa, October 8, 2007.
de Matha, , Brig. Gen. Jaotody Jean. Head, Operations and Support Unit—Peace Support Operations Division (PSOD), African Union, Addis Ababa, October 9, 2007.
Fisher, Gen. Louis. Former Chief of Botswana Defense Forces, Addis Ababa, November 9, 2007.
Haile, Zewdineh. Director of African Institute for Arbitration, Mediation, Conciliation and Research (AIAMCR), Addis Ababa, September 16, 2007.
Hailu, Shewit. Situation Room coordinator, Conflict Management Division, African Union, Adis Ababa, October 11, 2007.
Hayatou, Aissatou. Political Officer, Peace and Security Council Secretariat, African Union, Addis Ababa, November 23, 2007.
Jagne, Baboucarr Blaise. Head of U.N. Liaison Office with African Union (UNLO/AU). Addis Ababa, November 12, 2007.
Janha, Abdou. Independent consultant, African Union, Addis Ababa, October 11, 2007
Jibrin, Col. A. T. Defense adviser, Nigeria Embassy to Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, December 7, 2007.
Kambuzi, Admore Mupoki. Executive Secretary, Peace and Security Council, African Union, Addis Ababa, October 10, 2007.
Kitevu, Raymond M. Liaison Officer, Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN), IGAD, Addis Ababa, October 22, 2007.
Le Roux, Len. Program head, Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, November 5, 2007.
Lortan, Fiona. Head, Defense and Security Division, African Union, Addis Ababa, November 23, 2007.
Macaringue, Gen. José, Paulino. Center for Defense and Security Management, Wits University Graduate School of Public and Development Management, Johannesburg, November 2, 2007.
Makumbe, John. Professor, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, October 29, 2007.
Mandaza, Ibbo. Executive Chairperson, SAPES-Southern African Political Economy Series, Harare, October 25, 2007.
Maroleng, Chris. Senior researcher, Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, November 7, 2007.
Mugumya, Geofrey. Director, Peace and Security Department, African Union, Addis Ababa, September 25, 2007.
Murithi, Tim. Senior research fellow, Institute for Security Studies, Addis Ababa, November 12, 2007.
Muyanga, Robert. Official, NEPAD Secretariat, Midrand, May 7, 2008.
Mwaura, Charles. Senior political officer, Peace and Security Department, African Union, Addis Ababa, November 23, 2007.
Ngcobo, Zabantu. Deputy Director, Department of Foreign Affairs of South Africa, Pretoria, November 7, 2007.
Ngoma, Naison. Peace and Security Department, Conflict Management Division, African Union, Addis Ababa, September 24, 2007.
Nhema, Alfred. Executive Director, OSSREA (Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa), Addis Ababa, September 20, 2007
Nkeshimana, Salvator. Special assistant to Commissioner for Peace and Security, African Union, Addis Ababa, October 5, 2007.
Nnodozie, Emmanuel. Director of Economic Development and NEPAD Division, U.N. Economic Commision for Africa (EGA), Addis Ababa, November 12, 2007
Olsson, Jan. International consultant, Harare, October 29, 2007.
Sabiiti, Stella Mystica. Independent consultant, African Union, Addis Ababa, October 11, 2007.
Shillinger, Kurt. Research fellow, South African Institute of International Affairs, Johannesburg, November 1, 2007.
Wane, El Ghassim. Head, Conflict Management Division, African Union, Addis Ababa, October 5, 2007.
Wheeler, Tom. Research fellow, South African Institute of International Affairs, Johannesburg, November 1, 2007.
Yifru, Daniel. Director, Peace and Security Division, IGAD, Djibouti City, October 15, 2007.
Zounmenou, David. Senior researcher, Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, November 8, 2007.
Books and Articles
Abbott, Kenneth W., and Snidal, Duncan. 1998. “Why States Act Through Formal International Organizations.” Journal ofConflict Resolution
42 (1): 3–32.
Aboagye, Festus B., and Bah, Alhaji M. S.. 2004. “Liberia at a Crossroads: A Preliminary Look at the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and the Protection of Civilians.” ISS Occasional Paper 95, November. Pretoria: ISS.
Adebajo, Adekeye. 2002. Building Peace in West Africa: Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea Bissau. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Adebajo, Adekeye. 2004. “Pax West Africana? Regional Security Mechanisms.” In West Africa's Security Challenges: Building Peace in a Troubled Region, edited by Adebajo, Adekeye and Rashid, Ismail, 291–318. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Adebajo, Adekeye, and Landsberg, Christopher. 2005. “South Africa and Nigeria as Regional Hegemons.” In From Cape to Congo: Southern Africa's Evolving Security Challenges, edited by Baregu, Mwesiga and Landsberg, Christopher, 171–204. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Adibe, Clement E.
1997. “The Liberian Conflict and the ECOWAS–UN Partnership.” Third World Quarteriy
18 (3): 471–88.
Adibe, Clement E.. 2002. “Muddling Through: An Analysis of the ECOWAS Experience in Conflict Management in West Africa.” In Regional Integration for Conflict Prevention and Peace Building in Africa: Europe, SADC and ECOWAS, edited by Lakso, Liisa, 103–69. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.
Agbu, Osita. 2006. “West Africa's Trouble Spots and the Imperative for Peace-Building.” CODESRIA Monographs Series. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Agoagye, Festus. 2003. “The African Mission in Burundi: Lessons Learned from the First African Union Peacekeeping Operation.” Conflict Trends
4 (ACCORD: African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes): 9–15.
Aning, Kwesi. 1994. “Managing Regional Security in West Africa: ECOWAS, ECOMOG and Liberia.” Working Paper 94.2. Copenhagen: Center for Development Research.
Bah, Alhaji M. S., and Johnstone, Ian. 2007. “Peacekeeping in Sudan: The Dynamics of Protection, Partnerships and Inclusive Politics.” Center on International Cooperation Occasional Policy Paper, May.
Bandu, Abass. 2001. Democracy by Force? A Study on International Military Intervention in the Conflict in Sierra Leone from 1991–2000. USA: Universal Publishers.
Baregu, M., and Landsberg, C., eds. 2003. From Cape to Congo: Southern Africa's Evolving Security Challenges. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Berghezan, Georges, and Nkundabagenzi, Félix. 1999. “La Guerre du Congo-Kinshasa: Analyse d'un conflit et Transferts d'Armes vers l'Afrique Centrale.” Rapport du GRIP
Breytenbach, Willie, et al.
1999. “Conflicts in the Congo: From Kivu to Kabila.” African Security Review
8 (5) http://www.iss.co.za.
Compagnon, Daniel. 2001. “‘Mugabe and partners (Pvt) Ltd’ ou l'investissement politique du champ économique.” Polilique Africaine
Diehl, Paul F.
2003. “Regional Conflict Management: Strategies, Necessary Conditions, and Comparative Effectiveness.” In Regional Conflict Management, edited by Diehl, Paul F. and Lepgold, Joseph, 41–77. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield.
Diehl, Paul F., and Lepgold, Joseph. 2003. Regional Conflict Management. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.
Draman, Rasheed, and Garment, David. 2003. “Managing Chaos in the West African Sub-Region: Assessing the Role of ECOMOG in Liberia.” Journal of Military and Strategic Studies
6 (2): 1–31.
Ero, Comfort. 2005. “ECOWAS and the Subregional Peacekeeping in Liberia.” Journal of Humanitarian Assistance (September), http://sites.tufts.edu.
Francis, David. 2006. Uniting Africa: Building Regional Peace and Security Systems. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.
Ghebremeskel, Adane. 2002. “Regional Approach to Conflict Management Revisited: The Somali Experience.” OJPCR (Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution)
4 (2). www.trinstitute.org.
Graham, Kennedy, and Felício, Tania. 2006. Regional Security and Global Governance: A Study of Interactions Between Regional Agencies and the UN Security Council with a Proposal for a Regional-Global Security Mechanism. Brussels: VUB Brussels University Press.
Hansen, Holley E., Mitchell, Sara McLaughlin, and Nemeth, Stephen C.. 2008. “IO Mediation of Interstate Conflicts: Moving Beyond the Global versus Regional Dichotomy.” Journal of Conflict Resolution
52 (2): 295–325.
Harbeson, John W.
2007. “Ethiopia and the Global Antiterrorism Campaign.” Online Africa Policy Forum, February 27. http://forums.csis.org.
Hutchful, Eboe. 1999. “The ECOMOG Experience with Peacekeeping in West Africa.” ISS Monograph no. 36. Pretoria: ISS.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2000. “Scramble for the Congo: Anatomy of an Ugly War.” ICG Africa Report no. 26, Nairobi/Brussels, December.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2002. “Liberia: The Key to Ending Regional Instability.“ ICG Africa Report no. 43, Freetown/Brussels, April 24.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2003. “Côte d'Ivoire: ‘The War Is Not Yet Over.’” ICG Africa Report no. 72, Freetown/Brussels, November 28.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2004. “End of Transition in Burundi: the Home Stretch.” ICG Africa Report no. 81, Nairobi/Brussels, July 5.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2007. “Somalia: The Tough Part Is Ahead.” Crisis Group Africa Briefing no. 45, Nairobi/Brussels, January 26.
Institute for Security Studies (ISS). 2004. “Hawks, Doves or Penguins? A Critical Review of the SADC Military Intervention in the DRC.” ISS Occasional Paper 88. Pretoria: ISS.
Kagwanja, Peter, and Mutahi, Patrick. 2007. “Protection of Civilians in African Peace Keeping Missions: The Case of the African Union Mission in Sudan, Darfur.” ISS Occasional Paper 139, May. Pretoria: ISS.
Kanet, Roger E.
1998. Resolving Regional Conflicts. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Kent, Vanessa, and Malan, Mark. 2003. “Decisions, Decisions: South Africa's Foray into Regional Peace Operations. ISS Occasional Paper 72, April. Pretoria: ISS.
Keohane, Robert. 1989. International Institutions and Stale Power: Essays in International Relations Theory. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Kihunah, Mikah. 2005. “Monitoring the Monitors: The United Nations and ECOWAS in Liberia.” Yale Journal of International Affairs
1 (1): 120–32.
Lake, David, and Morgan, Patrick. 1997. Regional Orders: Building Security in a New World. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Lansana, Gberie, and Prosper, Addo. 2006. Challenges of Peace Implementation in Cote d'Ivoire. Report on an Expert Workshop by KAIPTC (Kofi Annan Peacekeeping Training Centre) and ZIF (Centre for International Peace Operations), Accra, May 31 – June 2, 2004. Berlin: Centre for International Peace Operation.
Likoti, Fako J.
2007. “The 1998 Military Intervention in Lesotho: SADC Peace Mission or Resource War?” International Peacekeeping
14 (2): 251–63.
Lyons, Terrence. 2007. “>Ethiopia and the Search for Regional Peace in the Horn of Africa.” Online Africa Policy Forum, January 22. http://forums.csis.org.
Maclean, Sandra J.
2002. “Mugabe at War: The Political Economy of Conflict in Zimbabwe.” Third World Quarterly
23 (3): 513–28.
Malan, Mark. 1998. Regional Power Politics Under Cover of SADC: Running Amok with a Mythical Organ. ISS Occasional Paper 35. Pretoria: ISS.
March, J., and Olsen, J.
1989. Rediscovering Institutions. New York: Free Press.
Matlosa, Khabele. 2001. “The Dilemma of Security in Southern Africa: The Case of Lesotho.” In Security and Development in Southern Africa, edited by Poku, Nana, 83–100. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
Mearsheimer, John J.
1994–1995. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security
19 (3): 5–49.
Mortimer, Robert A.
1996. “Senegal's Role in Ecomog: The Francophone Dimension in the Liberian Crisis.” Journal of Modern African Studies
34 (2): 293–306.
Mortimer, Robert A.. 2000. “From ECOMOG to ECOMOG II: Intervention in Sierra Leone.” In Africa in World Politics: The African State System in Flux, edited by Harbeson, John W. and Rothchild, Donald, 188–297. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Nathan, Laurie. 2002. “‘Organ Failure’: A Review of the SADC Organ on Politics, Defense and Security.” In Regional Integration for Conflict Prevention and Peace Building in Africa: Europe, SADC and ECOWAS, edited by Lakso, Liisa, 62–102. Helsinki: University of Helsinki.
Ngoma, Naison. 2005. Prospects for a Security Community in Southern Africa. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Obi, Cyril. 2009. “ECOWAS on the Ground: Comparing Peacekeeping in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau and Cote D'Ivoire.” African Security
2 (2): 119–35.
Oosthuizen, Gabriël H.
2006. The Southern African Development Community: The Organization, Its Policies and Prospects. Midrand, S.A.: Institute for Global Dialogue.
Pahad, Aziz. 1998. “Statement on Lesotho by the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Aziz Pahad, to the National Assembly, 3 November
Powell, Kristiana. 2005. “The African Union's Emerging Peace and Security Regime: Opportunities and Challenges for Delivering on the Responsibility to Protect.” ISS Monograph 119. Pretoria: ISS
Prunier, Gérard. 2006. “The Economic Dimensions of Conflict in the Region” In Security Dynamics in Africa's Great Lakes Region, edited by Khadiagala, Gilbert M., 103–17. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Pugh, Michael, and Sidhu, Waheguru Pal Singh. 2003. The United Nations and Regional Security. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Rudebeck, Lars. 2001. On Democracy's Sustainability: Transition in Guinea-Bissau. SIDA Studies no. 4. Stockholm: SIDA.
Rupiya, Martin R.
2002. “A Political and Military Review of Zimbabwe's Involvement in the Second Congo War.” In The African Stakes of the Congo War, edited by Clark, John F., 93–105. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schoeman, Maxi, and Muller, Marie. 2009. “SADC as a Regional Peacekeeper: Myth or Reality?” African Security
2 (2): 175–92.
Selinyane, Nthakeng. 2006. “Lost Between Stability and Democracy: South Africa and Lesotho's Constitutional Crisis of the 1990s.” In South Africa's Role in Conflict Resolution and Peacemaking in Africa: Conference Proceedings, edited by Southall, Roger, 59–84. Cape Town: Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Shinn, David H.
2007. “Exploring a Comprehensive Stabilization, Reconstruction, and Counter-terrorism Strategy for Somalia.” Hearing before the Subcommittee on African Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, February 6. www.senate.gov.
Simmons, Beth, and Martin, Lisa. 2002. “International Organizations and Institutions.” In Handbook of International Relations, edited by Carlsnae, Walter, Risse, Thomas, and Simmons, Beth, 192–210. London: Sage.
Solingen, Etel. 2008. “The Genesis, Design and Effects of Regional Institutions: Lessons form East Asia and the Middle East.” International Studies Quarterly
52 (2): 261–94.
Souaré, Issaka K.
2006. Civil Wars and Coups d'Etat in West Africa. New York: University Press of America.
Southall, Roger. 2006. “A Long Prelude to Peace: South African Involvement in Ending Burundi's War.” In South Africa's Role in Conflict Resolution and Peacemaking in Africa: Conference Proceedings, edited by Southall, Roger, 105–33. Cape Town: Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Sriram, Chandra, and Nielsen, Zoe. 2004. Exploring Subregional Conflict: Seeking New Paths for Conflict Prevention. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Söderbaum, Fredrik. 2003. “Whose Security? Comparing Security Regionalism in West and Southern Africa.” In New and Critical Security and Regionalism: Beyond the Nation State, edited by Hentz, James and Bøås, Morten, 167–81. London: Ashgate.
Tavares, Rodrigo. 2008. “Understanding Regional Peace and Security: A Framework for Analysis.” Contemporary Politics
14 (2): 107–27.
Tavares, Rodrigo. 2010. Regional Security: The Capacity of International Organizations. New York: Routledge.
Turner, Thomas. 2002, “Angola's Role in the Congo War.” In The African Stakes of the Congo War, edited by Clark, John F., 75–92. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
United Nations Security Council (UNSC). 2001. “Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth in the Democratic Republic of the Congo” (S/2001/357, April 12, 2001). www.un.org.
UNOWA (United Nations Office for West Africa). 2004. The Regional Impact of the Crisis in Côte d'Ivoire. New York: United Nations Office for West Africa, April 14. www.un.org.
Vale, Peter. 2003. Security and Politics in South Africa: The Regional Dimension. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.
Vanguard. 2001. “Taylor Cannot Influence Us, Says Okonkwo (ECOMIL Commander).” November 11.