Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-h5t46 Total loading time: 0.291 Render date: 2022-06-27T10:49:30.293Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Everyday discrimination in the workplace, job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing: age differences and moderating variables

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 June 2012

PHILIP TAYLOR
Affiliation:
Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Churchill, Victoria, Australia.
CHRISTOPHER MCLOUGHLIN*
Affiliation:
Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Churchill, Victoria, Australia.
DENNY MEYER
Affiliation:
The Brain and Psychological Sciences Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
ELIZABETH BROOKE
Affiliation:
Business, Work and Ageing Centre for Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
*
Address for correspondence: Christopher McLoughlin, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Northways Road, Churchill, Victoria 3842, Australia E-mail: cmcloughlin@me.com

Abstract

In this article we explore the importance of ‘everyday discrimination’ and other psycho-social variables for psychological wellbeing, considering differences according to age, gender and socio-economic position. Using employee survey data collected within Australian organisations we explore a statistically reliable model of the relationship between aspects of the psycho-social work environment, psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction. The employee survey was carried out in two phases during mid-2007 and mid-2008 in a national university, two international freight terminals of a large international airline, a national manufacturing company and the roadside assistance division of a motoring organisation. Structural Equation Modelling was used to configure a model including psycho-social factors: respect, support, training, job insecurity and personally meaningful work. Everyday discrimination and consultation with supervisor were considered in terms of their direct effect on psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction and their indirect effect via the psycho-social factors enumerated above. Importantly, this generalised model attempts to describe the interrelations of these factors effectively for various age groups, gender and socio-economic position. We identify age, gender and socio-economic differences in the strength and relative importance of these relationships. A further validation study with an independent sample will be required to verify the model proposed in this article. The implications for the design of workplace interventions concerned with age discrimination are discussed.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, S. J. and Neumark, D. 2006. Age discrimination in US labour markets: a review of the evidence. In Rogers, W. M. (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Discrimination. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 187211.Google Scholar
Andrew Irving Associates 2001. Ageism: Attitudes and Experiences of Young People. DWP Publications, Nottingham, UK.Google Scholar
Austin, Knight 1996. Towards a Balanced Workforce. Austin Knight UK, London.Google Scholar
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010. Education and Work. Cat. 6227.0. Available online at http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/BF843E083D8F5705CA2577F20010B4FF/$File/62270_may%202010.pdfGoogle Scholar
Browne, M. W. and Cudeck, R. 1993. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Bollen, K. A. and Long, J. S. (eds), Testing Structural Models. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, 136–62.Google Scholar
Butler, R. 1987. Ageism. In Maddox, G. L. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Ageing. Springer, New York, 2223.Google Scholar
Byrne, B. M. 2001. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.Google Scholar
Cliff, D. R. 1989. Quality of life in early retirement: differences in the experience of hourly paid and salaried male retirees from the chemical industry in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Paper presented to the British Sociological Association Annual Conference, Plymouth, UK.Google Scholar
Deitch, E. A., Barsky, A., Butz, R. M., Chan, S., Brief, A. P. and Bradley, J. C. 2003. Subtle yet significant: the existence and impact of everyday racial discrimination in the workplace. Human Relations, 56, 11, 1299–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duncan, C. 2001. Ageism, early exit, and the rationality of age-based discrimination. In Glover, I. and Branine, M. (eds), Ageism, Work & Employment. Ashgate, Aldershot, UK, 2546.Google Scholar
Duncan, C. and Lorreto, W. 2004. Never the right age? Gender and age-based discrimination in employment. Gender, Work and Organization, 11, 1, 95115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Employment and Social Affairs, European Commission 1999. Active Ageing. Promoting a European Society for All Ages. Brussels: European Communities.Google Scholar
Encel, S. 1999. Age discrimination in employment in Australia. Ageing International, 25, 2, 6984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Encel, S. 2008. Looking forward to working longer in Australia. In Taylor, P. (ed), Ageing Labour Forces: Promises and Prospects. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2239.Google Scholar
European Industrial Relations Observatory 2000. Industrial relations and the ageing workforce: the case of Finland. EIROnline. Available online at http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2000/10/study/tn0010201s.htmGoogle Scholar
Frerichs, F. and Taylor, P. 2009. Ageing and the labour market: a comparison of policy approaches. In Walker, A. and Naegele, G. (eds), Social Policy in Ageing Societies. Britain and Germany Compared. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, 4681.Google Scholar
Ginn, J. and Arber, S. 1995. Only connect: gender relations and ageing. In Arber, S. and Ginn, J. (eds), Connecting Gender and Ageing. Open University Press, Buckingham, UK, 114.Google Scholar
Glomb, T. M., Munson, L. J., Hulin, C. L., Bergman, M. E. and Drasgow, F. 1999. Structural equation models of sexual harassment: longitudinal explorations and cross sectional generalizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 1, 1428.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldman, B. M., Gutek, B. A., Stein, J. H. and Lewis, K. 2006. Employment discrimination in organizations: antecedents and consequences. Journal of Management, 32, 6, 786830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstone, C. and Jones, D. 2001. Evaluation of the code of practice on age diversity in employment. In Age Diversity: Summary of Research Findings. DfEE Publications, Nottingham, UK, 827.Google Scholar
Henkens, K. and Schippers, J. 2008. Labour market policies regarding older workers in the Netherlands. In Taylor, P. (ed.), Ageing Labour Forces: Promises and Prospects. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 141–57.Google Scholar
Hu, L. and Bentler, P. M. 1999. Cut off criteria for fit indices in covariance structures: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1, 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ilmarinen, J. 2007. The Workability Index (WAI). Occupational Medicine, 57, 160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Itzin, C. and Phillipson, C. 1993. Age Barriers at Work. METRA, London.Google Scholar
Kline, R. B. 1998. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. Guilford, New York.Google Scholar
Laczko, F., Dale, A., Arber, S. and Gilbert, G. N. 1988. Early retirement in a period of high unemployment. Journal of Social Policy, 17, 3, 313–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGoldrick, A. and Cooper, C. L. 1980. Voluntary early retirement – taking the decision. Employment Gazette, August, 859–64.Google Scholar
McKay, S. 1998. Older workers in the labour market. Labour Market Trends, July, 365–9.Google Scholar
Moore, S. 2007. Age as a factor defining older women's experience of labour market participation in the UK. Industrial Law Journal, 36, 3, 383–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naegele, G. 1999. Active Strategies for an Ageing Workforce. Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
Neumark, D. and Johnson, R. W. 1997. Age discrimination, job separations, and employment status of older workers: evidence from self-reports. The Journal of Human Resources, 32, 4, 779811.Google Scholar
Prager, J. and Schoof, U. 2006. Active aging in economy and society – a policy framework. In Bertelsmann Foundation (ed.), Active Aging in Economy and Society. Bertelsmann Foundation, Gütersloh, Germany, 2637.Google Scholar
Riach, K. 2006. Older workers: learning from three international experiences. Social Policy and Society, 5, 4, 551–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanchez, J. I. and Brock, P. 1996. Outcomes of perceived discrimination among Hispanic employees: is diversity management a luxury or a necessity? Academy of Management Journal, 39, 3, 704–19.Google Scholar
Schneider, K. T., Hitlan, R. T. and Radhakrishnan, P. 2000. An examination of the nature and correlates of ethnic harassment: experiences in multiple contexts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 1, 312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L. S. 2005. Using Multivariate Statistics. Allyn and Unwin, Boston, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
Taylor, P. 2008. Ageing Labour Forces: Promises and Prospects. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, P. and Urwin, P. 2001. Age and participation in vocational education and training. Work, Employment and Society, 15, 4, 763–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker, A. 1985. Early retirement: release or refuge from the labour market? The Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs, 1, 3, 211–29.Google Scholar
Walker, H., Grant, D., Meadows, M. and Cook, I. 2007. Women's experiences and perceptions of age discrimination in employment: implications for research and policy. Social Policy and Society, 6, 1, 3748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warr, P. 1992. Age and occupational well-being. Psychology and Aging, 7, 1, 3745.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (WHO) 2002. Active Ageing: A Policy Framework. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
Young, M. and Schuller, T. 1991. Life After Work. London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
26
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Everyday discrimination in the workplace, job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing: age differences and moderating variables
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Everyday discrimination in the workplace, job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing: age differences and moderating variables
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Everyday discrimination in the workplace, job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing: age differences and moderating variables
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *