Hostname: page-component-6b989bf9dc-zrclq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-14T02:59:41.758Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

In home or at home? How collective decision making in a new care facility enhances social interaction and wellbeing amongst older adults

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 September 2010

School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
Address for correspondence: Craig Knight, School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Perry Road, Exeter EX4 4QG, UK E-mail:


Benevolent, long-term care can threaten older adults' sense of autonomy in a residential home environment. Increasing reliance on a hotel style of living has been seen to erode social identity, life satisfaction and even survival or lifespan. Drawing on evidence from both gerontological and social psychological literature, this paper examines the links between the empowerment of residents and their subsequent quality of life in the context of a move into a new care facility in a medium-sized town in South-West England. A longitudinal experiment was conducted during which 27 residents on one floor of a new facility were involved in decisions surrounding its décor, while those on another floor were not. The residents' attitudes and behaviour were monitored at three points over five months (four weeks pre-move, four weeks post-move, and four months post-move). Consistent with the social identity literature, members of the empowered group reported increased identification with staff and fellow residents in the new home, displayed enhanced citizenship, reported improved wellbeing, and made more use of the communal space. Moreover the staff found the empowered residents to be more engaged with their environment and the people around them, to be generally happier and to have better health. These patterns were observed one month after the move and remained four months later. Some implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Anastasi, A. 1988. Psychological Testing. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
Andersson, I., Pettersson, E. and Sidenvall, B. 2007. Daily life after moving into a care home: experiences from the older people, relatives and contact persons. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 9, 1712–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ashforth, B. E. 2001. Role Transitions in Organisational Life: An Identity-based Perspective. Erlbaum, Mahwah, New Jersey.Google Scholar
Ashforth, B. E. and Mael, F. 1989. Social identity theory and the organisation. Academy of Management Review, 14, 1, 2039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bandura, A. 1999. Exercise of personal and collective efficacies in changing societies. In Bandura, A. (ed.), Self-efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 145.Google Scholar
Barkay, A. and Tabak, N. 2002. Elderly residents' participation and autonomy within a geriatric ward in a public institution. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 8, 4, 198209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, L., Evans, D., Mendes, C., de Leon, C. M., Wilson, R. and Bienias, J. 2004. The relation of social networks, social engagement, and cognitive decline in an older bi-racial population. The Gerontologist, 44, 3, 330.Google Scholar
Bartke, A., Bonkowski, M. and Masternak, M. 2008. How diet interacts with longevity genes. Hormones, 7, 1, 1723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benaim, C., Froger, J., Compan, B. and Pélissier, J. 2005. The assessment of autonomy in elderly people. Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique, 48, 6, 336–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bermingham, J. R. 2001. Immigration: not a solution to problems of population decline and aging. Population and Environment, 22, 9, 355–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brink, S. 1993. Elderly empowerment: new rights and research are enhancing nursing-home life. US News World Report Journal, 114, 16, 6970.Google ScholarPubMed
Buturusis, B., Straub, M., Treinkman, A. D. and Trella, R. 1986. Assessing health needs: the well elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 12, 1, 1124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Calkins, M., Sanford, J. A. and Proffitt, M. A. 2001. Design and dementia: challenges and lessons for universal design. In Preisser, W. F. E. and Ostroff, E. (eds), Universal Design Handbook. McGraw-Hill, New York, 22.122.22.Google Scholar
Campbell, S. L. 2003. Empowering nursing staff and residents in long term care. Geriatric Nursing, 24, 3, 170–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carp, F. A. 1966. A Future for the Aged: Victoria and its Residents. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.Google Scholar
Carroll, N. V., Delafuente, J. C., Cox, F. M. and Narayanan, S. 2008. Fall-related hospitalisation and facility costs among residents of institutions providing long-term care. The Gerontologist, 48, 2, 213–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chan, H. M. and Pang, S. 2007. Long term care: autonomy, family integrity and social sustainability: the Hong Kong experience. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 32, 4, 401–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chandler, M. J. and Lalonde, C. E. 1998. Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada's first nations. Transnational Psychiatry, 35, 2, 191219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman, N. J. 2002. Assisted living: needs, practices and policies in residential care for the elderly. Ageing & Society, 22, 1, 534–5.Google Scholar
Cheng, S. T. 2009. The social networks of nursing-home residents in Hong Kong. Ageing & Society, 29, 2, 163–78.Google Scholar
Clark, P. and Bowling, A. 1990. Observed study of quality of life in nursing homes. Social Science and Medicine, 30, 3, 1201–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J. 1992. A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 1, 155–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collopy, B. J. 1988. Autonomy in long term care: some crucial distinctions. The Gerontologist, 28, 1, 1017.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1997. Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life. Basic, New York.Google Scholar
deCharms, R. 1968. Personal Causation. Academic, New York.Google Scholar
Deci, E. L., La Guardia, J. G., Moller, A. C., Scheiner, M. J. and Ryan, R. M. 2006. On the benefits of giving as well as receiving autonomy support: mutuality in close friendships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 3, 313–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. 1987. The support of autonomy and the control of behaviour. Journal of Personality and Social Behaviour, 53, 6, 1024–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derks, B., van Laar, C. and Ellemers, N. 2007. Social creativity strikes back: improving motivated performance of low status group members by valuing ingroup dimensions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 5, 470–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desrichard, O. and Köpetz, C. 2005. A threat in the elder: the impact of task-instructions, self-efficacy and performance expectations on memory performance in the elderly. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 4, 537–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixon, S. 1991. Autonomy and Dependence in Residential Care: Evaluation of a Project to Enhance Resident Choice in an Elderly People's Home. Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, King's College, London.Google Scholar
Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. and Spears, R. 1995. Perceived intragroup variability as a function of group status and identification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 3, 410–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drury, J. and Reicher, S. 2005. Explaining enduring empowerment: a comparative study of collective action and psychological outcomes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 1, 3558.Google Scholar
Eggins, R. A., Haslam, S. A. and Reynolds, K. J. 2002. Social identity and negotiation: subgroup representation and superordinate consensus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 6, 887–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellemers, N., De Gilder, D. and Haslam, S. A. 2004. Motivating individuals and groups at work: a social identity perspective on leadership and group performance. Academy of Management Review, 29, 4, 459–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ertel, K. A., Glymour, M. M. and Berkman, L. F. 2008. Effects of social integration on preserving memory function in a nationally representative us elderly population. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 3, 1215–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, S. 2009. ‘That lot up there and us down here’: social interaction and a sense of community in a mixed tenure UK retirement village. Ageing & Society, 29, 2, 199216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fahey, T., Montgomery, A. A., Barnes, J. and Protheroe, J. 2003. Quality of care for elderly residents in nursing homes and elderly people living at home: controlled observational study. British Medical Journal, 326, 580–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feingold, E. and Werby, E. 1990. Supporting the independence of elderly residents through control over their environment. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 6, 1, 2532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzpatrick, T. R., Gitelson, R. J., Andereck, K. L. and Mesbur, E. S. 2005. Social support factors and health among a senior center population in Southern Ontario, Canada. Social Work in Health Care, 40, 1537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Folkman, S. and Lazarus, R. S. 1988. The relationship between coping and emotion: implication for theory and research. Social Science of Medicine, 26, 3, 309–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frazier, R. S. and Baker-Smith, H. T. 1997. Predicting appropriate level of care in an innovative residential program design for people with mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 21, 2, 181–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gentleman, A. 2009. A day in the life of an old people's home. The Guardian, 14 July. Available online at [Accessed 13 August 2009].Google Scholar
Gibson, C. H. 1991. A concept analysis of empowerment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16, 3, 354–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golander, H. 1995. Chronically ill, old and institutionalized: being a nursing home resident. Family and Community Health, 17, 4, 6379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottesman, L. E. and Bourestom, N. C. 1974. Why nursing homes do what they do. The Gerontologist, 14, 6, 501–6.Google Scholar
Gray, A. 2009. The social capital of older people. Ageing & Society, 29, 1, 531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haslam, S. A. 2004. Psychology in Organisations: The Social Identity Approach. Sage, London.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A., Eggins, R. A. and Reynolds, K. J. 2003. The ASPIRe model: actualizing social and personal identity resources to enhance organisational outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 76, 1, 83113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haslam, C., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J.Hayward, S., Bevins, A. and Tonks, J. 2010. The social treatment: the benefits of group interventions in residential care settings. Psychology and Aging, 25, 1, 157–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haslam, C., Holme, A., Haslam, S. A., Iyer, A., Jetten, J. and Williams, W. H. 2008. Maintaining group memberships: social identity continuity predicts well-being after stroke. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 18, 5, 671–91.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Postmes, T. and Haslam, C. 2009. Social identity, health and well-being: an emerging agenda for applied psychology. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 58, 1, 123.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A. and McGarty, C. 2004. Experimental design and causality in social psychological research. In Sanson, C., Morf, C. C. and Panter, A. T. (eds), Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California, 235–64.Google Scholar
Haslam, S. A., O'Brien, A., Jetten, J., Vormedal, K. and Penna, S. 2005. Taking the strain: social identity, social support and the experience of stress. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 3, 355–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haslam, S. A., Postmes, T. and Ellemers, N. 2003. More than a metaphor: organisational identity makes organisational life possible. British Journal of Management, 14, 4, 357–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hauge, S. and Heggen, K. 2007. The nursing home: a field study of residents' daily life in the common living rooms. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 3, 460–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hjaltadottir, I. and Gustafsdottir, M. 2007. Quality of life in nursing homes: perception of physically frail elderly residents. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 21, 1, 4855.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hodgson, N., Freedman, V. A., Granger, D. A. and Erno, A. 2005. Biobehavioral correlates of relocation in the frail elderly: salivary cortisol, affect, and cognitive function. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 5, 1856–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopkins, N. and Dixon, J. 2006. Space, place, and identity: issues for political psychology. Political Psychology, 27, 2, 173–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jetten, J., Haslam, C., Haslam, S. A. and Branscombe, N. 2009. The social cure. Scientific American Mind, 20, 2633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jetten, J., Haslam, C., Pugliese, C., Tonks, J. and Haslam, S. A. 2009. Declining autobiographical memory and the loss of identity: effects on well-being. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32, 4, 408–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, G. R. and George, J. M. 1998. The experience and evolution of trust: implications for cooperation and teamwork. Academy of Management Review, 23, 3, 531–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahana, E., Midlarsky, E. and Kahana, B. 1987. Beyond dependency, autonomy, and exchange: prosocial behavior in late-life adaptation. Social Justice Research, 1, 4, 439–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kane, R. A. and Wilson, K. B. 2001. Assisted Living at the Crossroads: Principles for its Future. Jessie F. Richardson Foundation, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
Kasser, V. G. and Ryan, R. M. 1999. The relation of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness to vitality, well-being, and mortality in a nursing home. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 8, 935–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klinefelter, D. S. 1984. Aging, autonomy and the value of life. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 3, 1, 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knight, C. P. and Haslam, S. A. 2010 a. Your place or mine? Organizational identification and comfort as mediators of relationships between the managerial control of workspace and employees' motivation and well-being. British Journal of Management, in press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knight, C. P. and Haslam, S. A. 2010 b. The relative merits of lean enriched and empowered offices: an experimental examination of the impact of workspace management strategies on well-being and productivity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 2, 158–72.Google Scholar
Kontos, A. P. 2004. Developmental sport and exercise psychology: a lifespan perspective. Sports Psychologist, 3, 3, 350–52.Google Scholar
LeCount, J. 2004. Education, empowerment, and elderly adults: enhancing nursing expertise in the long-term care setting. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 30, 1, 613.Google ScholarPubMed
Lidz, C. W., Fischer, L. and Arnold, R. W. 1992. The Erosion of Autonomy in Long-term Care. Oxford University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marmot, M., Siegrist, J. and Theorell, T. 2005. Health and the psycho-social environment at work. In Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R. (eds), Social Determinants of Health. Oxford University Press, New York, 105–27.Google Scholar
Matsui, M. 2005. Patient autonomy in clinical decision making and related factors among the elderly. The Gerontologist, 45, 1, 23.Google Scholar
Maugeri, D., Santangelo, A., Abbate, S., Barbagallo, P., Lentini, A., Motta, M., Malaguarnera, M., Speciale, S., Testai, M. and Panebianco, P. 2001. Correlation between the bone mass, psychometric performances, and the levels of autonomy and autosufficiency in an elderly Italian population above 80 years of age. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 33, 3, 265–71.Google Scholar
McBride, D. L. 1999. Nursing home gardens. In Cooper-Marcus, C. and Hackett, P. (eds), Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. Wiley, New York, 385436.Google Scholar
Mendes de Leon, C. F., Glass, T. A. and Berkman, L. F. 2003. Social engagement and disability in a community population of older adults: the New Haven EPESE. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 7, 633–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Messer, B. A. E. and White, F. E. 2006. Employees' mood, perceptions of fairness, and organisational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21, 1, 6582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moos, R. 1981. Environmental choice and control in community care settings for older people. Journal of Applied Psychology, 11, 1, 2343.Google Scholar
Moreland, R. L. and Levine, J. M. 2002. Socialization and trust in work groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5, 2, 185201.Google Scholar
Nolan, M. and Grant, G. 1992. Mid-range theory building and the nursing theory-practice gap: a respite care case study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17, 2, 217–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Office for National Statistics 2005. UK, Scotland, England Wales and Northern Ireland, Mid-2004 Population Estimates. Online tables, Office for National Statistics, London. Available online at [Accessed 11 June 2008].Google Scholar
Oleson, M., Heading, C., Shadick, J. M. and Bistodeau, J. A. 1994. Quality of life in long stay institutions in England: nurse and resident perceptions. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20, 1, 2332.Google Scholar
Organ, D. W. 1988. Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. D. C. Heath and Company, Lexington, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
Ozaki, A., Uchiyama, M., Tagaya, H., Ohida, T. and Ogihara, R. 2007. The Japanese centenarian study: autonomy was associated with health practices as well as physical status. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55, 1, 95101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, N. S., Zimmerman, S., Sloane, P. D., Gruber-Baldini, A. L. and Eckert, J. K. 2006. An empirical typology of residential care/assisted living based on a four-state study. The Gerontologist, 46, 2, 238–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peat, G., McCarney, R. and Croft, P. 2001. Knee pain and osteoarthritis in older adults: a review of community burden and current use of primary health care. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 60, 1, 91–7.Google Scholar
Phillips, C. D., Kimbell, A. M., Hawes, C., Wells, J., Badalamenti, J. and Koren, M. J. 2008. It's a family affair: consumer advocacy for nursing-home residents in the United States. Ageing & Society, 28, 1, 6784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Platow, M. J., Byrne, L. and Ryan, M. K. 2005. Experimentally manipulated high in-group status can buffer personal self-esteem against discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 5, 599608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polit, D. F. and Beck, C. T. 2003. Nursing Research, Principles and Methods. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Postmes, T., Haslam, S. A. and Swaab, R. 2005. Social influence in small groups: an interactive model of identity formation. European Review of Social Psychology, 16, 1, 142.Google Scholar
Postmes, T., Tanis, M. and de Wit, B. 2001. Communication and commitment in organizations: a social identity approach. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 4, 2, 227–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
Rappaport, J. 1984. Studies in empowerment. Prevention in Human Services, 3, 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Regev, I. 1996. The influence of the elderly's qualities of relations in social networks on their life satisfaction. Gerontology, 25, 1, 6986.Google Scholar
Robichaud, L., Durand, P. J., Bedard, R. and Ouellet, J.-P. 2006. Quality of life indicators in long-term care: opinions of elderly residents and their families. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73, 3, 245–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodin, J. and Langer, E. J. 1976. Long-term effects of a control relevant intervention with the institutionalized aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 7, 897902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sammet, K. 2007. Autonomy or protection from harm? Judgements of German courts on care for the elderly in nursing homes. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33, 9, 534–7.Google Scholar
Sani, F., Bowe, M. and Herrera, M. 2008. Perceived collective continuity and social well-being: exploring the connections. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 4, 365–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schrader, S. L. 2008. Centenarians' views on long life and nursing home living. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 9, 1, 4550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, P. A., Valimaki, M., Leino-Kilpi, H., Dassen, T., Gasull, M., Lemonidou, C. and Arndt, M. 2003. Autonomy, privacy and informed consent. 3: Elderly care perspective. British Journal of Nursing, 12, 2, 158–68.Google Scholar
Seligman, M. 1975. Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Shabashova, N. I., Diatchenko, O. T., Bakhtiiarov, P. S. and Merabishvili, V. M. 2001. Demographic, social and medical problems of the aging population. Vopr Onkol, 47, 4, 523–45.Google ScholarPubMed
Short, A. E. 1992. Music and imagery with physically disabled elderly residents. Music Therapy, 11, 1, 6598.Google Scholar
Spector, P. E., Allen, T. D., Poelmans, S., Cooper, C. L., Bernin, P., Hart, P., Lu, L., Miller, K., Moraes, L. F. R., Ostrognay, G. M., Pitarlu, H., Salamatov, V., Salgardo, J., Sanchez, J. I., Siu, O. L., Tiechmann, M., Theorell, T., Vlerick, P., Widerszal-Bazyl, M. and Yu, S. 2005. An international comparative study of work–family stress and occupational strain. In Poelman, S. A. Y. (ed.), Work and Family: An International Research Perspective. Psychology Press, Hove, UK, 7186.Google Scholar
Stiggelbout, A. M. 2000. Assessing patients' preferences. In Chapman, C. B. and Sonnenberg, F. A. (eds), Decision Making in Health Care. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 289312.Google Scholar
Tajfel, H. and Turner, J. C. 1979. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In Austin, W. G. and Worchel, S. (eds), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, California, 3347.Google Scholar
Tanis, M. and Postmes, T. 2005. A social identity approach to trust: interpersonal perception, group membership and trusting behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 4, 413–24.Google Scholar
Taylor, F. W. 1911. Principles of Scientific Management. Harper, New York.Google Scholar
Tu, Y. C., Wang, R. H. and Yeh, S. H. 2006. Relationship between perceived empowerment care and quality of life among elderly residents within nursing homes in Taiwan: a questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 4, 673–80.Google Scholar
Turner, J. C. 1981. Some considerations in generalizing experimental social psychology. In Stephenson, G. M. and Davis, J. H. (eds), Progress in Applied Social Psychology. Wiley, Chichester, UK, 334.Google Scholar
Turner, J. C., Oakes, P. J., Haslam, S. A. and McGarty, C. A. 1994. Self and collective: cognition and social context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 4, 454–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyler, T. R. and Blader, S. 2000. Co-operation in Groups: Procedural Justice, Social Identity and Behavioral Engagement. Psychology Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Tyler, T. R. and Blader, S. 2003. The group engagement model: procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 4, 349–61.Google Scholar
Tyson, M. M. 1998. The Healing Landscape: Therapeutic Outdoor Environments. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
van Bilsen, P. M. A., Hamers, J. P. H., Groot, W. and Spreeuwenberg, C. 2006. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study. BMC Health Services Research, 6, 1, 39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vischer, J. C. 2005. Space Meets Status. Routledge, Abingdon, UK.Google Scholar
West, B. T., Welch, K. B. and Galecki, A. T. 2007. Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
Whiteley, S. and Brittain, O. 2006. Assessing the health needs of elderly people. Health Visit, 66, 2, 133–5.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, J. A. 1999. A Family Caregiver's Guide to Planning and Decision Making for the Elderly. Fairview, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
Wilson, C. B., Davies, S. and Nolan, M. 2009. Developing personal relationships in care homes: realising the contributions of staff, residents and family members. Ageing & Society, 29, 7, 1041–63.Google Scholar
Zeisel, J. 2006. Inquiry by Design. Newton, New York.Google Scholar
Zeisel, J., Epp, G. and Demos, S. 1978. Low-rise Housing for Older People: Behavioral Criteria for Design. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.Google Scholar