Alpass, F. M. and Neville, S. 2003. Loneliness, health and depression in older males. Aging & Mental Health, 7, 3, 212–6.
Andersson, L. 1986. A model of estrangement—including a theoretical understanding of loneliness. Psychological Reports, 58, 3, 683–95.
Au, B., Smith, K. J., Gariépy, G. and Schmitz, N. 2015. The longitudinal associations between C-reactive protein and depressive symptoms: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30, 9, 976–84.
Badawi, G., Pagé, V., Smith, K. J., Gariépy, G., Malla, A., Wang, J., Boyer, R., Strychar, I., Lesage, A. and Schmitz, N. 2013. Self-rated health: a predictor for the three year incidence of major depression in individuals with Type II diabetes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 145, 1, 100–5.
Barg, F. K., Huss-Ashmore, R., Wittink, M. N., Murray, G. F., Bogner, H. R. and Gallo, J. J. 2006. A mixed-methods approach to understanding loneliness and depression in older adults. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61B, 6, S329–39.
Bassuk, S. S., Glass, T. A. and Berkman, L. F. 1999. Social disengagement and incident cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly persons. Annals of Internal Medicine, 131, 3, 165–73.
Berkman, L. F. and Glass, T. 2000. Social integration, social networks, social support, and health. In Berkman, L. F. and Kawachi, I. (eds), Social Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 137–73.
Borys, S. and Perlman, D. 1985. Gender differences in loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, 1, 63–74.
Burholt, V., Dobbs, C. and Victor, C. 2017. Social support networks of older migrants in England and Wales: the role of collectivist culture. Ageing & Society. Published online 27 February, doi:10.1017/S0144686X17000034.
Cacioppo, J. T. and Hawkley, L. C. 2009. Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 10, 447–54.
Cacioppo, J. T., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C. and Thisted, R. A. 2006. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging, 21, 1, 140–51.
Cloutier-Fisher, D., Kobayashi, K. and Smith, A. 2011. The subjective dimension of social isolation: a qualitative investigation of older adults’ experiences in small social support networks. Journal of Aging Studies, 25, 4, 407–14.
Cornwell, E. Y. and Waite, L. J. 2009. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and health among older adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 1, 31–48.
Dahlberg, K. 2007. The enigmatic phenomenon of loneliness. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 2, 4, 195–207.
Dahlberg, L., Andersson, L., McKee, K. J. and Lennartsson, C. 2015. Predictors of loneliness among older women and men in Sweden: a national longitudinal study. Aging & Mental Health, 19, 5, 409–17.
Dahlberg, L. and McKee, K. J. 2014. Correlates of social and emotional loneliness in older people: evidence from an English community study. Aging & Mental Health, 18, 4, 504–14.
Davis, M., Murphy, S., Neuhaus, J. and Lein, D. 1990. Living arrangements and dietary quality of older US adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 90, 12, 1667–72.
Dean, A., Kolody, B., Wood, P. and Matt, G. E. 1992. The influence of living alone on depression in elderly persons. Journal of Aging and Health, 4, 1, 3–18.
Dhalwani, N. N., O'Donovan, G., Zaccardi, F., Hamer, M., Yates, T., Davies, M. and Khunti, K. 2016. Long terms trends of multimorbidity and association with physical activity in older English population. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13, 1, 8.
Dhalwani, N. N., Zaccardi, F., O'Donovan, G., Carter, P., Hamer, M., Yates, T., Davies, M. and Khunti, K. 2017. Association between lifestyle factors and the incidence of multimorbidity in an older English population. Journals of Gerontology, 72A, 4, 528–34.
Dykstra, P. A., Van Tilburg, T. G. and de Jong Gierveld, J. 2005. Changes in older adult loneliness: results from a seven-year longitudinal study. Research on Aging, 27, 6, 725–47.
Ellwardt, L., Aartsen, M. and van Tilburg, T. 2016. Types of non-kin networks and their association with survival in late adulthood: a Latent Class Approach. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72B, 4, 694–705.
Elovainio, M., Hakulinen, C., Pulkki-Råback, L., Virtanen, M., Josefsson, K., Jokela, M., Vahtera, J. and Kivimäki, M. 2017. Contribution of risk factors to excess mortality in isolated and lonely individuals: an analysis of data from the UK Biobank cohort study. The Lancet Public Health, 2, 6, e260–6.
Ferlander, S. 2007. The importance of different forms of social capital for health. Acta Sociologica, 50, 2, 115–28.
Gale, C. R., Cooper, C. and Aihie Sayer, A. 2015. Prevalence of frailty and disability: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age and Ageing, 44, 1, 162–5.
Golden, J., Conroy, R. M., Bruce, I., Denihan, A., Greene, E., Kirby, M. and Lawlor, B. A. 2009. Loneliness, social support networks, mood and wellbeing in community-dwelling elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 7, 694–700.
Hagenaars, J. A. and McCutcheon, A. L. 2002. Applied Latent Class Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hamer, M., Molloy, G. J., de Oliveira, C. and Demakakos, P. 2009. Leisure time physical activity, risk of depressive symptoms, and inflammatory mediators: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 7, 1050–5.
Hawkley, L. C. and Cacioppo, J. T. 2010. Loneliness matters: a theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40, 2, 218–27.
Hawthorne, G. 2008. Perceived social isolation in a community sample: its prevalence and correlates with aspects of peoples’ lives. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43, 2, 140–50.
Heinrich, L. M. and Gullone, E. 2006. The clinical significance of loneliness: a literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 6, 695–718.
Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T. and Stephenson, D. 2015. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 2, 227–37.
Holwerda, T. J., Deeg, D. J., Beekman, A. T., van Tilburg, T. G., Stek, M. L., Jonker, C. and Schoevers, R. A. 2013. Feelings of loneliness, but not social isolation, predict dementia onset: results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 85, 133–4.
Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C. and Cacioppo, J. T. 2004. A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: results from two population-based studies. Research on Aging, 26, 6, 655–72.
Iliffe, S., Kharicha, K., Harari, D., Swift, C., Gillmann, G. and Stuck, A. E. 2007. Health risk appraisal in older people 2: the implications for clinicians and commissioners of social isolation risk in older people. British Journal of General Practice, 57, 537, 277–82.
Jivraj, S., Nazroo, J. and Barnes, M. 2012. Change in social detachment in older age in England. In Banks, J., Nazroo, J. and Steptoe, A. (eds), The Dynamics of Ageing: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2002–10 (Wave 5). Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, 49–97.
Kharicha, K., Iliffe, S., Harari, D., Swift, C., Gillmann, G. and Stuck, A. E. 2007. Health risk appraisal in older people 1: are older people living alone an ‘at-risk'group? British Journal of General Practice, 57, 537, 271–6.
Larson, R., Zuzanek, J. and Mannell, R. 1985. Being alone versus being with people: disengagement in the daily experience of older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 40, 3, 375–81.
Lee, H. Y., Jang, S.-N., Lee, S., Cho, S.-I. and Park, E.-O. 2008. The relationship between social participation and self-rated health by sex and age: a cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45, 7, 1042–54.
Luanaigh, C. Ó. and Lawlor, B. A. 2008. Loneliness and the health of older people. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 12, 1213–21.
Lubben, J. and Gironda, M. 2003. Centrality of social ties to the health and well-being of older adults. In Berkman, B. and Harootyan, L. K. (eds), Social Work and Health Care in an Aging Society: Education, Policy, Practice and Research. Springer, New York, 319–50.
McCutcheon, A. L. 1987. Latent Class Analysis. Sage, Newbury Park, California.
McHugh, J., Kenny, R., Lawlor, B., Steptoe, A. and Kee, F. 2017. The discrepancy between social isolation and loneliness as a clinically meaningful metric: findings from the Irish and English longitudinal studies of ageing (TILDA and ELSA). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 32, 6, 664–74.
Nummela, O., Seppänen, M. and Uutela, A. 2011. The effect of loneliness and change in loneliness on self-rated health (SRH): a longitudinal study among aging people. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 53, 2, 163–7.
Orth-Gomér, K., Rosengren, A. and Wilhelmsen, L. 1993. Lack of social support and incidence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged Swedish men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 1, 37–43.
Perissinotto, C. M., Cenzer, I. S. and Covinsky, K. E. 2012. Loneliness in older persons: a predictor of functional decline and death. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172, 14, 1078–84.
Perissinotto, C. M. and Covinsky, K. E. 2014. Living alone, socially isolated or lonely – what are we measuring? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29, 11, 1429–31.
Pinquart, M. and Sorensen, S. 2001 a. Influences on loneliness in older adults: a meta-analysis. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 4, 245–66.
Pinquart, M. and Sörensen, S. 2001 b. Gender differences in self-concept and psychological well-being in old age: a meta-analysis. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56B, 4, 195–213.
Rook, K. S. 1984. The negative side of social interaction: impact on psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 5, 1097–1108.
Shankar, A., Hamer, M., McMunn, A. and Steptoe, A. 2013. Social isolation and loneliness: relationships with cognitive function during 4 years of follow-up in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75, 2, 161–70.
Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Banks, J. and Steptoe, A. 2011. Loneliness, social isolation, and behavioral and biological health indicators in older adults. Health Psychology, 30, 4, 377–85.
Steptoe, A., Breeze, E., Banks, J. and Nazroo, J. 2013 a. Cohort profile: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. International Journal of Epidemiology, 42, 6, 1640–8.
Steptoe, A., Shankar, A., Demakakos, P. and Wardle, J. 2013 b. Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, 15, 5797–801.
Sundström, G., Fransson, E., Malmberg, B. and Davey, A. 2009. Loneliness among older Europeans. European Journal of Ageing, 6, 4, 267–75.
Tomaszewski, W. and Barnes, M. 2008. Investigating the dynamics of social detachment in older age. In Banks, J., Breeze, E., Lessof, C. and Nazroo, J. (eds), Living in the 21st Century: Older People in England. The Institute of Fiscal Studies, London, 150–85.
Townsend, P. 1980. Isolation, desolation and loneliness. In Shanas, E., Townsend, P., Wedderburn, D., Friis, H., Milhoj, P. and Stehouwer, J. (eds), Old People in Three Industrial Societies. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 258–87.
Tunstall, J. 1966. Old and Alone: A Sociological Study of Old People. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.
Valtorta, N. and Hanratty, B. 2012. Loneliness, isolation and the health of older adults: do we need a new research agenda? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 105, 12, 518–22.
Valtorta, N. K., Kanaan, M., Gilbody, S. and Hanratty, B. 2016 a. Loneliness, social isolation and social relationships: what are we measuring? A novel framework for classifying and comparing tools. BMJ Open, 6, 4, e010799.
Valtorta, N. K., Kanaan, M., Gilbody, S., Ronzi, S. and Hanratty, B. 2016 b. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal observational studies. Heart, 102, 13, 1009–16.
Vermunt, J. K. and Magidson, J. 2002. Latent class cluster analysis. In Hagenaars, J. and McCutcheon, A. (eds), Applied Latent Class Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 89–106.
Victor, C. R. and Bowling, A. 2012. A longitudinal analysis of loneliness among older people in Great Britain. Journal of Psychology, 146, 3, 313–31.
Victor, C., Scambler, S., Bond, J. and Bowling, A. 2000. Being alone in later life: loneliness, social isolation and living alone. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 10, 4, 407–17.
Victor, C. R., Scambler, S. J., Bowling, A. and Bond, J. 2005. The prevalence of, and risk factors for, loneliness in later life: a survey of older people in Great Britain. Ageing & Society, 25, 6, 357–75.
Walton, C. G., Shultz, C. M., Beck, C. M. and Walls, R. C. 1991. Psychological correlates of loneliness in the older adult. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 5, 3, 165–70.
Weiss, R. S. 1973. Loneliness: The Experience of Emotional and Social Isolation. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Wenger, G. C., Davies, R., Shahtahmasebi, S. and Scott, A. 1996. Social isolation and loneliness in old age: review and model refinement. Ageing & Society, 16, 3, 333–58.
Zebhauser, A., Hofmann-Xu, L., Baumert, J., Häfner, S., Lacruz, M., Emeny, R., Döring, A., Grill, E., Huber, D. and Peters, A. 2014. How much does it hurt to be lonely? Mental and physical differences between older men and women in the KORA-Age Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29, 3, 245–52.
Zunzunegui, M.-V., Alvarado, B. E., Del Ser, T. and Otero, A. 2003. Social networks, social integration, and social engagement determine cognitive decline in community-dwelling Spanish older adults. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58B, 2, S93–100.