Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c47g7 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-23T09:54:39.769Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Was Agriculture Impossible during the Pleistocene but Mandatory during the Holocene? A Climate Change Hypothesis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Peter J. Richerson
Affiliation:
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, pjricherson@ucdavis.edu
Robert Boyd
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, rboyd@anthro.ucla.edu
Robert L. Bettinger
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, rlbettinger@ucdavis.edu

Abstract

Several independent trajectories of subsistence intensification, often leading to agriculture, began during the Holocene. No plant-rich intensifications are known from the Pleistocene, even from the late Pleistocene when human populations were otherwise quite sophisticated. Recent data from ice and ocean-core climate proxies show that last glacial climates were extremely hostile to agriculture—dry, low in atmospheric CO2, and extremely variable on quite short time scales. We hypothesize that agriculture was impossible under last-glacial conditions. The quite abrupt final amelioration of the climate was followed immediately by the beginnings of plant-intensive resource-use strategies in some areas, although the turn to plants was much later elsewhere. Almost all trajectories of subsistence intensification in the Holocene are progressive, and eventually agriculture became the dominant strategy in all but marginal environments. We hypothesize that, in the Holocene, agriculture was, in the long run, compulsory. We use a mathematical analysis to argue that the rate-limiting process for intensification trajectories must generally be the rate of innovation of subsistence technology or subsistence-related social organization. At the observed rates of innovation, population growth will always be rapid enough to sustain a high level of population pressure. Several processes appear to retard rates of cultural evolution below the maxima we observe in the most favorable cases.

Résumé

Résumé

Varias trayectorias independenties de la intensificatión del sustenta, muchas de las cuales conducieron a la agricultura, empezaron durante el Holoceno. No conocemos ninguna intensificació que usara muchos recursos vegetates durante el Pleistocene, inclusive el Pleistocene ultimo, cuando las poblaciones humanas fueron muy sofisticadas en otros ámbitos. Datas recientes de cilindros de hielo sacados de Groenlandia, y de sedimentos oceánicos, muestran que la ultima glaciation fué extremadamente hostil a la agricultura, ya que filé—seca, baja en CO2, y extremadamente variable en el corto plazo. Proponemos que la agricultura fué imposible en estas condiciones de la ultima glaciation. La súbita mejora del clima al final de la glaciation fué seguida inmediatamente por la initiation de usos mas intensives de los recursos végétales en algunos lugares, aunque mucho mas tarde en otras partes. Casi todo las trajectores de intensificatión en el Holoceno eran occurrieron sin retroceso. Finalmente, la agricultura se convirtió en el modo principal de sustento en todas paries, excepta por zonas muyfrlas о muy secas. En el Holoceno, hacemos el hipótesis que la agricultura se vuelve, a final de cuentas, obligatoria. Usamos un andlisis matemático para formular el hipáthe-sis que los procesos limitante de la taza de intensificatión debe generalmente ser la taza de la inovación tecnológica en las estrategias de sustento, о la taza de inovación en las formas de organazación social en relation al sustento. Con las tazas de inovación que se observan, el crecimiento de la población siempre es suficientemente rapido como para crear alto nivel de presión poblacional. Al parecer, varies processes normalmente retardan la velocidad de la evolution cultural abajo de las tazas máximas que observamos en el modela.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for American Archaeology 2001

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References Cited

Aikens, C. M., and Akazawa, T. 1996 The Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Japan and Adjacent Northeast Asia : Climate and Biotic Change, Broad- Spectrum Diet, Pottery, and Sedentism In Humans at the End of the Ice Age, edited by Straus, L. G., B. V. Eriksen, J. M. Erlandson, and D. R. Yesner, pp. 215227. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
Allen, J. R., Brandt, U., Brauer, A., Hubberten, H.-W., Huntley, B., Keller, J., Kraml, M., Mackensen, A., Mingram, J., Negendank, J. F., Nowaczyk, N. R., Oberhansli, H., Watts, W. A., Wulf, S., and Zolitschka, B. 1999 Rapid Environmental Changes in Southern Europe During the Last Glacial Period. Nature 400 : 740743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, J. R. M., Watts, W. A., and Huntley, B. 2000 Weichselian Palynostratigraphy, Palaeovegetation and Palaeoenvironment : The Record From Logo Grande di Monticcio, Southern Italy. Quaternary International 73/74 : 91110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ammerman, A. J., and Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. 1984 The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe. Princeton University Press, Princeton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
An, Z. 1991 Radiocarbon Dating and the Prehistoric Archaeology of China. World Archaeology 23 : 193200.Google Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O. 1998 The Natufian Culture in the Levant, Threshold to the Origins of Agriculture. Evolutionary Anthropology 6 : 159177.3.0.CO;2-7>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O., and Meadow, R. H. 1995 The Origins of Agriculture in the Near East. In Last Hunters, First Farmers : New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, edited by Price, T. D. and Gebauer, B., pp. 3994. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. R. 1991 The Natufian Culture in the Levant. International Monographs in Prehistory, Archaeological Series 1, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Barnola, J. M., Raynaud, D., Korofkevich, Y. S., and Loris, C. 1987 Vostok Ice Core Provides 160,000-Year Record of Atmospheric C02. Nature 329 : 40814.Google Scholar
Baumhoff, M. A. 1963 Ecological Determinants of Aboriginal California Populations. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 49(2) : 155236.Google Scholar
Bazzaz, F, and Sombroek, W. 1996 Global Climate Change and Agricultural Production. Wiley, Chichester, England.Google Scholar
Beerling, D. J. 1999 New Estimates of Carbon Transfer to Terrestrial Ecosystems Between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene. Terra Nova 11 : 162167.Google Scholar
Beerling, D. J., Chaloner, W. G., Huntley, B., Peason, J. A., and Tooley, M. J. 1993 Stomatal Density Responds to the Glacial Cycle of Environmental Change. Proceedings of the Royal Society ofLondon B 251 : 133138.Google Scholar
Beerling, D. J., and Woodward, F. I. 1993 Ecophysiological Responses of Plants to the Global Environmental Change Since the Last Glacial Maximum. New Phytologist 125 : 641648.Google Scholar
Behling, H., Arz, H. W., Patzold, J., and Wefer, G. 2000 Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate Dynamics in Northeastern Brazil, Inferences from Marine Core GeoBCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behling, H., Arz, H. W., Patzold, J., and Wefer, G. 3104-1. Quaternary Science Reviews 19 : 981994.Google Scholar
Bellwood, P. 1996 The Origins and Spread of Agriculture in the Indo- Pacific Region : Gradualism and Diffusion or Revolution and Colonization. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by Harris, D. R., pp. 465498. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
Bennett, K. D., Haberle, S. G., and Lumley, S. H. 2000 The Last Glacial-Holocene Transition in Southern Chile. Science 290 : 325328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belovsky, G. E. 1987 Hunter-Gatherer Foraging : A Linear Programming Approach. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6 : 2976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bettinger, R. L. 1991 Hunter-Gatherers : Archaeological and Evolutionary Theory. Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bettinger, R. L. 1993 Doing Great Basin Archaeology Recently : Coping With Variability. Journal of Archaeological Research 1 : 4366.Google Scholar
Bettinger, R. L. 1994 How, When, and Why Numic Spread In Across the West : Human Population Movement and the Expansion of the Numa, edited by Madsen, D. B. and Rhode, D.R. pp. 4455. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Bettinger, R. L. 1999 From Traveler to Processor : Regional Trajectories of Hunter-Gatherer Sedentism in the Inyo-Mono Region, California. In Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas : Fifty, Years Since Viru, edited by Billman, B. R. and M, G..'Feinman, pp. 3955. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
Bettinger, R. L. 2000 Holocene Hunter-Gatherers. In Archaeology at the Millennium : A Sourcebook, edited by Feinman, G. M. and Price, T.D. pp. 137195. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
Bettinger, R. L., and Baumhoff, M. A. 1982 The Numic Spread : Great Basin Cultures in Competition. American Antiquity 47 : 485503.Google Scholar
Bettinger, R. L., and Baumhoff, M. A. 1983 Return Rates and Intensity of Resource Use in Numic and Prenumic Adaptive Strategies. American Antiquity 48 : 830834.Google Scholar
Blumler, M. A. 1992 Seed Weight and Environment in Mediterranean-type Grasslands in California and Israel. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley. UMI, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Blumler, M. A., and Byrne, R. (Belfer-Cohen, A., Bird, R. M., Bohrer, V. L., Byrd, B. F., Dunnell, R. C., Hillman, G., Moore, A. T. M., Olszewski, D. I., Redding, R. W., and Riley, T. J., Commentators) 1991 The Ecological Genetics of Domestication and the Origins of Agriculture. Current Anthropology 32 : 2353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, G., Broecker, W., Jonnsen, S., McManus, J., Labeyrie, L., Jouzel, J., and Bonani, G. 1993 Correlations Between Climate Records from North Atlantic Sediments and Greenland Ice. Nature 365(6442) : 143147.Google Scholar
Boserup, E. 1981 Population and Technological Change : A Study of Long- Term Trends. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
Boyd, R., and Richerson, P. J. 1985 Culture and the Evolutionary Process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
Bradley, R. S. 1999 Paleoclimatology : Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary, Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
Braidwood, R. J. 1960 The Agricultural Revolution. Scientific American 203 : 130148.Google Scholar
Braidwood, R. J., and Howe, B. 1960 Prehistoric Investigations in Iraqi Kurdistan. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 31. University of Chicago Oriental Institute, Chicago.Google Scholar
Braidwood, L., Braidwood, R., Howe, B., Reed, C., and Watson, P. J. (editors) 1983 PrehistoricArchaeology Along the Zagros Flanks. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 105. University of Chicago Oriental Institute, Chicago.Google Scholar
Broecker, W. S. 1995 The Glacial World According to Wally. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY.Google Scholar
Broecker, W. S. 1996 Glacial Climate in the Tropics. Science 272 : 19021903.Google Scholar
Broecker, W. S. 1997 Thermohahne Circulation, the Achilles Heel of Our Climate System : Will Man-Made C02 Upset the Current Balance? Science 178 : 15821588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broecker, W. S., and Denton, G. H. 1989 The Role of Ocean-Atmosphere Reorganizations in Glacial Cycles. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53 : 24652501.Google Scholar
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., , Menozzi, P., and Piazza, A. 1994 The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
Childe, V. G. 1951 Man Makes Himself. Watts, London.Google Scholar
Clapperton, C. 2000 Interhemispheric Synchroneity of Marine Isotope Stage 2 Glacier Fluctuations Along the American Cordilleras Transect. Journal of Quaternary Science 15 : 435468.Google Scholar
Clark, P. U., Alley, R. B., and Pollard, D. 1999 Northern Hemisphere Ice-Sheet Influences on Global Climate Change. Science 286 : 11041111.Google Scholar
Coale, A.J. 1986 The Decline of Fertility in Europe Since the Eighteenth Century as a Chapter in Human Demographic History. In The Decline in Fertility in Europe, edited by Coale, A. J. and Watkins, S.C. pp. 130. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
Cohen, M. N. 1977 The Food Crisis in Prehistory : Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
Cohen, M. N., and Armelagos, G. J. 1984 Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
Coope, G. R. 1987 The Response of Late Quaternary Insect Communities to.Sudden Climatic Changes. In Organization of Communities Past and Present, edited by Gee, J. H. R. and Giller, P. S., pp. 421438. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
Cordain, L., Miller, J. B., Eaton, S. B., Mann, N., Holt, S. H. A., and Speth, J. D. 2000 Plant-Animal Subsistence Ratios and Macronutrient Energy Estimations in Worldwide Hunter-Gatherer Diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 : 682692.Google Scholar
Cordell, L. S. 1984 Prehistory of the Southwest. Academic Press, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Cowling, S. A., and Sykes, M. T. 1999 Physiological Significance of Low Atmospheric C02 for Plant-Climate Interactions. Quaternary Research 52 : 237242.Google Scholar
Crawford, G. W. 1992 Prehistoric Plant Domestication in East Asia In The Origins of Agriculture, edited by Cowan, C. W. and Watson, P.J. pp. 738. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C..Google Scholar
Crawford, G. W. 1997 Anthropogenesis in Prehistoric Northeastern Japan. In People, Plants, and Landscapes : Studies in Paleoethnobotany, edited by Gremillion, K. J., pp. 86103. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Cronin, T. M. 1999 Principles of Paleoclimatology. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Crosby, A. W. 1986 Ecological Imperialism : The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Darwin, C. 1902 [1874] The Descent of Man and Selection and Selection in Relation to Sex. American Home Library, New York.Google Scholar
Dansgaard, W, Johnsen, S. J., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N. S., Hammer, C. U., Hvidberg, C. S., Steffensen, J. P., Sveinbjonsdottir, A. E., Jousel, J., and Bond, G. 1993 Evidence for General Instability of Past Climate from a 250-kyr Ice-core Record. Nature 364 : 218220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
deMenocal, P. B., and Bloemendal, J. 1995 Plio-Pleistocene Climatic Variability in Subtropical Africa and the Paleoenvironment of Hominid Evolution : A Combined Data-Model Approach. InPaleoclimate and Evolution With Emphasis on Human Origins, edited by Vrba, E. S., G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, L. H. Burckle, pp. 262288. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
Diamond, J. 1997 Guns, Germs, and Steel. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
Ditlevsen, P. D., Svensmark, H., and Johnsen, S. 1996 Contrasting Atmospheric and Climate Dynamics of the Last-Glacial and Holocene Periods. Nature 379 : 810812.Google Scholar
Doelle, W. H. 1999 Early Maize in the Greater Southwest. Archaeology Southwest 13 : 19.Google Scholar
Donald, M. 1991 Origins of the Modern Mind. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
Dorale, J. A., Edwards, R. L., Ito, E., and Gonzalez, L. A. 1998 Climate and Vegetation History of the Midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka : A Speleothem Record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA. Science 282 : 18711874.Google Scholar
Downing, T. E., , Olsthoorn, A. J., and Tol, R. S. J. 1999 Climate, Change and Risk. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
Durham, W. H. 1991 Coevolution : Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity. Stanford University Press, Stanford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eakin, H. 2000 Smallholder Maize Production and Climatic Risk : A Case Study from Mexico. Climatic Change 45 : 1936.Google Scholar
Elias, S. A. 1999 Mid-Wisconsin Seasonal Temperatures Reconstructed from Fossil Beetle Assemblages in Eastern North America : Comparisons with Other Proxy Records from the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Quaternary Science 14 : 255262.Google Scholar
Elston, R. G., , Xu, C., Madsen, D. B., Zhong, K., Bettinger, R. L., Li, J., Brantingham, P. J., Wang, H., and Yu, J. 1997 New Dates For the North China Mesolithic. Antiquity 71 : 985993.Google Scholar
Fiedel, S. J. 1999 Older Than We Thought : Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians. American Antiquity 64 : 95115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, R. A. 1937 The Wave of Advance of Advantageous Genes. Annals of Eugenics (iMndon) 7 : 355369.Google Scholar
Flannery, K. V. 1971 The Origins and Ecological Effects of Early Domestication in Iran and the Near East In The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, edited by Struever, S., pp. 5079. American Museum Sourcebooks in Anthropology. Natural History Press, Garden City, New York.Google Scholar
Flannery, K. V. 1973 The Origins of Agriculture. Annual Review ofAnthropology 2 : 271310.Google Scholar
Flannery, K. V. 1986 Guild Naquitz : Archaic Foraging and Early Agriculture in Oaxaca, Mexico. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
Frogley, M. R., Tzedakis, P. C, and Heaton, T. H. E. 1999 Climate Variability in Northwestern Greece During the Last Interglacial. Science 285 : 8861889.Google Scholar
Gifford-Gonzales, D. 2000 Animal Disease Challenges to the Emergence of Pastoralism in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Archaeological Review, in press.Google Scholar
Golson, J. 1977 No Room at the Top : Agricultural Intensification in the New Guinea Highlands. In Sunda and Sahul : Prehistoric Studies in Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Australia, edited by Allen, J., Golson, J., and Jones, R., pp. 601638. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
Gommes, R. 1999 Production Variability and Losses. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, www.fao.org/sd/eidfrect/agroclim/ losses.htm.Google Scholar
Goring-Morris, N., and Belfer-Cohen, A. 1998 The Articulation of Cultural Processes and Late Quaternary Environmental Change In Cisjordan. Paleorient 23 : 7193.Google Scholar
Grafenstein, U. von, Erlenkeuser, H., Brauer, A., Jouzel, J., and Johnsen, S. J. 1999 A Mid-European Decadal Isotope-Climate Record from 15,500 to 5000 Years B.P. Science 284 : 16541657. GRIP (Greenland Ice-core Project Members)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grafenstein, U. von, Erlenkeuser, H., Brauer, A., Jouzel, J., and S. 1993 Climate Instability During the Last Interglacial Period Recorded In the GRIP Ice Core. Nature 364 : 203207.Google Scholar
Grove, J. M. 1988 The Little Ice Age. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
Harris, D. R. (editor) 1996 The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. University College London Press, London.Google Scholar
Harris, D. R. 1977 Alternative Pathways Toward Agriculture. In Origins of Agriculture, edited by Reed, C. A., pp. 179243. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
Hayden, B. 1981 Research and Development in the Stone Age : Technological Transitions Among Hunter-Gatherers. Current Anthropology 22 : 519548.Google Scholar
Hayden, B. 1995 A New Overview of Domestication. In Last Hunters, First Farmers : New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, edited by Price, T. D. and Gebauer, B., pp. 273299. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
Hendy, I. L., and Kennett, J. P. 1999 Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles and the California Current System : Planktonic Foraminiferal Response to Rapid Climate Change in Santa Barbara Basin, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A. Paleoceanography 15 : 3042.Google Scholar
Henry, D. O. 1989 From Foraging to Agriculture : The Levant At the End of the Ice Age. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Heusser, L. E. 1995 Pollen Stratigraphy and Paleoecologic Interpretation of the 160-K.Y. Record from the Santa Barbara Basin, Hole 893 A. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 146 : 265277.Google Scholar
Hillman, G. C, and Davies, M. S. 1990 Measured Domestication Rates in Wild Wheats and Barley Under Primitive Cultivation, and Their Archaeological Implications. Journal of World Prehistory 4 : 157222.Google Scholar
Hiscock, P. 1994 Technological Response to Risk in Holocene Australia. Journal of World Prehistory 8 : 267292.Google Scholar
Imamura, K. 1996 Jomon and Yoyoi : The Transition to Agriculture in Japanese Prehistory. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by Harris, D. R., pp. 442464. University College London Press, London.Google Scholar
Johnsen, S. J., Clausen, H. B., Dansgaard, W., Gundestrup, N. S., Hammer, C. U., Andersen, U., Andersen, K. K., Hvidberg, C. S., Dahl-Jensen, D., Steffensen, J. P., Shoji, H., Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E., White, J., Jouzel, J., and Fisher, D. 1997 The 180 Record Along the Greenland Ice Core Project Deep Ice Core and the Problem of Possible Eemian Climatic Instability. Journal of Geophysical Research C 102 : 26,39726,410.Google Scholar
Kane, S., and Yohe, G. 2000 Societal Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change : An Introduction. Climatic Change 45 : 11.Google Scholar
Katz, S. H., Hediger, M. L., and Valleroy, L. A. 1974 Traditional Maize Processing Techniques in the New World. Science 184 : 765773.Google Scholar
Kent, J. D. 1987 Periodic Aridity and Prehispanic Titicaca Basin Settlement Patterns. In Arid Land Use Strategies and Risk Management in the Andes, edited by Browman, D. L., pp. 297314. Westview, Boulder.Google Scholar
Kerr, R. A. 1999 Will the Arctic Ocean Lose All Its Ice? Nature 286 : 128.Google Scholar
Kirch, P. V. 1984 The Evolution of Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Kislev, M. E., Nadel, D., and Carmi, I. 1992 Epipaleolithic (19,000 BP) Cereal and Fruit Diet at Ohalo II, Sea of Galilee, Israel. Review ofPalaoebotany and Palynology 73 : 161166.Google Scholar
Klein, R. G. 1993 Hunter-Gatherers and Farmers in Africa. In People of the Stone Age : Hunter-Gatherers and Early Farmers, edited by Burenhult, G., pp. 39^7, 5055. Harper, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Klein, R. G. 1999 The Human Career : Human Biological and Cultural Origins. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
Kleivan, I. 1984 History of Norse Greenland. In Handbook of North American Indians 5 : Arctic, edited by Damas, D., pp. 549555. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC..Google Scholar
Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L., Carmen, W. J., and Stanback, M. T. 1994 Acorn Production by Oaks in Central Coastal California : Variation Within and Among Years. Ecology 75 : 99109.Google Scholar
Lamb, H. H. 1977 Climatic History and the Future. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
Lindsay, L. W 1986 Fremont Fragmentation. In Anthropology of the Desert West : Essays in Honor of Jesse D. Jennings, edited by Condie, C. J. and Fowler, D.D. pp. 229252. Anthropological Papers No. 110. University of Utah, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Lu, T. L. D. 1999 The Transition from Foraging to Farming and the Origin of Agriculture in China. BAR International Series #774. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
MacNeish, R. S. 1991 The Origins of Agriculture and Settled Life. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
Madsen, D. B. 1994 Mesa Verde and Sleeping Ute Mountain : The Geographical and Chronological Dimensions of Numic Expansion, In Across the West : Human Population Movement and the Expansion of the Numa, edited by Madsen, D. B. and Rhode, D., pp. 2431. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Madsen, D. B., and Schmitt, D. N. 1998 Mass Collecting and the Diet Breadth Model : A Great Basin Example. Journal of Archaeological Science 25 : 445155.Google Scholar
Matson, R. G. 1999 The Spread of Maize to the Colorado Plateau. Archaeology Southwest 13 : 1011.Google Scholar
Mayewski, P. A., Twickler, M. S., Morrison, M. C., Alley, R. B., Bloomfield, P., and Taylor, K. 1993 The Atmosphere During the Younger Dryas. Science 261 : 195200.Google Scholar
McManus, J. E, Oppo, D. W., and Cullen, J. L. 1999 A 0.5-Million-Year Record of Millennial-Scale Climate Variability in the North Atlantic. Science 283 : 971975.Google Scholar
McNeill, W. H. 1976 Plagues and Peoples. Anchor, Garden City, NY.Google Scholar
Milton, K. 2000 Hunter-Gatherer Diets—A Different Perspective. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(3) : 665667.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miracle, P. T. and O'Brien, C. J. 1998 Seasonality of Resource Use and Site Occupation at Badanj, Bosnia-Herzegovinia : Subsistence Stress in an Increasingly Seasonal Environment? In Seasonality and Sedentism : Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World Sites, edited by Rocek, T. R. and Bar, O.-Yosef, pp. 4174. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Bulletin 6. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Moore, A. M. T” and Hillman, G. C. 1992 The Pleistocene to the Holocene Transition and Human Economy in Southwest Asia : The Impact of the Younger Dryas. American Antiquity 57 : 482495.Google Scholar
Murray, J. D. 1989 Mathematical Biology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
Newnham, R. M., and Lowe, D. J. 2000 Fine-Resolution Pollen Record of Late-Glacial Climate Reversal from New Zealand. Geology 28 : 759762.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
North, D. C, and Thomas, R. P. 1973 The Rise of the Western World : A New Economic History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Partridge, T. C, Bond, G. C., Hartnady, C. J. H., deMenocal, P. B., and Ruddiman, W. F. 1995 Climatic Effects of Late Neogene Tectonism and Vulcanism. In Paleoclimate and Evolution With Emphasis on Human Origins, edited by Vrba, E. S., G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, L. H. Burckle, pp. 823. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
Pearsall, D. M. 1995 Domestication and Agriculture in the New World Tropics. In Last Hunters, First Farmers : New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, edited by Price, T. D., and Gebauer, B., pp. 157192. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
Petersen, L. C, Haug, G. H., Haugen, K. A., and Rohl, U. 2000 Rapid Changes in the Hydrologic Cycle of the Tropical Atlantic During the Last Glacial. Science 290 : 19471951.Google Scholar
Petit, J. R., , Jouzel, J., Raynaud, D., Barkov, N. I., Barnola, J.-M., Basile, J., Bender, M., Cappellaz, J., Davis, M., Delaygue, G., Delmotte, M., Kotlyakov, V. M., Legrand, M., Lipenkov, V. Y, Lorius, C., Pepin, L., Ritz, C., Saltzman, E., and Stievenard, M. 1999 Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 Years From the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica. Nature 399 : 429136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poli, M. S., Thunell, R. C., and Rio, D. 2000 Millennial-Scale Changes in North Atlantic Deep Water Circulation During Marine Isotope Stages 11 and 12 : Linkage to Antarctic Climate. Geology 28 : 807 810.Google Scholar
Price, T. D., and Gebauer, B. 1995 Last Hunters, First Farmers : New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
Reed, C. A. 1977 The Origins of Agriculture. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
Reed, C. A., Reilly, J., and Schimmelpfennig, D. 2000 Irreversability, Uncertainty, and Learning : Portraits of Adaptation to Long-Term Climate Change. Climatic Change 45 : 253278.Google Scholar
Richards, B. W., Owen, L. A., and Rhodes, E. J. 2000 Timing of Late Quaternary Glaciations in the Himalayas of Northern Pakistan. Journal of Quaternary Science 15 : 283297.Google Scholar
Rindos, D. 1984 The Origins of Agriculture : An Evolutionary Perspective. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
Rosenzweig, C, and Hillel, D. 1998 Climate Change and the Global Harvest. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Sage, R. F. 1995 Was Low Atmospheric C02 during the Pleistocene a Limiting Factor for the Origin of Agriculture? Global Change Biology 1 : 93106.Google Scholar
Sahlins, M. D., and Service, E. R. 1960 Evolution and Culture. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Schneider, S. H., Easterling, W. E., and Mearns, L. O. 2000 Adaptation : Sensitivity to Natural Variability, Agent Assumptions and Dynamic Climate Changes. Climatic Change 45 : 203221.Google Scholar
Schulz, H., von Rad, E., and Erlenkeuser, H. 1998 Correlation Between Arabian Sea and Greenland Climate Oscillations of the Past 110,000 Years. Nature 393 : 5457.Google Scholar
Shi, N., Dupont, L. M., Beug, H-J., and Schneider, R. 2000 Correlation between Vegetation in Southwestern Africa and Oceanic Upwelling in the Past 21,000 Years. Quaternary Research 54 : 7280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sowers, T., and Bender, M. 1995 Climate Records Covering the Last Deglaciation. Science 269 : 210214.Google Scholar
Smith, B. D. 1989 Origins of Agriculture in Eastern North America. Science 246 : 15661571.Google Scholar
Smith, B. D. 1995 The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library, New York.Google Scholar
Smith, B. D. 1997 Initial Domestication of Curcurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 Years Ago. Science 276 : 932934.Google Scholar
Smith, M. A. 1987 Antiquity of Seedgrinding in Arid Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 21 : 2939.Google Scholar
Steig, E. J., Brook, E. J., White, J. W. C., Sucher, C. M., Bender, M. L., Lehman, S. J., Morse, D. L., Waddington, E. D., and Glow, G. D. 1998 Synchronous Climate Changes in Antarctica and the North Atlantic. Science 282 : 9295.Google Scholar
Stiner, M. C, Munro, N. D., and Surovell, T. A. Bar-Oz, G., T. 2000 The Tortoise and the Hare : Small-Game Use, the Broad- Spectrum Revolution, and Palolithic Demography. CurrentAnthropology 41 : 3973.Google Scholar
Straus, L. G., Eriksen, B. V., Erlandson, J. M., and Yesner, D. R. 1996 Humans at the End of the Ice Age : The Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Beck, J. W., Burr, G. S., Hughen, K. A., Kromer, B., McCormack, G., Plicht, J. V. D., and Spurk, M. 1998 INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000 - 0 cal BP. Radiocarbon 40 : 10411083.Google Scholar
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization 2000 Global Information and Early Warning System for Food and Agriculture, http : //www.fao.org/giews/.Google Scholar
Weber, M. 1930 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, translated by Talcott Parsons. Allen Unwin, London.Google Scholar
Werne, J. P., Hollander, D. J., Lyons, T. W., and Peterson, L. C. 2000 Climate-Induced Variations in Productivity and Planktonic Ecosystem Structure from the Younger Dryas to Holocene in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. Paleoceanography 15 : 1929.Google Scholar
West, G. J. 2000 Pollen Analysis of Late Pleistocene-Holocene Sediments from Core CL-73-5, Clear Lake, Lake County, California : A Terrestrial Record of California's Cismontane Vegetation and Climate Change Inclusive of the Younger Dryas Event. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Pacific Climate Workshop, May 22-25, 2000, edited by West, G. J. and Buffaloe, L.D. pp. 91106. Interagency Ecological Program for the San Francisco Estuary Technical Report 67. California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento.Google Scholar
Winterhalder, B., and Goland, C. 1997 An Evolutionary Ecology Perspective on Diet Choice, Risk, and Plant Domestication. In People, Plants, and Landscapes : Studies in Paleoethnobotany, edited by Gremillion, K. J., pp. 123160. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Winterhalder, B., and Lu, E 1995 A Forager-Resource Population Ecology Model and Implications for Indigenous Conservation. Conservation Biology 11 : 13541364.Google Scholar
Wohlgemuth, E. 1996 Resource Intensification In Prehistoric Central California : Evidence From Archaeobotanical Data. Journal of California and Great Basin Archaeology 18 : 81103.Google Scholar
Wright, H.E., Jr. 1977 Environmental Change and the Origin of Agriculture in the Old and New Worlds. In Origins of Agriculture, edited by Reed, C. A., pp. 281318. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
Zvelebil, M. 1996 The Agricultural Frontier and the Transition to Farming in the Circum-Baltic Region. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by Harris, D. R., pp. 323345. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar