Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Hierarchy, Communalism, and the Spatial Order of Northwest Coast Plank Houses: A Comparative Study

  • Gary Coupland (a1), Terence Clark (a1) and Amanda Palmer (a1)

Abstract

The tension between hierarchy and communalism is a prominent feature of social life in transegalitarian societies. How are hierarchy and communalism combined in these societies? How are they materialized in everyday life? In this paper, we examine the relationship between hierarchy and communalism in the transegalitarian societies of the Northwest Coast of North America. We focus on households, the primary socioeconomic units of the culture area, and on the plank houses that contained them. Despite the apparent contradiction between hierarchy and communalism, we find that in Northwest Coast households with highly developed social hierarchies, communal practices remained deeply entrenched, while in households with weaker hierarchies, communalism was less developed. The relative importance of hierarchy and communalism in daily household life was clearly materialized in the spatial order of plank houses. By simultaneously objectifying both principles, the house may have played an important role in easing the tension between them.

Résumé

La tensión entre jerarquía y comunalismo es un rasgo prominente en la vida social de las sociedades trans-igualitarias. ¿Cómo se combina la jerarquía y el comunalismo en estas sociedades? ¿Cómo se materializan en la vida cotidiana? En este trabajo, examinamos la relación entre jerarquía y comunalismo dentro de las sociedades trans-igualitarias de la costa noroeste de Norte América. Nos focalizamos en las tenencias familiares, en tanto unidades socio-económicas primarias de la cultura local, y en las estructuras residenciales que las contenían. Aún cuando existe una aparente contradicción entre jerarquía y comunalismo, encontramos que en la costa noroeste, donde existen tenencias familiares con jerarquías sociales altamente desarrolladas, las prácticas comunales se mantuvieron profundamente establecidas, mientras que en tenencias familiares con jerarquías má débiles, el comunalismo fue menos desarrollado. La importancia relativa de jerarquía y communalismo en la vida cotidiana de las tenencias familiares se materializaba claramente en el orden espacial de las estructuras residenciales. Al objetivizar simultaneamente estos principios, la estructura residencial habría jugado un rol importante regulando la tensión entre ambos.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Acheson, Steven R. 1991 In the Wake of the Ya’áats’ Xaat-gáay [IronPeople]: A Study of Changing Settlement Strategies among the Kunghit Haida. Unpublished PhD. thesis, Department of Archaeology, Oxford University, Oxford.
Acheson, Steven R. 1998 In the Wake of the Ya’áats’ Xaat-gáay [Iron People]: A Study of Changing Settlement Strategies among the Kunghit Haida. BAR International Series 711. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Ames, Kenneth M. 1995 Chiefly Power and Household Production on the Northwest Coast. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. Douglas Price and Gary M. Feinman, pp. 155188. Plenum, New York.
Ames, Kenneth M. 2001 Slaves, Chiefs and Labor on the Northern Northwest Coast. World Archaeology 33(1):117.
Ames, Kenneth M. 2006 Thinking about Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast and Elsewhere. In Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast, edited by Elizabeth Sobel, Ann Trieu Gahr, and Kenneth M. Ames, pp. 1636. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Ames, Kenneth M., and Maschner, Herbert D.G. 1999 Peoples of the Northwest Coast: Their Archaeology and Prehistory. Thames and Hudson, New York.
Ames, Kenneth M., Raetz, Doria, Hamilton, Stephen, and McAfee, Christine 1992 Household Archaeology of a Southern Northwest Coast Plank House. Journal of Field Archaeology 19:275290.
Ames, Kenneth M., Smith, Cameron M., and Bourdeau, Alex 2008 Large Domestic Pits on the Northwest Coast of North America. Journal of Field Archaeology, 33:318.
Ames, Kenneth M., Smith, Cameron M., Cornett, William L., Sobel, Elizabeth A., Hamilton, Stephen C., Wolf, John, and Raetz, Doria 1999 Archaeological Investigations at 45C11 (1991–1996) Ridgefield Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, Washington: A Preliminary Report. Cultural Resources Series No. 13. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland.
Archer, David J. W. 2001 Village Patterns and the Emergence of Ranked Society in the Prince Rupert Area. In Perspectives on Northern Northwest Coast Prehistory, edited by Jerome S. Cybulski, pp. 20323. Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 160. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull.
Arima, Eugene Y, and Dewhirst, John 1990 Nootkans on Vancouver Island. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 391411. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Arnold, Jeanne E. 2000 The Origins of Hierarchy and the Nature of Hierarchical Structures in Prehistoric California. In Hierarchies in Action: Cui Bono?, edited by Michael W. Diehl, pp. 221240. Center for Archaeological Investigations Occasional Paper 27, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Barnett, Homer G. 1939 Culture Element Distributions, IX: Gulf of Georgia Salish. University of California Anthropological Records 1(5):22195.
Barnett, Homer G. 1955 The Coast Salish of British Columbia. University of Oregon Monographs, Studies in Anthropology 4, Eugene.
Berreman, Joel V. 1944 Chetco Archaeology: A Report of the Lone Ranch Creek Shell Mound on the Coast of Southern Oregon. General Series in Archaeology, 11. George Bana Publishing, Menasha, Wisconsin.
Blackman, Margaret B. 1972 Neí:wons, the ‘Monster’ House of Chief Wí:ha: An Exercise in Ethnohistorical, Archaeological, and Ethnological Reasoning. Syesis 5:211225.
Blackman, Margaret B. 1981 Window on the Past: The Photographic Ethnohistory of the Northern and Kaigani Haida. National Museum of Man, Canadian Ethnology Service, Paper No. 74. Ottawa.
Blackman, Margaret B. 1990 Haida Traditional Culture. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 24060. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Blanton, Richard E. 1994 Houses and Households: A Comparative Study. Plenum Press, New York.
Blanton, Richard E. 1995 The Cultural Foundations of Inequality within Households. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. Douglas Price and Gary M. Feinman, pp. 105128. Plenum Press, New York.
Blanton, Richard E. 1998 Beyond Centralization: Steps Toward a Theory of Egalitarian Behavior in Archaic States. In Archaic States, edited by Gary M. Feinman and Joyce Marcus, pp. 135172. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.
Blanton, Richard E., Feinman, Gary M., Kowalewski, Stephen A., and Peregrine, Peter N. 1996 A Dual-Processual Theory for the Evolution of Mesoamerican Civilization. Current Anthropology 37:114.
Blier, Suzanne P. 1987 The Anatomy of Architecture: Ontology and Metaphor in Batammaliba Architectural Expression. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Boas, Franz 1889 The Houses of the Kwakiutl Indians, British Columbia. In Proceedings of the United States National Museum for 1888, Volume 11:197312. Washington.
Boas, Franz 1891 Second General Report on the Indians of British Columbia. In 60th Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1890, pp. 562715. London.
Boas, Franz 1897 The Social Organization and Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. In Report of the United States National Museum for 1895, pp 311738. Washington.
Boas, Franz 1916 Tsimshian Mythology. In 31st Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the Years 1909–1910, pp. 291037. Washington.
Boas, Franz 1921 Ethnology of the Kwakiutl. In 35th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the Years 1913–1914, pp. 431481. Washington.
Boas, Franz 1923 Notes on the Tillamook. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnography 20:316. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Boas, Franz 1966 Kwakiutl Ethnography. Edited by Helen Codere. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Bohannan, Paul 1965 Introduction. In Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines, by Lewis H. Morgan, pp. vxxi. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Bourdieu, Pierre 1977 Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. 1992 Breaking and Entering the Ecosystem: Gender, Class and Faction Steal the Show. American Anthropologist 94:551567.
Canuto, Marcello A., and Yaeger, Jason (editors) 2000 The Archaeology of Communities: A New World Perspective. Routledge, London.
Carsten, Janet, and Hugh-Jones, Stephen (editors) 1995 About the House: Levi-Strauss and Beyond. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chatters, James C. 1988 Tualdad Altu (45KI49), a 4th Century Village on the Black River, King County, Washington. First City Equities, Seattle.
Chatters, James C. 1989 The Antiquity of Economic Differentiation in the Puget Sound Region, Northwest Coast. In Households and Communities, edited by Scott MacEachern, David J.W. Archer, and Richard D. Garvin, pp. 168178. University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary.
Clark, John E., and Michael Blake, T. 1994 The Power of Prestige: Competitive Generosity and the Emergence of Rank Societies in Lowland Mesoamerica. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, edited by Elizabeth M. Brumfiel and John W. Fox, pp. 1730. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cobb, Charles R. 1993 Archaeological Approaches to the Political Economy of Nonstratified Societies. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 5:43100.
Codere, Helen 1950 Fighting With Property: A Study of Kwakiutl Potlatching and Warfare, 1792—1930. Monographs of the American Ethnological Society 18, New York.
Codere, Helen 1990 Kwakiutl: Traditional Culture. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 259277. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Colson, Elizabeth 1953 The Makah Indians: A Study of an Indian Tribe in Modern American Society. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
Connolly, Thomas J. 1992 Human Responses to Change in Coastal Geomorphology and Fauna on the Southern Northwest Coast: Archaeological Investigations at Seaside, Oregon. University of Oregon Archaeological Papers, 45. Department of Anthropology Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, Oregon.
Coupland, Gary G. 1985 Household Variability and Status Differentiation at Kitselas Canyon. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 9:3956.
Coupland, Gary G. 1988 Prehistoric Cultural Change at Kitselas Canyon. Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 38, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull.
Coupland, Gary G. 2006 A Chief’s House Speaks: Communicating Power on the Northern Northwest Coast. In Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast, edited by Elizabeth Sobel, Ann Trieu Gahr, and Kenneth M. Ames, pp. 8097. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Coupland, Gary G., Bissell, Craig, and King, Sarah 1993 Prehistoric Subsistence and Seasonality at Prince Rupert Harbour: Evidence from the McNichol Creek Site. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 17:5973.
Coupland, Gary G., Colten, Roger H., and Case, Rebecca 2003 Preliminary Analysis of Socioeconomic Organization at the McNichol Creek Site, British Columbia. In Emerging from the Mist: Studies in Northwest Coast Culture History, edited by Richard G. Matson, Gary G. Coupland, and Quentin Mackie, pp. 152169. UBC Press, Vancouver.
Cunningham, Clark E. 1973 Order in the Atoni House. In Right and Left: Essays on Dual Symbolic Classification, edited by Rodney Needham, pp. 204238. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
De Laguna, Frederica 1972 Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Volume 7. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
De Laguna, Frederica (editor) 1991 Additional Comments. In The Tlingit Indians, by George T. Emmons. Reprinted by the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
Dietler, Michael, and Hayden, Brian (editors) 2001 Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
Donald, Leland 1997 Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Donley-Reid, Linda W. 1990 Structuring Structure: The Swahili House. In Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space: An Interdisciplinary Cwss-Cultural Study, edited by Susan Kent, pp. 114126. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Drucker, Philip 1937 The Tolowa and their Southwest Oregon Kin. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnography 36: 221299. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Drucker, Philip 1951 The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 144. United States Government Printing Office, Washington.
Drucker, Philip 1955 Indians of the Northwest Coast. American Museum of Natural History, New York.
Druckef, Philip, and Heizer, Robert F. 1967 To Make My Name Good: A Re-examination of the Southern Kwakiutl Potlatch. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Elmendorf, William W. 1960 The Structure of Twana Culture. Washington State University, Research Studies 28(3), Supplement 2. Pullman.
Elmendorf, William W. 1971 Coast Salish Status Ranking and Intergroup Ties. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 27:353380.
Emmons, George T. 1991 [1916] The Tlingit Indians. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Erlandson, Jon M., Moss, Madonna L., and Tveskov, Mark A. 1997 Return to Chetlessenten: The Antiquity and Architecture of an Athapaskan Village on the Southern Northwest Coast. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 19:226240.
Feinman, Gary M. 1995 The Emergence of Inequality: A Focus on Strategies and Processes. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. Douglas Price and Gary M. Feinman, pp. 255279. Plenum, New York.
Feinman, Gary M., Lightfoot, Kent G., and Upham, Steadman 2000 Political Hierarchies and Organizational Strategies in the Puebloan Southwest. American Antiquity 65:449470.
Fladmark, Knut R. 1973 The Richardson Ranch Site: A 19th Century Haida House. In Historical Archaeology in Northwestern North America, edited by Ronald M. Getty and Knut R. Fladmark, pp. 5395. University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary.
Fleurieu, Charles P. 1970 [1801] A Voyage Around the World Performed During the Years 1790,1791, and 1972, by Etienne Marchand. 2 vols. Longmanns and Rees, London.
Franchere, Gabriel 1966 [ 1854] Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America In the Years 1811, 1812, 1813 and 1814, In Early Western Travels 1748–1846, Volume VI, edited by Rueben G. Thwaites. AMS Press, New York.
Garfield, Viola E. 1939 Tsimshian Clan and Society. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 7:167340.
Garfield, Viola E. 1951 The Tsimshian andTheir Neighbors. In The Tsimshian Indians and Their Arts, edited by Viola E. Garfield and Paul S. Wingert, pp. 370. Douglas and McIntyre, Vancouver.
Gibbs, George 1970 [1877] Tribes of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon. Contributions to North American Ethnology 1:157361. Reprinted by Shorey Press, Seattle.
Giddens, Anthony 1979 Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure, and Contradiction in Social Analysis. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Giddens, Anthony 1984 The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Polity Press, Cambridge.
Gillespie, Susan D. 2000 Lévi-Strauss: Maison and Société à Maisons. In Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House Societies, edited by Rosemary A. Joyce and Susan D. Gillespie, pp. 2252. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Goldman, Irving 1975 The Mouth of Heaven: An Introduction to Kwakiutl Religious Thought. Wiley, New York.
Gould, Richard A. 1966 Archaeology of the Point St. George Site, and Tolowa Prehistory. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Grier, Colin 2001 The Social Economy of a Prehistoric Northwest Coast Plankhouse. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe.
Grier, Colin 2006 Temporality in Northwest Coast Households. In Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast, edited by Elizabeth Sobel, Ann Trieu Gahr, and Kenneth M. Ames, pp. 97119. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Hajda, Yvonne P. 1984 Regional Social Organization in the Lower Columbia, 1792–1830. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle.
Hajda, Yvonne P. 1994 Notes on Indian Houses of the Wappato Valley. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 28:177188.
Halpin, Marjorie, and Seguin, Margaret 1990 Tsimshian Peoples: Southern Tsimshian, Coast Tsimshian, Nishga and Gitksan. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 267284. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
Hayden, Brian 1995 Pathways to Power: Principles for Creating Socioeconomic Inequalities. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. Douglas Price and Gary M. Feinman, pp. 1586. Plenum Press, New York.
Heflin, Eugene 1966 The Pistol River Site of Southwestern Oregon. Reports of the University of California Archaeological Survey 67:151206.
Hill-Tout, Charles 1901 Notes on the Sk-oqōmic of British Columbia, a Branch of the Great Salish Stock of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, No. 70, pp. 472549. London.
Hill-Tout, Charles 1902 Ethnological Studies of the Mainland Halkomelem, a Division of the Salish of British Columbia. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, No. 72, pp. 355449. London.
Hill-Tout, Charles 1906 The Salish Tribes of the Coast and Lower Fraser Delta. Ethnology of Canada and Newfoundland, pp. 225235. Ottawa.
Hodder, Ian 1990 The Domestication of Europe. Blackwell, Oxford.
Hoffman, Brian W. 1999 Agayadan Village: Household Archaeology on Unimak Island, Alaska. Journal of Field Archaeology 26:147161.
Howay, Frederick W. 1920 The Voyage of the Hope, 1790–1792. The Washington Historical Quarterly 11:328.
Huelsbeck, David R. 1989 Food Consumption, Resource Exploitation and Relationships Within and Between Households at Ozette. In Households and Communities: Proceedings of the 21st Chacmool Conference, edited by Scott MacEachern, David J.W. Archer, and Richard D. Garvin, pp. 157167. University of Calgary Student Association, Calgary.
Inglis, Richard 1973 The Problems of Historical Research in the Prince Rupert Area: A Definition of the Protohistoric and Historic Periods. Research Paper No. 1120. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull.
Jacobs, Elizabeth D. 2003 The Nehalem Tillamook: An Ethnography, edited by William R. Seaburg. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon.
Jacobs, Melville 1939 Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology, 8. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Jewitt, John R. 1967 [1815] A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt; Only Survivior of the Crew of the Ship Boston. Ye Galleon Press, Fairfield, Washington.
Kennedy, Dorothy I.D., and Bouchard, Randy 1990 Northern Coast Salish. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 441452. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Kobrinsky, Vernon 1975 Dynamics of the Fort Rupert Class Struggle: Fighting with Property Vertically Revisited. In Papers in Honor of Harry Hawthorn, edited by Vernon C. Serl and Herbert C. Taylor Jr., pp. 3259. Northwest Scientific Association, Bellingham, Washington.
Krause, Aurel 1979 [1885] The Tlingit Indians. Douglas and McIntyre, Vancouver.
Kroeber, Alfred L. 1939 Cultural and Natural Areas of North America. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 38. Berkeley.
Lamb, W. Kaye 1960 The letters and Journals of Simon Fraser, 1806–1808. McMillan, Toronto.
LeClair, Ronald 1976 Investigations at the Maurer Site Near Aggasiz. In Current Research Reports, edited by Roy L. Carlson, pp. 3342. Department of Archaeology Publications, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.
Lee, Richard B. 1990 Primitive Communism and the Origin of Social Inequality. In The Evolution of Political Systems, edited by Steadman Upham, pp. 225246. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lepofsky, Dana, T. Blake, Michael, Brown, Doug, Morrison, Sandra, Oakes, Nicole, and Lyons, Natasha 2000 The Archaeology of the Scowlitz Site, SW British Columbia. Journal of Field Archaeology 27:391416.
Levi-Strauss, Claude 1982 The Way of the Masks. Translated by Sylvia Modelski. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Losey, Robert J. 2002 Communities and Catastrophe: Tillamook Response to the A.D. 1700 Earthquake and Tsunami, Northern Oregon Coast. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene.
Losey, Robert J. 2005 House Remains at the Netarts Sandspit Village, Oregon. Journal of Field Archaeology 30:401417.
Lyman, R. Lee 1991 Prehistory of the Oregon Coast: The Effects of Excavation Strategies and Assemblage Size on Archaeological Inquiry. Academic Press, San Diego.
MacDonald, George F. 1983 Haida Monumental Art: Villages of the Queen Charlotte Islands. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.
MacDonald, George R, and Cybulski, Jerome S. 2001 Introduction: The Prince Rupert Harbour Project. In Perspectives on Northern Northwest Coast Prehistory, edited by Jerome S. Cybulski, pp. 124. Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 160. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull.
Marshall, Yvonne 2000 Transformations of Nuu-chah-nulth Houses. In Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House Societies, edited by Rosemary A. Joyce and Susan D. Gillespie, pp. 73102. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Martindale, Andrew R.C. 1999 The River of Mist: Cultural Change in the Tsimshian Past. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto.
Maschner, Herbert D.G. 1991 The Emergence of Cultural Complexity on the Northern Northwest Coast. Antiquity 65:924934.
Mason, Andrew R. 1994 The Hatzic Rock Site: A Charles Culture Settlement. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Matson, Richard G. 1992 The Evolution of Northwest Coast Subsistence. In Long-Term Subsistence Change in Prehistoric North America, edited by Dale R. Croes, Rebecca A. Hawkins and Barry Isaac, pp. 367428. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 6, JAI Press, Greenwich.
Matson, Richard G. 2003 The Coast Salish House: Lessons from Shingle Point, Valdes Island, British Columbia. In Emerging From the Mist: Studies in Northwest Coast Culture History, edited by Richard G. Matson, Gary G. Coupland and Quentin Mackie, pp. 76104. UBC Press, Vancouver.
Matson, Richard G., and Coupland, Gary G. 1995 The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast. Academic Press, San Diego.
Mauger, Jeffrey E. 1978 Shed-Roof Houses at the Ozette Archaeological Site: A Proto-Historic Architectural System. Washington Archaeological Research Center Project Report No. 97. Washington State University, Pullman.
Mauss, Marcel 1967 [1924] The Gift. Norton, New York.
Miller, Jay 1997 Tsimshian Culture: A Light Through the Ages. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Miller, Jay, and Seaburg, William R. 1990 Athapaskans of Southwestern Oregon. In Northwest Coast edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 580588. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
Moemeka, Andrew 1998 Communalism as a Fundamental Dimension of Culture. Journal of Communication 48:118141.
Morgan, Lewis H. 1965 [1881] Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Morgan, Vera E. 1999 Results of Cultural Resource Survey and Testing for the Washington State Department of Transportation’s Planned SR 101 Sequim Bypass Project, Clallam County, Washington. Eastern Washington University Reports in Archaeology and History 100–192, Archaeological and Historical Services, Eastern Washington University, Cheney.
Moulton, Gary E. 1990 The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Volume VI. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Moulton, Gary E. 1991 The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Volume VII. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Murdock, George P. 1934 The Haidas of British Columbia. In Our Primitive Contemporaries, edited by George P. Murdock, pp. 221263. MacMillan, New York.
Newman, Thomas M. 1959 Tillamook Prehistory and its Relation to the Northwest Coast Culture Area. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene.
Oberg, Kalervo 1973 The Social Economy of the Tlingit Indians. American Ethnological Society Monographs 55. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Olson, Ronald L. 1936 The Quinault Indians. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Parker, Samuel 1967 [1838] The Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains, Under the Direction of the A.B. C.F.M. 1835, 1836 and 1837. Ross and Haines, Minneapolis.
Pearson, Michael P., and Richards, Colin 1994 Ordering the World: Perceptions of Architecture, Space, and Time. In Architecture and Order: Approaches to Social Space, edited by Michael P. Pearson and Colin Richards, pp. 137. Routledge, New York.
Perodie, James R. 2001 Feasting for Prosperity: A Study of Southern Northwest Coast Feasting. In Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power, edited by Michael Dietler and Brian Hayden, pp. 185214. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Phebus, George E. Jr., and Drucker, Robert M. 1979 Archaeological Investigations at Seaside, Oregon. Seaside Museum and Historical Society, Seaside, Oregon.
Rapoport, Amos 1969 House Form and Culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Rapoport, Amos 1990 [1982] The Meaning of the Built Environment: A Nonverbal Communication Approach, (second edition) University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Ray, Verne F. 1938 Lower Chinook Ethnographic Notes. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Riches, David 1979 Ecological Variation on the Northwest Coast: Models for the Generation of Cognatic and Matrilineal Descent. In Social and Ecological Systems, edited by Philip Burnham and Roy Ellen, pp. 145166. Academic Press, New York.
Rosman, Abraham, and Rubel, Paula 1971 Feasting with Mine Enemy: Rank and Exchange Among Northwest Coast Societies. Columbia University Press, New York.
Ross, Alexander 1966 [1849] Adventures of the First Settlers on the Columbia River. March of America Facsimile Series, 55. University Mircofilms, Ann Arbor.
Roth, Christopher F. 2002 Goods, Names, and Selves: Rethinking the Tsimshian Potlatch. American Ethnologist 29:123150.
Ruyle, Eugene E. 1973 Slavery, Surplus, and Stratification on the Northwest Coast: The Ethnoenergetics of an Incipient Stratification System. Current Anthropology 14:603631.
Sahlins, Marshall 1963 Rich Man, Poor Man, Big Man, Chief: Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 5:285303.
Saitta, Dean J., and Keene, Arthur 1990 Politics and Surplus Flow in Prehistoric Communal Societies. In The Evolution of Political Systems, edited by Steadman Upham, pp. 203224. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Samuels, Stephan R. 1989 Spatial Patterns in Ozette Longhouse Floor Middens. In Households and Communities: Proceedings of the 21st Chacmool Conference, edited by S. Scott MacEachern, David J.W Archer, and Richard D. Garvin pp. 143156. University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary.
Samuels, Stephan R. 2006 Households at Ozette. In Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast, edited by Elizabeth Sobel, Ann Trieu Gahr, and Kenneth M. Ames pp. 200232. International Monographs in Prehistory. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Sassaman, Kenneth E. 2004 Complex Hunter-Gatherers in Evolution and History: A North American Perspective. Journal of Archaeological Research 12:227279.
Schaepe, David 2003 Validating the Maurer House. In Archaeology of Coastal British Columbia: Essays in Honour of Professor Philip M. Hobler, edited by Roy L. Carlson, pp. 113152. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
Seaburg, William R., and Miller, lay 1990 Tillamook. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 560567. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Silverstein, Michael 1990 Chinookans of the Lower Columbia. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 533546. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Smith, Cameron M. 2004 The Social Organization of Production in Three Protohistoric Lower Columbia River Plank Houses. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.
Smith, Cameron M. 2006 Formation Processes of a Lower Columbia River Plankhouse Site. In Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast, edited by Elizabeth Sobel, Ann Trieu Gahr, and Kenneth M. Ames, pp. 233269. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Snyder, Warren A. 1956 “Old Man House” on Puget Sound. Washington State University Research Studies 24:1737. Pullman.
Sobel, Elizabeth A. 2004 Social Complexity and Corporate Households on the Southern Northwest Coast of North America, A.D. 1450–1855. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Sobel, Elizabeth A. 2006 Household Prestige and Exchange in Northwest Coast Societies: A Case Study from the Lower Columbia River Valley. In Household Archaeology on the Northwest Coast, edited by Elizabeth Sobel, Ann Trieu Gahr, and Kenneth M. Ames, pp. 159199. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Sproat, Gilbert M. 1987 [1868] Scenes and Studies of Savage Life. Sono Nis Press, Victoria.
Strathern, Andrew J. 1984 “A Brother is a Creative Thing”: Change and Conflict in a Melpa Family (Papua New Guinea). In Interest and Emotion: Essays on the Study of Family and Kinship, edited by Hans Medick and David W. Sabean, pp. 187209, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Suttles, Wayne P. 1960 Affinal Ties, Subsistence, and Prestige Among the Coast Salish. American Anthropologist 62:296305.
Suttles, Wayne P. 1968 Coping with Abundance: Subsistence on the Northwest Coast. In Man the Hunter, edited by Richard B. Lee and Irven DeVore, pp. 5668. Aldine, Chicago.
Suttles, Wayne P. 1987 Coast Salish Essays. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Suttles, Wayne P. 1990 Central Coast Salish. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 453475. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Suttles, Wayne P. 1991 The Shed-Roof House. In A Time of Gathering: Native Heritage in “Washington State, edited by Robin K. Wright, pp. 212222. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Suttles, Wayne P., and Lane, Barbara 1990 Southern Coast Salish. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 485502. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Swan, James G. 1857 The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years’ Residence in Washington Territory. Harper and Bros., New York.
Swanton, John R. 1905 Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida. Publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition 5; Memoirs of the American Museum of’Natural History 8:1300. New York.
Trubitt, Mary Beth 2000 Mound Building and Prestige Goods Exchange: Changing Strategies in the Cahokia Chiefdom. American Antiquity 65:669690.
Tveskov, Mark A. 2000 The Coos and Coquille: A Northwest Coast Historical Anthropology. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene.
Tveskov, Mark A. 2007 Social Identity and Culture Change on the Southern Northwest Coast. American Anthropologist 109:431441.
Vastokas, Joan M. 1966 Architecture of the Northwest Coast Indians of North America. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York.
Walker, Sara L. 2003 Archaeological Investigations at Sites 45SJ165 and 45SJ169, Decatur Island, San Juan County, Washington. Eastern Washington University Reports in Archaeology and History 100–118, Archaeological and Historical Services. Eastern Washington University, Cheney.
Willoughby, Charles C. 1969 [1886] Indians of the Quinaielt Agency, Washington Territory. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Zenk, Henry B. 1990a Alseans. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 568571. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Zenk, Henry B. 1990b Siuslawans and Coosans. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne P. Suttles, pp. 572579. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed