Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

NEW EVIDENCE OF THE EARLIEST DOMESTIC DOGS IN THE AMERICAS

  • Angela Perri (a1), Chris Widga (a2), Dennis Lawler (a3), Terrance Martin (a4), Thomas Loebel (a5), Kenneth Farnsworth (a5), Luci Kohn (a6) and Brent Buenger (a7)...
Abstract

The domestication of dogs likely occurred in Eurasia by 16,000 years ago, and the initial peopling of the Americas potentially happened around the same time. Dogs were long thought to have accompanied the first migrations into the Americas, but conclusive evidence for Paleoindian dogs is lacking. In this study, the direct dating of two dogs from the Koster site (Greene County, Illinois) and a newly described dog from the Stilwell II site (Pike County, Illinois) to between 10,190 and 9,630 cal BP represents the earliest confirmed evidence of domestic dogs in the Americas and individual dog burials anywhere in the world. Analysis of these animals shows Early Archaic dogs were medium sized, lived active lifestyles, and exhibited significant morphological variation. Stable isotope analyses suggest diets dominated by terrestrial C3 resources and substantial consumption of riverine fish.

La domesticación del perro probablemente ocurrió en Eurasia hace 16,000 años, potencialmente alrededor del mismo tiempo que el poblamiento inicial de América. Durante mucho tiempo se pensó que los perros habían acompañado las primeras migraciones humanas hacia el continente americano, pero no se ha encontrado evidencia concluyente de perros paleoindios. La datación directa de dos perros del sitio Koster (condado Greene, Illinois) y un perro recientemente descrito del sitio Stilwell II (condado Pike, Illinois) entre 10.190 y 9630 cal aP representa la evidencia confirmada más temprana de perros domésticos en América y de enterramientos individuales de perros en cualquier parte del mundo. El análisis de estos animales muestra que los perros arcaicos tempranos eran de tamaño mediano y vivían estilos de vida activos, pero que ya exhibían una variación morfológica significativa. Los análisis de isótopos estables sugieren que sus dietas estuvieron dominadas por recursos terrestres de tipo C3 y por el consumo sustancial de peces de agua dulce.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      NEW EVIDENCE OF THE EARLIEST DOMESTIC DOGS IN THE AMERICAS
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      NEW EVIDENCE OF THE EARLIEST DOMESTIC DOGS IN THE AMERICAS
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      NEW EVIDENCE OF THE EARLIEST DOMESTIC DOGS IN THE AMERICAS
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(angela.r.perri@durham.ac.uk, corresponding author)
References
Hide All
Ahler, Steven R. 1993 Stratigraphy and Radiocarbon Chronology of Modoc Rock Shelter, Illinois. American Antiquity 58:462489.
Ameen, Carly, Hulme-Beaman, Ardern, Evin, Allowen, Germonpré, Mietje, Britton, Kate, Cucchi, Thomas, Larson, Greger, and Dobney, Keith 2017 A Landmark-Based Approach for Assessing the Reliability of Mandibular Tooth Crowding as a Marker of Dog Domestication. Journal of Archaeological Science 85:4150.
Axelsson, Erik, Ratnakumar, Abhirami, Arendt, Maja-Louise, Maqbool, Khurram, Webster, Matthew T., Perloski, Michele, Liberg, Olof, Arnemo, Jon M., Hedhammar, Åke, and Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin 2013 The Genomic Signature of Dog Domestication Reveals Adaptation to a Starch-Rich Diet. Nature 495(7441):360.
Baker, Richard G., Maher, Louis J., Chumbley, Craig A., and Van Zant, Kent L. 1992 Patterns of Holocene Environmental Change in the Midwestern United States. Quaternary Research 37:379389.
Beebe, B. F. 1980 A Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris L.) of Probable Pleistocene Age from Old Crow, Yukon Territory, Canada. Canadian Journal of Archaeology=Journal Canadien d'Archéologie 4:161168.
Boudadi-Maligne, Myriam, and Escarguel, Gilles 2014 A Biometric Re-evaluation of Recent Claims for Early Upper Palaeolithic Wolf Domestication in Eurasia. Journal of Archaeological Science 45:8089.
Bozell, John R. 1988 Changes in the Role of the Dog in Protohistoric–Historic Pawnee Culture. Plains Anthropologist 33:95111.
Braje, Todd J., Dillehay, Tom D., Erlandson, Jon M., Klein, Richard G., and Rick, Torben C. 2017 Finding the First Americans. Science 358(6363):592594.
Brown, Sarah K., Darwent, Christyann M., and Sacks, Benjamin N. 2013 Ancient DNA Evidence for Genetic Continuity in Arctic Dogs. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2):12791288.
Brown, James A., and Vierra, Robert K. 1983 What Happened in the Middle Archaic? Introduction to an Ecological Approach to Koster Site Archaeology . Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.
Brugam, Richard B., Little, Kayla, Kohn, Luci, Brunkow, Paul, Vogel, Gregory, and Martin, Terrance 2017 Tracking Change in the Illinois River Using Stable Isotopes in Modern and Ancient Fishes. River Research and Applications 33(3):341352.
Buikstra, Jane E., Rose, Jerome C., and Milner, George R. 1994 A Carbon Isotopic Perspective on Dietary Variation in Late Prehistoric Western Illinois. In Agricultural Origins and Development in the Midcontinent, edited by Green, William pp. 15170. Office of the State Archaeologist, Iowa City, Iowa.
Butzer, Karl W. 1978 Changing Holocene Environments at the Koster Site: A Geo-Archaeological Perspective. American Antiquity 43:408413.
Camarós, Edgard, Münzel, Susanne C., Cueto, Marián, Rivals, Florent, and Conard, Nicholas J. 2016 The Evolution of Paleolithic Hominin–Carnivore Interaction Written in Teeth: Stories from the Swabian Jura (Germany). Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 6:798809.
Carbaugh, Aimee E., Headley, Amanda, and Fort, Matthew 2018 Human Remains Analysis Results and Interpretation. In The Broglio Site: A Late Middle Archaic Habitation and Mortuary Site in the Big Muddy Watershed. Illinois State Archaeological Survey Research Report No. 49. Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Cormie, A. B., and Schwarcz, H. P. 1994 Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen and Carbon of North American White-Tailed Deer and Implications for Paleodietary and Other Food Web Studies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 107(3-4):227241.
Crockford, Susan J., and Kuzmin, Yaroslav 2012 Comments on Germonpré et al., Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2009 “Fossil Dogs and Wolves from Palaeolithic Sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: Osteometry, Ancient DNA and Stable Isotopes”, and Germonpré, Lázkičková-Galetová, and Sablin, Journal of Archaeological Science 39, 2012 “Palaeolithic Dog Skulls at the Gravettian Předmostí Site, the Czech Republic”. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(8):27972801.
Darwent, Christann M., and Gilliland, J. Eric 2001 Osteological Analysis of Domestic Dogs from Burials in Southern Missouri. Missouri Archaeology 62:149169.
DeBowes, Linda J., Mosier, Derek, Logan, E., Harvey, C. E., Lowry, S., and Richardson, D. C. 1996 Association of Periodontal Disease and Histologic Lesions in Multiple Organs from 45 Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry 13(2):5760.
Dikov, Nikolay N. 1979 Drevniye kul'tury severo-vostochnoy Azii. Aziya na styke s Amerikoy v drevnosti [Ancient Cultures of Northeast Asia: Asia at the Junction with America in Antiquity], Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).
Dillehay, Tom D., Ocampo, Carlos, Saavedra, José, Sawakuchi, Andre Oliveira, Vega, Rodrigo M., Pino, Mario, Collins, Michael B., Cummings, Linda Scott, Arregui, Iván, Villagran, Ximena S., Hartmann, Gelvam A., Mella, Mauricio, González, Andrea, and Dix, George 2015 New Archaeological Evidence for an Early Human Presence at Monte Verde, Chile. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0141923. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141923, accessed June 12, 2018.
Ding, Zhao-Li, Oskarsson, Mattias, Ardalan, Arman, Angleby, Helen, Dahlgren, Lars-Göran, Tepeli, Cafer, Kirkness, Ewen, Savolainen, Peter, and Zhang, Ya-Ping 2012 Origins of Domestic Dog in Southern East Asia Is Supported by Analysis of Y-chromosome DNA. Heredity 108(5):507.
Doherty, Tim S., Dickman, Chris R., Glen, Alistair S., Newsome, Thomas M., Nimmo, Dale G., Ritchie, Euan G., Vanak, Abi T., and Wirsing, Aaron J.. 2017 The Global Impacts of Domestic Dogs on Threatened Vertebrates. Biological Conservation 210:5659.
Drake, Abby G., Coquerelle, Michael, and Colombeau, Guillaume 2015 3D Morphometric Analysis of Fossil Canid Skulls Contradicts the Suggested Domestication of Dogs during the Late Paleolithic. Scientific Reports 5:8299. DOI: 10.1038/srep08299, accessed December 1, 2017.
Drake, Abby G., Coquerelle, Michael, Kosintsev, Pavel A., Bachura, Olga P., Sablin, Mikhail, Gusev, Andrei V., Fleming, Lacey S., and Losey, Robert J. 2017 Three-Dimensional Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Fossil Canid Mandibles and Skulls. Scientific Reports 7(1):9508.
Druzhkova, Anna S., Thalmann, Olaf, Trifonov, Vladimir A., Leonard, Jennifer A., Vorobieva, Nadezhda V., Ovodov, Nikolai D., Graphodatsky, Alexander S., and Wayne, Robert K. 2013 Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog. PLoS ONE 8(3):e57754.
Easton, Norman A., Mackay, Glen R., Young, Patricia B., Schnurr, Peter, and Yesner, David R. 2011 Chindadn in Canada? Emergent Evidence of the Pleistocene Transition in Southeast Beringia as Revealed by the Little John Site, Yukon. In From the Yenisei to the Yukon: Interpreting Lithic Assemblage Variability in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Beringia, edited by Goebel, Ted and Buvit, Ian, pp. 289307, Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Emerson, Thomas E., Hedman, Kristin M., and Simon, Mary L. 2005 Marginal Horticulturalists or Maize Agriculturalists? Archaeobotanical, Paleopathological, and Isotopic Evidence Relating to Langford Tradition Maize Consumption. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 30:67118.
Erlandson, Jon M., Rick, Torben C., Braje, Todd J., Casperson, Molly, Culleton, Brendan, Fulfrost, Brian, Garcia, Tracy, Guthrie, Daniel A., Jew, Nicholas, Kennett, Douglas J., Moss, Madonna L., Reeder, Leslie, Skinner, Craig, Watts, Jack, Willis, Lauren 2011 Paleoindian Seafaring, Maritime Technologies, and Coastal Foraging on California's Channel Islands. Science 331:11811185.
Evin, Allowen, Souter, Thibaud, Hulme-Beaman, Ardern, Ameen, Carly, Allen, Richard, Viacava, Pietro, Larson, Greger, Cucchi, Thomas, and Dobney, Keith 2016 The Use of Close-Range Photogrammetry in Zooarchaeology: Creating Accurate 3D Models of Wolf Crania to Study Dog Domestication. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 9 8793.
Ewersen, Jörg, Ziegler, Stefan, Ramminger, Britta, and Schmölcke, Ulrich 2018 Stable Isotopic Ratios from Mesolithic and Neolithic Canids as an Indicator of Human Economic and Ritual Activity Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 17:346357.
Fiedel, Stuart J. 2005 Man's Best Friend–Mammoth's Worst Enemy? A Speculative Essay on the Role of Dogs in Paleoindian Colonization and Megafaunal Extinction. World Archaeology 37:1125.
Fort, Matthew A., Hedman, Kristin M., and Ambrose, Stanley H. 2016 Stable Isotope Analysis of Diet in a Sample of Human and Mammal Bone. In The Tree Row Site: A Late Archaic Habitation and Mortuary Site in the Central Illinois Valley, edited by McElrath, Dale L. and Evans, Madeleine G., pp. 215221, Illinois State Archaeological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, Urbana-Champaign.
Fox-Dobbs, Kena, Bump, J.K., Peterson, R.O., Fox, D. L., and Koch, P.L. 2007 Carnivore-Specific Stable Isotope Variables and Variation in the Foraging Ecology of Modern and Ancient Wolf Populations: Case Studies from Isle Royale, Minnesota, and La Brea. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85(4):458471.
Frantz, Laurent A., Mullin, Victoria E., Pionnier-Capitan, Maud, Lebrasseur, Ophélie, Ollivier, Morgane, Perri, Angela, Linderholm, Anna, Mattiangeli, Valeria, Teasdale, Matthew D., Dimopoulos, Evangelos A., Tresset, Anne, Duffraisse, Marilyne, McCormick, Finbar, Bartosiewicz, László, Gál, Erika, Nyerges, Éva A., Sablin, Mikhail V., Bréhard, Stéphanie, Mashkour, Marjan, Bălăşescu, Adrian, Gillet, Benjamin, Hughes, Sandrine, Chassaing, Olivier, Hitte, Christophe, Vigne, Jean-Denis, Dobney, Keith, Hänni, Catherine, Bradley, Daniel G., and Larson, Greger 2016 Genomic and Archaeological Evidence Suggest a Dual Origin of Domestic Dogs. Science 352(6290):12281231.
Freedman, Adam H., Gronau, Ilan, Schweizer, Rena M., Vecchyo, Diego Ortega-Del, Han, Eunjung, Silva, Pedro M., Galaverni, Marco, Fan, Zhenxin, Marx, Peter, Lorente-Galdos, Belen, Beale, Holly, Ramirez, Oscar, Hormozdiari, Farhad, Alkan, Can, Vilà, Carles, Squire, Kevin, Geffen, Eli, Kusak, Josip, Boyko, Adam R., Parker, Heidi G., Lee, Clarence, Tadigotla, Vasisht, Siepel, Adam, Bustamante, Carlos D., Harkins, Timothy T., Nelson, Stanley F., Ostrander, Elaine A., Marques-Bonet, Tomas, Wayne, Robert K., and Novembre, John 2014 Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs. PLoS Genetics 10(1):e1004016. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016, accessed October 25, 2017.
Froehle, Andrew W., Kellner, Corina M., and Schoeninger, Margaret J. 2012 Multivariate Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Model for the Reconstruction of Prehistoric Human Diet. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147:352369.
Germonpré, Mietje, Sablin, Mikhail V., Stevens, Rhiannon E., Hedges, Robert E.M., Hofreiter, Michael, Stiller, Mathias, and Després, Viviane R. 2009 Fossil Dogs and Wolves from Palaeolithic Sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia: Osteometry, Ancient DNA and Stable Isotopes. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:473490.
Germonpré, Mietje, Sablin, Mikhail V., Després, Viviane, Hofreiter, Michael, Lázničková-Galetová, Martina, Stevens, Rhiannon E., and Stiller, Mathias 2013 Palaeolithic Dogs and the Early Domestication of the Wolf: A Reply to the Comments of Crockford and Kuzmin (2012). Journal of Archaeological Science 40(1):786792.
Germonpré, Mietje, Lázničková-Galetová, Martina, and Sablin, Mikhail V. 2012 Palaeolithic Dog Skulls at the Gravettian Předmostí Site, the Czech Republic. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(1):184202.
Germonpré, Mietje, Sablin, Mikhail V., Lázničková-Galetová, Martina, Després, Viviane, Stevens, Rhiannon E., Stiller, Mathias, and Hofreiter, Michael 2015 Palaeolithic Dogs and Pleistocene Wolves Revisited: A Reply to Morey (2014). Journal of Archaeological Science, 54, 210216.
Germonpré, Mietje, Lázničková-Galetová, Martina, Losey, Robert J., Räikkönen, Jannikke, and Sablin, Mikhail V. 2015 Large Canids at the Gravettian Předmostí Site, the Czech Republic: the Mandible. Quaternary International 359:261279.
Germonpré, Mietje, Fedorov, Sergey, Danilov, Petr, Galeta, Patrik, Jimenez, Elodie-Laure, Sablin, Mikhail, and Losey, Robert J. 2017 Palaeolithic and Prehistoric Dogs and Pleistocene Wolves from Yakutia: Identification of Isolated Skulls. Journal of Archaeological Science 78:119.
Goebel, Ted, Slobodin, Sergei B., and Waters, Michael R. 2010 New Dates from Ushki-1, Kamchatka, Confirm 13,000 cal BP Age for Earliest Paleolithic Occupation. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(10):26402649.
Gowlett, John A., Hedges, R. E. M., Law, I. A., and Perry, C. 1987 Radiocarbon Dates from the Oxford AMS System: Archaeometry Datelist 5. Archaeometry 29:125155.
Grayson, Donald K., Parmalee, Paul W., Lyman, R. Lee, and Mead, Jim I. 1988 Danger Cave, Last Supper Cave, and Hanging Rock Shelter: The Faunas. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History Vol. 66(1). American Museum of Natural History, New York.
Haag, William G. 1970 Dog Remains from Hogup Cave. In Hogup Cave, edited by Aikens, Melvin, pp. 273274. University of Utah Anthropological Papers, Volume 84, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Hajic, Edwin R. 1990 Koster Site Archaeology I: Stratigraphy and Landscape Evolution (No. 8). Center for American Archeology Press, Kampsville, IL.
Halligan, Jessi J., Waters, Michael R., Perrotti, Angelina, Owens, Ivy J., Feinberg, Joshua M., Bourne, Mark D., Fenerty, Brendan, Winsborough, Barbara, Carlson, David, Fisher, Daniel C., Stafford, Thomas W. Jr., and Dunbar, James S. 2016 Pre-Clovis Occupation 14,550 Years Ago at the Page-Ladson Site, Florida, and the Peopling of the Americas. Science Advances 2(5):e1600375.DOI:10.1126/sciadv.1600375, accessed September 20, 2017.
Harcourt, Ralph A. 1974 The Dog in Prehistoric and Early Historic Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science 1(2):151175.
Hargrave, Eve A., Hedman, Kristin M., and Wolf, Rebecca 2006 Isolated Human Burial at the Kaskaskia Mine Site (11R687), Randolph County, Illinois. Transportation Archaeological Research Reports No. 104, Illinois Transportation Archaeological Research Program, Champaign.
Harington, Charles R. (editor) 2003 Annotated Bibliography of Quaternary Vertebrates of Northern North America: With Radiocarbon Dates. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
Heaton, Tim H.E., Vogel, John C., von La Chevallerie, Gertrud, and Collett, Gill 1986 Climatic Influence on the Isotopic Composition of Bone Nitrogen. Nature 322:822824.
Hedman, Kristin, Hargrave, Eve A., and Ambrose, Stanley H. 2002 Late Mississippian Diet in the American Bottom: Stable Isotope Analyses of Bone Collagen and Apatite. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 27(2):237271.
Hill, Frederick C. 1972 A Middle Archaic Dog Burial in Illinois. Foundation for Illinois Archaeology, Evanston.
Jakobsson, Martin, Pearce, Christof, Cronin, Thomas M., Backman, Jan, Anderson, Leif G., Barrientos, Natalia, Björk, Göran, Coxall, Helen, de Boer, Agatha, Mayer, Larry A., Mörth, Carl-Magnus, Nilsson, Johan, Rattray, Jayne E., Stranne, Christian, Semiletov, Igor, and O'Regan, Matt 2017 Post-glacial Flooding of the Bering Land Bridge Dated to 11 cal ka BP Based on New Geophysical and Sediment Records. Climate of the Past 13(8):9911005.
Janssens, Luc, Spanoghe, Inge, Miller, Rebecca, and Van Dongen, Stefan 2016 Can Orbital Angle Morphology Distinguish Dogs from Wolves? Zoomorphology 135(1):149158.
Jenkins, Dennis L., Davis, Loren G., Stafford, Thomas W. Jr., Campos, Paula F., Connolly, Thomas J., Cummings, Linda Scott, Hofreiter, Michael, Hockett, Bryan, McDonough, Katelyn, Luthe, Ian, O'Grady, Patrick W., Swisher, Mark E., White, Frances, Yates, Bonnie, Yohe, Robert M. II, Yost, Chad, and Willerslev, Eske 2013 Geochronology, Archaeological Context, and DNA at the Paisley Caves. In Paleoamerican Odyssey, edited by Graf, Kelly E., Ketron, Caroline V., and Waters, Michael R., pp. 485510. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Katzenberg, M. Anne 1989 Stable Isotope Analysis of Archaeological Faunal Remains from Southern Ontario. Journal of Archaeological Science 16(3):319329.
Komar, Debra, and Buikstra, Jane E. 2003 Differential Diagnosis of a Prehistoric Biological Object from the Koster (Illinois) Site. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13(3):157164.
Koop, Ben F., Burbidge, Maryann, Byun, Ashley, Rink, U., and Crockford, Susan J. 2000 Ancient DNA Evidence of a Separate Origin for North American Indigenous Dogs. BAR International Series 889:271286.
Lapham, Heather A. 2010 A Baumer Phase Dog Burial from the Kincaid Site in Southern Illinois. Illinois Archaeology 22:437463.
Larson, Greger, Karlsson, Elinor K., Perri, Angela, Webster, Matthew T., Ho, Simon Y.W., Peters, Joris, Stahl, Peter W., Piper, Philip J., Lingaas, Frode, Fredholm, Merete, Comstock, Kenine E., Modiano, Jaime F., Schelling, Claude, Agoulnik, Alexander I., Leegwater, Peter A., Dobney, Keith, Vigne, Jean-Denis, Vilà, Carles, Andersson, Leif, and Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin 2012 Rethinking Dog Domestication by Integrating Genetics, Archeology, and Biogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(23):88788883.
Lawler, Dennis F., and Evans, R.H. 2016 Evaluation of Femoral Head and Neck New Bone from a Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus): When Is It Pathology? Journal of Veterinary Anatomy 9(1):3946.
Lawler, Dennis F., Widga, Chris, Rubin, David A., Reetz, Jennifer A., Evans, Richard H., Tangredi, Basil P., Thomas, Richard M., Martin, Terrance J., Hildebolt, Charles, Smith, Kirk, Leib, Daniel, Sackman, Jill E., Avery, James G., and Smith, Gail K. 2016 Differential Diagnosis of Vertebral Spinous Process Deviations in Archaeological and Modern Domestic Dogs. Journal of Archaeological Science 9:5463.
Lawler, Dennis F., Widga, Chris, and Smith, Gail 2017 Observations of the Acetabulum and Proximal Femur of the Dire Wolf. Journal of Veterinary Anatomy 10(1):7383.
Lawrence, Barbara 1967 Early Domestic Dogs. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde [Mammalian Biology] 32(1):4459.
Leonard, Jennifer A., Wayne, Robert K., Wheeler, Jane, Valadez, Raúl, Guillén, Sonia, and Vilà, Carles 2002 Ancient DNA Evidence for Old World Origin of New World Dogs. Science 298(5598):16131616.
Llamas, Bastien, Fehren-Schmitz, Lars, Valverde, Guido, Soubrier, Julien, Mallick, Swapan, Rohland, Nadin, Nordenfelt, Susanne, Valdiosera, Cristina, Richards, Stephen M., Rohrlach, Adam, Barreto Romero, Maria Inés, Espinoza, Isabel Flores, Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto, Jiménez, Lucía Watson, Makowski, Krzysztof, Leboreiro Reyna, Ilán Santiago, Lory, Josefina Mansilla, Ballivián Torrez, Julio Alejandro, Rivera, Mario A., Burger, Richard L., Ceruti, Maria Constanza, Reinhard, Johan, Wells, R. Spencer, Politis, Gustavo, Santoro, Calogero M., Standen, Vivien G., Smith, Colin, Reich, David, Ho, Simon Y. W., Cooper, Alan, and Haak, Wolfgang 2016 Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Provides High-Resolution Time Scale of the Peopling of the Americas. Science Advances, 2(4):e1501385. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501385, accessed on September 13, 2017.
Longin, Robert 1971 New Method of Collagen Extraction for Radiocarbon Dating. Nature 230(5291):241242.
Losey, Robert J., Osipov, Benjamin, Sivakumaran, Rajitha, Nomokonova, Tatiana, Kovychev, Evgenii V., and Diatchina, Natalia G. 2014 Estimating Body Mass in Dogs and Wolves Using Cranial and Mandibular Dimensions: Application to Siberian Canids. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 25(6):946959.
Losey, Robert J., McLachlin, K., Nomokonova, T., Latham, K., and Harrington, L. 2016 Body Mass Estimates in Dogs and North American Gray Wolves Using Limb Element Dimensions. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 27(2):180191.
Lyman, R. Lee 2013 Paleoindian Exploitation of Mammals in Eastern Washington State. American Antiquity 78:227247.
McMillan, R. Bruce 1970 Early Canid Burial from the Western Ozark Highland. Science, 167(3922):12461247.
Meltzer, David J. 2009 First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Miller, Malcolm E., Evans, Howard E., and Christensen, George C. 1979 Miller's Anatomy of the Dog. 2nd ed. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia
Monzón, J., Kays, R., and Dykhuizen, D. E. 2014 Assessment of Coyote–Wolf–Dog Admixture Using Ancestry-Informative Diagnostic SNPs. Molecular Ecology, 23(1):182197.
Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor, Potter, Ben A., Vinner, Lasse, Steinrücken, Matthias, Rasmussen, Simon, Terhorst, Jonathan, Kamm, John A., Albrechtsen, Anders, Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo, Sikora, Martin, Reuther, Joshua D., Irish, Joel D., Malhi, Ripan S., Orlando, Ludovic, Song, Yun S., Nielsen, Rasmus, Meltzer, David J., and Willerslev, Eske 2018 Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan Genome Reveals First Founding Population of Native Americans. Nature 553(7687): 203207.
Morey, Darcy F. 1992 Size, Shape and Development in the Evolution of the Domestic Dog. Journal of Archaeological Science 19(2):181204.
Morey, Darcy F. 2006 Burying Key Evidence: The Social Bond between Dogs and People. Journal of Archaeological Science 33(2):158175.
Morey, Darcy F. 2010 Dogs: Domestication and the Development of a Social Bond. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Morey, Darcy F., and Aaris-Sørensen, Kim 2002 Paleoeskimo Dogs of the Eastern Arctic. Arctic 55(1):4456.
Morey, Darcy F., and Jeger, Rujana 2015 Paleolithic Dogs: Why Sustained Domestication Then? Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 3:420428.
Morey, Darcy F., and Jeger, Rujana 2017 From Wolf to Dog: Late Pleistocene Ecological Dynamics, Altered Trophic Strategies, and Shifting Human Perceptions. Historical Biology 29(7):895903.
Morey, Darcy F., and Wiant, Michael D. 1992 Early Holocene Domestic Dog Burials from the North American Midwest. Current Anthropology 33(2):224229.
Mueller, Melissa, Goebel, Ted, Esdale, Julie, and Graf, Kelly 2015 Archaeology of the Terminal Pleistocene McDonald Creek Site, Central Alaska. Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, San Francisco, California.
Munyikwa, Kennedy, Rittenour, Tammy M., and Feathers, James K. 2017 Temporal Constraints for the Late Wisconsinan Deglaciation of Western Canada using Eolian Dune Luminescence Chronologies from Alberta. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 470:147165.
Mustonen, Anne-Mari, Lawler, Dennis F., Ahola, Leena, Koistinen, Tarja, Jalkanen, Liisa, Mononen, Jaakko, Lamidi, Marja-Leena, and Nieminen, Petteri 2017 Skeletal Pathology of Farm-Reared Obese Juvenile Blue Foxes (Vulpes lagopus). Journal of Veterinary Anatomy 10(2):5174.
Nelson, David M., Hu, Feng Sheng, Grimm, Eric C., Curry, B. Brandon, and Slate, Jennifer E. 2006 The Influence of Aridity and Fire on Holocene Prairie Communities in the Eastern Prairie Peninsula. Ecology 87(10): 25232536.
Neusius, Sarah 1996 Koster Site. In The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, edited by Fagan, Brian M., p. 377. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Ní Leathlobhair, Máire Ní, Perri, Angela R., Irving-Pease, Evan K., Witt, Kelsey E., Linderholm, Anna, Haile, James, Lebrasseur, Ophelie, Ameen, Carly, Blick, Jeffrey, Boyko, Adam R., Brace, Selina, Cortes, Yahaira Nunes, Crockford, Susan J., Devault, Alison, Dimopoulos, Evangelos A., Eldridge, Morley, Enk, Jacob, Gori, Kevin, Gopalakrishnan, Shyam, Grimes, Vaughan, Guiry, Eric, Hansen, Anders J., Hulme-Beaman, Ardern, Johnson, John, Kitchen, Andrew, Kasparov, Aleksei K., Kwon, Young-Mi, Nikolskiy, Pavel A., Lope, Carlos Peraza, Manin, Aurélie, Martin, Terrance, Meyer, Michael, Myers, Kelsey Noack, Omura, Mark, Rouillard, Jean-Marie, Pavlova, Elena Y., Sciulli, Paul, Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S., Strakova, Andrea, Ivanova, Varvara V., Widga, Christopher, Willerslev, Eske, Pitulko, Vladimir V., Barnes, Ian, Gilbert, M. Thomas P., Dobney, Keith M., Malhi, Ripan S., Murchison, Elizabeth P., Larson, Greger, and Frantz, Laurent A. F. 2018 The Evolutionary History of Dogs in the Americas. Science 361(6397):8185.
Olsen, Stanley J. 1985 Origins of the Domestic Dog: the Fossil Record. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Ovodov, Nikolai D., Crockford, Susan J., Kuzmin, Yaroslav V., Higham, Thomas FG, Hodgins, Gregory WL, and van der Plicht, Johannes 2011 A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum. PLoS ONE 6(7):e22821. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022821, accessed on September 13, 2017.
Perino, Gregory 1970 The Stilwell II Site, Pike County, Illinois. Central States Archaeological Journal 17(3):118122.
Perino, Gregory 1977 Points and Barbs: an Editorial. Central States Archaeological Journal 46(4):99100.
Perri, Angela 2014 Global Hunting Adaptations to Early Holocene Temperate Forests: Intentional Dog Burials as Evidence of Hunting Strategies. PhD dissertation, Department of Archaeology, Durham University.
Perri, Angela 2016a A Wolf in Dog's Clothing: Initial Dog Domestication and Pleistocene Wolf Variation. Journal of Archaeological Science 68:14.
Perri, Angela 2016b Hunting Dogs as Environmental Adaptations in Jōmon Japan. Antiquity 90(353):11661180.
Perri, Angela 2017 A Typology of Dog Deposition in Archaeological Contexts. In Economic Zooarchaeology: Studies in Hunting, Herding and Early Agriculture, edited by Rowley-Conwy, Peter, Serjeantson, Dale, and Halstead, Paul, pp. 8999. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
Perri, Angela R., Smith, Geoffrey M., and Bosch, Marjolein D. 2015 Comment on “How Do You Kill 86 Mammoths? Taphonomic Investigations of Mammoth Megasites” by Pat Shipman. Quaternary International 368(11):3846.
Pitulko, Vladimir V., and Kasparov, Aleksey K. 2017 Archaeological Dogs from the Early Holocene Zhokhov Site in the Eastern Siberian Arctic. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 13:491515.
Polischuk, S., Hobson, K., and Ramsay, M. 2001 Use of Stable-Carbon and -Nitrogen Isotopes to Assess Weaning and Fasting in Female Polar Bears and Their Cubs. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 499511.
Potter, Ben A., Reuther, Joshua D., Holliday, Vance T., Holmes, Charles E., Miller, D. Shane, and Schmuck, Nicholas 2017 Early Colonization of Beringia and Northern North America: Chronology, Routes, and Adaptive Strategies. Quaternary International 444(B): 3655.
Reimer, Paula J., Bard, Edouard, Bayliss, Alex, Beck, J. Warren, Blackwell, Paul G., Ramsey, Christopher Bronk, Buck, Caitlin E., Cheng, Hai, Edwards, R. Lawrence, Friedrich, Michael, Grootes, Pieter M., Guilderson, Thomas P., Haflidason, Haflidi, Hajdas, Irka, Hatté, Christine, Heaton, Timothy J., Hoffmann, Dirk L., Hogg, Alan G., Hughen, Konrad A., Kaiser, K. Felix, Kromer, Bernd, Manning, Sturt W., Niu, Mu, Reimer, Ron W., Richards, David A., Scott, E. Marian, Southon, John R., Staff, Richard A., Turney, Christian S. M., and van der Plicht, Johannes 2013 IntCal13 and MARINE13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50000 years calBP. Radiocarbon 55(4):18691887.
Sablin, Mikhail, and Khlopachev, Gennady 2002 The Earliest Ice Age Dogs: Evidence from Eliseevichi. Current Anthropology 43(5):795799.
Saunders, Jeffrey J., and Daeschler, Edward B. 1994 Descriptive Analyses and Taphonomical Observations of Culturally-Modified Mammoths Excavated at “The Gravel Pit,” Near Clovis, New Mexico in 1936. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 145:128.
Savolainen, Peter, Zhang, Ya-ping, Luo, Jing, Lundeberg, Joakim, and Leitner, Thomas 2002 Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs Science 298(5598):16101613.
Schober, Teresa 1998 Reinvestigation of Maize Introduction in West-Central Illinois: A Stable Isotope Analysis of Bone Collagen and Apatite Carbonate from Late Archaic to Mississippian Times. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana.
Schoeninger, Margaret J., and DeNiro, Michael J. 1984 Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopic Composition of Bone Collagen from Marine and Terrestrial Animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48(4):625639.
Schwartz, Marion 1998 A History of Dogs in the Early Americas. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Shannon, Laura M., Boyko, Ryan H., Castelhano, Marta, Corey, Elizabeth, Hayward, Jessica J., McLean, Corin, White, Michelle E., Said, Mounir Abi, Anita, Baddley A., Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe, Calero, Jorge, Galov, Ana, Hedimbi, Marius, Imam, Bulu, Khalap, Rajashree, Lally, Douglas, Masta, Andrew, Oliveira, Kyle C., Pérez, Lucía, Randall, Julia, Tam, Nguyen Minh, Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J., Valeriano, Carlos, Sutter, Nathan B., Todhunter, Rory J., Bustamante, Carlos D., and Boyko, Adam R. 2015 Genetic Structure in Village Dogs Reveals a Central Asian Domestication Origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(44):1363913644.
Shipman, Pat 2015 How Do You Kill 86 Mammoths? Taphonomic Investigations of Mammoth Megasites. Quaternary International 359:3846.
Skoglund, Pontus, and Reich, David 2016 A Genomic View of the Peopling of the Americas. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 41:2735.
Skoglund, Pontus, Ersmark, Erik, Palkopoulou, Eleftheria, and Dalén, Love 2015 Ancient Wolf Genome Reveals an Early Divergence of Domestic Dog Ancestors and Admixture into High-Latitude Breeds. Current Biology 25(11):15151519.
Smallwood, Ashley M., and Jennings, Thomas (editors) 2014 Clovis: on the Edge of a New Understanding. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Stanford, Dennis J. 1978 The Jones-Miller Site: An Example of Hell Gap Bison Procurement Strategy. Plains Anthropologist 23(82):9097.
Stanford, Dennis J., and Stenger, Alison (editors) 2014 Pre-Clovis in the Americas: International Science Conference Proceedings Held at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Stuiver, M., Reimer, Paula J., and Reimer, R. W. 2017 CALIB 7.1. Electronic document, http://calib.org, accessed July 12, 2017.
Styles, Bonnie W., and McMillan, R. Bruce 2009 Archaic Faunal Exploitation in the Prairie Peninsula and Surrounding Regions of the Midcontinent. In Archaic Societies: Diversity and Complexity Across the Midcontinent, edited by Emerson, Thomas E., McElrath, Dale L., and Fortier, Andrew C., pp. 3980. SUNY Press, Albany, New York.
Thalmann, Olaf, Shapiro, Beth, Cui, Pin, Schuenemann, Verena J., Sawyer, Susanna K., Greenfield, D. L., Germonpré, Mietje B., Sablin, Mikhail V., López-Giráldez, F., Domingo-Roura, X., Napierala, Hannes, Uerpmann, H-P., Loponte, D. M., Acosta, A. A., Giemsch, L., Schmitz, Ralf W., Worthington, Brian, Buikstra, Jane E., Druzhkova, A., Graphodatsky, A. S., Ovodov, Nikolai D., Wahlberg, N., Freedman, Adam H., Schweizer, R. M., Koepfli, K. P., Leonard, Jennifer A., Meyer, Matthias, Krause, Johannes, Pääbo, Svante, Green, R. E., and Wayne, Robert K. 2013 Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs. Science 342(6160):871874.
Tieszen, Larry L. 1991 Natural Variations in the Carbon Isotope Values of Plants: Implications for Archaeology, Ecology, and Paleoecology. Journal of Archaeological Science 18(3):227248.
Tieszen, Larry L., and Fagre, Tim 1993 Effect of Diet Quality and Composition on the Isotopic Composition of Respiratory CO2, Bone Collagen, Bioapatite, and Soft Tissues. In Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level, edited by Lambert, Joseph B. and Grupe, Gisela, pp. 121155. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Tito, Raul Y., Belknap, Samuel L., Sobolik, Kristin D., Ingraham, Robert C., Cleeland, Lauren M., and Lewis, Cecil M. 2011 Brief Communication: DNA from Early Holocene American Dog. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145(4):653657.
Tuross, Noreen, Fogel, Marilyn, and Hare, P. E. 1988 Variability in the Preservation of the Isotopic Composition of Collagen from Fossil Bone. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52(4):929935.
Valadez, Raul, Rodríguez, Bernardo, Manzanilla, Linda, and Tejeda, Samuel 2006 Dog-Wolf Hybrid Biotype Reconstruction from the Archaeological City of Teotihuacan in Prehispanic Central Mexico. In Dogs and People in Social, Working, Economic or Symbolic Interaction, edited by Snyder, Lynn M. and Moore, Elizabeth A., pp. 121131. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
van Asch, Barbara, Zhang, Ai-bing, Oskarsson, Mattias C. R., Klütsch, Cornelya F. C., Amorim, António, and Savolainen, Peter 2013 Pre-Columbian Origins of Native American Dog Breeds, with Only Limited Replacement by European Dogs, Confirmed by mtDNA Analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280(1766):20131142. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1142, accessed August 28, 2017.
Vilà, Carles, Savolainen, Peter, Maldonado, Jesús E., Amorim, Isabel R., Rice, John E., Honeycutt, Rodney L., Crandall, Keith A., Lundeberg, Joakim, and Wayne, Robert K. 1997 Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domestic Dog. Science 276(5319):16871689.
Von den Driesch, Angela 1976 A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites: as Developed by the Institut für Palaeoanatomie, Domestikationsforschung und Geschichte der Tiermedizin of the University of Munich (Vol. 1). Peabody Museum Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
vonHoldt, Bridgett, Pollinger, John P., Lohmueller, Kirk E., Han, Eunjung, Parker, Heidi G., Quignon, Pascale, Degenhardt, Jeremiah D., Boyko, Adam R., Earl, Dent A., Auton, Adam, Reynolds, Andy, Bryc, Kasia, Brisbin, Abra, Knowles, James C., Mosher, Dana S., Spady, Tyrone C., Elkahloun, Abdel, Geffen, Eli, Pilot, Malgorzata, Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz, Greco, Claudia, Randi, Ettore, Bannasch, Danika, Wilton, Alan, Shearman, Jeremy, Musiani, Marco, Cargill, Michelle, Jones, Paul G., Qian, Zuwei, Huang, Wei, Ding, Zhao-Li, Zhang, Ya-ping, Bustamante, Carlos D., Ostrander, Elaine A., Novembre, John, and Wayne, Robert K. 2010 Genome-wide SNP and Haplotype Analyses Reveal a Rich History Underlying Dog Domestication. Nature 464(7290):898.
Walker, Danny N., and Frison, George C. 1982 Studies on Amerindian Dogs, 3: Prehistoric Wolf/Dog Hybrids from the Northwestern Plains. Journal of Archaeological Science 9(2):125172.
Walker, Renee B., Morey, Darcy F., and Relethford, John. H. 2005 Early and Mid-Holocene Dogs in Southeastern North America: Examples from Dust Cave. Southeast Archaeology 24:8392
Wang, Guo-Dong, Zhai, Weiwei, Yang, He-Chuan, Wang, Lu, Zhong, Li, Liu, Yan-Hu, Fan, Ruo-Xi, Yin, Ting-Ting, Zhu, Chun-Ling, Poyarkov, Andrei D, Irwin, David M, Hytönen, Marjo K., Lohi, Hannes, Wu, Chung-I, Savolainen, Peter, and Zhang, Ya-Ping 2016 Out of Southern East Asia: The Natural History of Domestic Dogs across the World. Cell Research 26(1):21.
Warren, Diane M. 2000 Paleopathology of Archaic Dogs from the North American Southeast. In Dogs Through Time: An Archaeological Perspective, edited by Crockford, Susan J., pp. 93104. BAR International Series 889. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Wayne, Robert K., and Jenks, Susan M. 1991 Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Implying Extensive Hybridization of the Endangered Red Wolf (Canis rufus). Nature 351(6327):565568.
Witt, Kelsey E., Judd, Kathleen, Kitchen, Andrew, Grier, Colin, Kohler, Timothy A., Ortman, Scott G., Kemp, Brian M., and Malhi, Ripan S. 2015 DNA Analysis of Ancient Dogs of the Americas: Identifying Possible Founding Haplotypes and Reconstructing Population Histories. Journal of Human Evolution 79:105118.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0002-7316
  • EISSN: 2325-5064
  • URL: /core/journals/american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Perri et al. supplementary material
Supplemental Text and Tables S1-S4

 Unknown (157 KB)
157 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed