Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Paleoindian Colonization of the Americas: Implications from an Examination of Physiography, Demography, and Artifact Distribution

  • David G. Anderson (a1) and J. Christopher Gillam (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

GIS-based, least-cost analyses employing continental scale elevation data, coupled with information on the late glacial location of ice sheets and pluvial lakes, suggest possible movement corridors used by initial human populations in colonizing the New World. These routes, demographic evidence, and the location of Paleoindian archaeological assemblages, support the possibility of a rapid spread and diversification of founding populations. Initial dispersal, these analyses suggest, would have been most likely in coastal and riverine settings, and on plains. The analyses suggest areas where evidence for early human settlement may be found in North and South America. In some cases, these areas have received little prior archaeological survey. The method can be used to explore patterns of human migration and interaction at a variety of geographic scales.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D. W. Anthony 1990 Migration in Archaeology: The Baby and the Bathwater. American Anthropologist 92: 895914.

G. E. Belovsky 1988 An Optimal Foraging-Based Model of Hunter-Gatherer Population Dynamics. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology! 329112.

J. B. Birdsell 1957 Some Population Problems Involving Pleistocene Man. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium of Quantitative Biology 22: 4769.

C. E. Borden 1979 Peopling and Early Cultures of the Pacific Northwest. Science 203: 963971.

L. W. Borrero 1996 The Pleistocene Holocene Transition in Southern South America. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, edited by L. G. Strauss , B. V. Eriksen , J. M. Erlandson , and D. Yesner , pp. 339354. Plenum Press, New York.

K. W. Butzer 1988 A “Marginality” Model to Explain Major Spatial and Temporal Gaps in the Old and New World Pleistocene Settlement Records. Geoarchaeology 3: 193203.

C. J. Clausen , A. D. Cohen , C. Emeliani , J. A. Holman , and J. J. Stipp 1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: A Unique Underwater Site. Science 203: 60914.

P. A. Colinvaux , P. E. De Oliveira , J. E. Moreno , M. C. Miller , and M. B. Bush 1996 A Long Pollen Record from Lowland Amazonia: Forest and Cooling in Glacial Times. Science 274: 8588

D. F. Dincauze 1993a Fluted Points in the Eastern Forests. In From Kostenki to Clovis: Upper Paleolithic Paleo-Indian Adaptations, edited by O. Soffer and N.D. Praslov pp. 27992. Plenum Press, New York.

A. S. Dyke , and V. K. Prest 1987b Late Wisconsinan and Holocene Retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Map 1702A. Geological Survey of Canada, Toronto.

J. C Eidenshink , and J. L. Faundeen 1994 The 1 -Km AVHRR Global Land Data Set: First Stages in Implementation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 15: 34433462.

W. Engelbrecht , and C. Seyfort 1994 Paleoindian Watercraft: Evidence and Implications. North American Archaeologist 15: 22134.

J. M. Erlandson , and M. L. Moss 1996 The Pleistocene-Holocene Transition Along the Pacific Coast of North America. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, edited by L. G. Strauss , B. V. Eriksen, J. M. Erlandson, and D. Yesner, pp. 277301. Plenum Press, New York.

S. Fiedel 1999 Older than We Thought: Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians. American Antiquity 64: 95116.

K. Fladmark 1979 Routes: Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America. American Antiquity 44: 5569.

G. Frison , and R. Bonnichsen 1996 The Pleistocene Holocene Transition on the Plains and Rocky Mountains of North America. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene- Holocene Transition, edited by L. G. Strauss , B. V. Eriksen , J. M. Erlandson , and D. Yesner , pp. 303318. Plenum Press, New York.

J. H. Greenberg , C. G. Turner II, and S. L. Zegura 1986 The Settlement of the Americas: A Comparison of the Linguistic, Dental, and Genetic Evidence. Current Anthropology 27: 477197.

C. V. Haynes 1964 Fluted Projectile Points: Their Age and Dispersion. Science 145(3639): 14081413.

C. V. Haynes 1969 The Earliest Americans. Science 166: 709715.

J. E Hoffecker , W. R. Powers , and T. Goebel 1993 The Colonization of Beringia and the Peopling of the New World. Science 259: 4653.

H. Josenhans , D. Fedje , R. Pienitz , and J. Southon 1997 Early Humans and Rapidly Changing Holocene Sea Levels in the Queen Charlotte Islands-Hecate Strait, British Columbia, Canada. Science 277: 7174.

D. K. Keefer , S. D. deFrance , M. E. Mosely , J. B. Richardson , D. R. Satterlee , and A. Day-Lewis 1998 Early Maritime Economy and El Nino Events at QuebradaTacahuay, Peru. Science 281: 18331835.

H. Kitigawa , and J. van der Plicht 1998 Atmospheric Radiocarbon Calibration to 45,000 Yr B .P.: Late Glacial Fluctuations and Cosmogenic Isotope Production. Science 279: 11871190.

J. G. Lorenz , and D. G. Smith 1996 Distribution of Four Founding mtDNA Haplogroups among Native North Americans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 101: 307323.

C. Mandryk 1996a Late Wisconsinan Deglaciation of Alberta: Processes and Paleogeography. Quaternary International 32: 7985.

C. Mandryk 1996b Late-Glacial Vegetation and Environment on the Eastern Slope Foothills of the Rocky Mountains, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology 16: 3757.

P. S. Martin 1973 The Discovery of America. Science 179: 96974.

R. J. Mason , R. S. Thompson , and A. Long 1962 The Paleo-Indian Tradition in Eastern North America. Current Anthropology 3: 22783.

D. J. Meltzer 1988 Late Pleistocene Human Adaptations in Eastern North America. Journal of World Prehistory 2: 153.

D. J. Meltzer 1995 Clocking the First Americans. Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 2115.

J. E. Morrow , and T. A. Morrow 1999 Geographic Variation in Fluted Projectile Points; A Hemispheric Perspective. American Antiquity 64: 215230.

E. C. Pielou 1991 After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

D. H. Sandweiss , H. Mcinnis , R. L. Burger , A. Cano , B. Ojeda , R. Paredes , M. Del Carmen Sandweiss , and M. R. Glascock 1998 Quebrada Jaguay: Early South American Maritime Adaptations. Science 281(5384): 183032.

C. O. Sauer 1944 A Geographical Sketch of Early Man in America. Geographical Review 34: 543554.

W. F Smith , and D. T. Sandwell 1997 Global Sea Floor Topography from Satellite Altimetry and Ship Depth Soundings. Science 277: 19561962.

J. Steele , J. Adams , and T. Sluckin 1998 Modeling Paleoindian Dispersals. World Archaeology 30: 286305.

M. Stuiver , Reimer P. J. , E. Bard , J. W Beck , G. S. Burr , K. A. Hughen , B. Kromer , G. Mccormac , J. Van Der Plicht , and M. Spurk 1998 INTCAL98RadiocarbonAgeCalibration,24,000-0cal BP. Radiocarbon 40: 10411083.

K. B. Tankersley 1997 Variation in the Early Paleoindian Economies of Eastern North America. American Antiquity 63: 720.

R. E. Taylor , C. V Haynes Jr., D. L. Kirner , and J. R. Southon 1999 Radiocarbon Analyses of Modern Organics at Monte Verde, Chile: No Evidence for a Local Reservoir Effect. American Antiquity 64: 45560.

M. Wendorf 1989 Diabetes, the Ice Free Corridor, and the Paleoindian Settlement of North America. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 79: 503520.

E. N. Wilmsen 1973 Interaction, Spacing Behavior, and the Organization of Hunting Bands. Journal of Anthropological Research 29: 131.

H. M. Wobst 1976 Locational Relationships in Paleolithic Society. Journal of Human Evolution 5: 4958.

D. Yesner 1996 Human Adaptation at the Pleistocene-Boundary (circa 13,000 to 8,000 B.P.) in Eastern Beringia. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene- Holocene Transition, edited by L. G. Strauss , B. V. Eriksen , J. M. Erlandson , and D. Yesner , pp. 255276. Plenum Press, New York.

D. A. Young , and R. L. Bettinger 1995 Simulating the Global Human Expansion in the Late Pleistocene. Journal of Archaeological Science 22: 8992.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0002-7316
  • EISSN: 2325-5064
  • URL: /core/journals/american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 29 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.