Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A Prehistoric Maritime Culture of the Okhotsk Sea

  • Harumi Befu (a1) and Chester S. Chard (a2)
Abstract

This paper analyzes the culture history of the little-known Okhotsk culture and makes suggestions about its relationships with neighboring cultures. The Okhotsk culture is important in understanding the cultural history of the northern Pacific because it shows no affinities with the Ainu and Japanese cultures and has an economy remarkably like that of the more distant Aleut and Eskimo. The Okhotsk culture appears to have historical relationships with cultures in Siberia and Manchuria. The maritime hunting economy of this culture was probably derived from the Eskimo via Bering Sea and the Siberian coast. Other cultural elements, the most noticeable being ceramics, were of mainland origin and served as an influential force in forming Okhotsk culture. Once established on Sakhalin, this culture moved southward along the northeastern coast of Hokkaido, where a secondary and later cultural center developed. Migrations up the Kuriles occurred shortly thereafter. This culture probably flourished for at least a thousand years, beginning in Sakhalin several centuries before Christ and persisting until sometime after A.D. 1000 and possibly until the 17th century in the Kuriles. Several unsolved problems concerning the Okhotsk culture are presented.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Baba, Osamu 1934 Kita Chishima Shumushu-to ni okeru kokogakuteki chosa hokoku (Report on the Archaeological Investigation of Shumushu Island in the northern Kuriles). Jinruigaku Zasshi, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 3963. Tokyo.
Baba, Osamu 1937 Chishima gunto shutsudo no shuryo-gu oyobi gyogu (Hunting and Fishing Implements from the Kurile Islands). Minzokugaku Kenkyu, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 295337. Tokyo.
Baba, Osamu 1939 Kokogaku-jo yori mitaru kita Chishima (The Northern Kuriles from the Viewpoint of Archaeology). Jinruigaku Senshigaku Koza, Vol. 10. Tokyo.
Baba, Osamu 1940 Karafuto no kokogaku-teki gaikan (Archaeological Outline of Southern Sakhalin). Jinruigaku Senshigaku Koza, Vol. 17. Tokyo.
Baba, Osamu 1943 Chishima ni okeru Aleut-zoku (The Aleuts in the Kuriles). Minzokugaku Kenkyu, Vol. 9, pp. 773–94. Tokyo.
Baba, Osamu and Oka, Masao 1938 Kita Chishima Shumushuto oyobi Karafuto Taraika chiho ni okeru kokogaku-teki chosa yoho (Archaeological Investigation of Shumushu, Kurile Islands, and Taraika, Sakhalin). Minzokugaku Kenkyu, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 117–80. Tokyo.
Chard, Chester S. 1961 Kamchadal Culture and Its Relationships in the Old and New Worlds. Archives of Archaeology, No. 15. Madison.
Chard, Chester S. 1962 Time Depth and Culture Process in Maritime Northeast Asia. Asian Perspectives, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 213–16. Hong Kong.
Chard, Chester S. and Merbs, Barbara P. 1964 The Alaskan Situla Ware: An East Asian Transplant to the New World? Proceedings, 35th International Congress of Americanists, Mexico, 1962 (in press).
Chubarova, R. V. 1957 K Istorii Drevneishego Naseleniia Sakhalina (Contribution to the History of the Ancient Population of Sakhalin). Sovetskaia Etnografiia, 1957, No. 4, pp. 60-75. Moscow.
Chubarova, R. V. 1958 Raboty Sakhalinskogo Otriada Dal'nevostochnoi Ekspeditsii v 1955 g. (Field Work of the Sakhalin Section of the Far Eastern Expedition in 1955). Krartkie Soobshcheniia Instituta Istorii Material'noi Kul'tury, Vyp. 71, pp. 119-28. Moscow.
Hayashi, Kinoo 1953 Nihon hokuchi no kobunka to shuzoku (Ancient Cultures and Peoples of Northern Japan). In Roshiyajin Nihon enho-ki, edited by Hayashi, Kingo, pp. 159349. Naigaisha, Tokyo.
Heizer, Robert F. 1956 Archaeology of the Uyak Site, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Anthropological Records oj the University of California, Vol. 17, No. 1. Berkeley.
Ino, Tentaro 1937 Karafuto Sakaehama-cho Kankiji ura iseki no sekifu (Stone Axes from the Site at the Kankiji Temple in Sakaehama, Sakhalin). Senshi Kokogaku, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 8590. Tokyo.
Ito, Nobuo 1937 Karafuto shutsudo no jomon doki (Cord-marked Pottery from Sakhalin). Bunka, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 341–50. Sendai.
Ito, Nobuo 1938 Kitami shutsudo no warabite no katana ni tsuite (Ancient Swords Excavated at Kitami, Hokkaido). Kokogaku Zasshi, Vol. 28, No. 7, pp. 416–68. Tokyo.
Ito, Shoichi 1948 Moyoro Kaizuka-jin to Ainu tono konketsu ni tsuite (On the Admixture of the Moyoro Man and the Ainu). Shinrinsho, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 1-6.
Jochelson, Waldemar 1925 Archaeological Investigations in the Aleutian Islands. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 367. Washington.
Kitagamae, Yasuo and Sumi, Hiroshi 1953 Hokkaido Nemuro Hanto Tosamporo Ohotsukushiki iseki chosa hokok (A Report on the Okhotsk Type at Tosamporo in Nemuro, Hokkaido). Jodai Bunka, Vol. 24, pp. 3448. Tokyo.
Kiyono, Kenji 1925 Nihon genjin no kenkyu (Study of the Proto-Japanese). Oka Shoin, Tokyo.
Kiyono, Kenji 1927-1928 Hokkaido tohoku-bu ni okeru jinruigakuteki tankyu kiko (Journal of an Anthropological Expedition in Northeastern Hokkaido). Minzoku, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 1077-84; Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 107-15, No. 2, pp. 313-19, No. 3, pp. 507-13. Tokyo.
Kiyono, Kenji 1944 Taiheiyo ni okeru minzoku bunka no koryu (Migration and Diffusion in the Pacific). Sogensha, Tokyo.
Kodama, Sakuzaemon 1947 Moyoro kaizuka no minzoku ni tsuite (On the Population of the Moyoro Shell Mound). Shinrinsho, Vol. 2, No. 3, p. 107.
Kodama, Sakuzaemon 1948 Moyoro kaizuka (Moyoro Shell Mound). Hokkaido Genshi Bunka Kenkyukai Shuppan-bu, Sapporo.
Kodama, Sakuzaemon 1950 Moyoro kaizukajin no maiso ni tsuite (Concerning the Burial of the People of Moyoro Kitchen Midden). Kokogaku Zasshi, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 232-4. Tokyo.
Kodama, Sakuzaemon and Oba, Toshio 1958 Raburetto (Labret) ni tsuite (Labret). Hoppo Bunka Kenkyu Hokoku, Vol. 13, pp. 271–93. Sapporo.
Komai, Kazuchika 1951 Hokkaido Abashiri-shi Moyoro Kaizuka (The Moyoro Shell Mound, Abashiri City, Hokkaido). Archaeologia Japonica, Vol. 1 (1948), pp. 35–6. Tokyo.
Kondo, Tadashi 1955 Moyoro kaizuka no kairui (Shells of the Moyoro Shell Mound). Senshi Jidai, Vol. 2, pp. 79. Sapporo.
Kondo, Tadashi 1956 Moyoro kaizuka no gyorui to yoriito-mon doki narabini mumon doki (Fish of the Moyoro Shell Mound, Twined Cord Design Pottery and Underrated Pottery). Senshi Jidai, Vol. 4, pp. 3640. Sapporo.
Kozyreva, R. V. 1960 Drevneishee Proshloe Sakhalina (The Ancient Past of Sakhalin). Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk.
Laguna, Frederica de 1946 The Importance of the Eskimo in Northeastern Archaeology. In “Man in Northeastern North America,” edited by Johnson, Frederick, Papers of the Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Vol. 3, pp. 106–42. Andover.
Laguna, Frederica de 1956 Chugach Prehistory: The Archaeology of Prince William Sound, Alaska. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Nakamura, Itsuki 1954 Ohotsuku bunka no kenkyu (A Study of the Okhotsk Culture). B. A. dissertation, Meiji University.
Naora, Nobuo 1938 Hoppo bunka-ken no jukotsu (On the Animal Bones in the Arctic Cultural Circle). Minzokugaku Kenkyu, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 599622. Tokyo.
Naora, Nobuo 1957 Ohotsuku-kai engan iseki hakkutsu no kaken kagakukotsu (On the Mandibles of Domestic Dog Discovered on the Coast of the Okhotsk Sea). Kodai, Nos. 25-26, pp. 1-16. Tokyo.
Natori, Takemitsu 1936 Kita Nihon ni okeru dobutsu isho ibutsu to sono bumpu (Artifacts with Animal Designs and Their Distribution in Northern Japan). Hokudai Hakubutsukan Hokoko. Sapporo.
Natori, Takemitsu 1939 Hokkaido no doki (Pottery of Hokkaido). Jinruigaku Senshigaku Koza, Vol. 10. Tokyo.
Natori, Takemitsu 1948 Moyoro iseki to kokogaku (The Moyoro Site and Archaeology). Kodansha, Sapporo.
Oba, Iwao 1947 Warabite katana ni tsuite (On the Fern-handled Sword). Kokogaku Zasshi, Vol. 34, No. 10, pp. 556–75. Tokyo.
Oba, Toshio 1950 Moyoro kaizuka shutsudo no kokkakki zakko (Concerning Bone and Horn Objects Found in the Moyoro Kitchen Midden). Kokogaku Zasshi, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 235–9. Tokyo.
Oba, Toshio 1955a Moyoro kaizuka shutsudo no kokkakki (On the Bone Implements from the Moyoro Shell Mound in Abashiri). Hoppo Bunka Kenkyu Hokoku, Vol. 10, pp. 173249. Sapporo.
Oba, Toshio 1955b Ohotsuku no futatsu no bunka-ken (The Discovery of Two Cultural Spheres in the Okhotsk Bay Region). Sekki Jidai, Vol. 2, pp. 4654.
Oba, Toshio 1956 Moyoro kaizuka shutsudo no Ohotsuku-shiki doki (On Okhotsk Type Pottery from the Moyoro Shell Mound in Abashiri). Hoppo Bunka Kenkyu Hokoku, Vol. 11, pp. 187256. Sapporo.
Oba, Toshio 1957 Moyoro kaizuka shutsudo no sekki (On the Stone Implements from the Moyoro Shell Mound in Abashiri). Hoppo Bunka Kenkyu Hokoku, Vol. 12, pp. 167221. Sapporo.
Oba, Toshio and Ishikawa, Toru 1961 Hamamasu iseki (The Hamamasu Site). Hamamasu Village Office, Board of Education and Committee on Cultural Treasures, Hamamasu.
Okawa, Kiyoshi 1954 Hoppo bunka-ken shutsudo no fujinzo (Consideration of the Female Figure from Rebun Island, Hokkaido). Kodai, Nos. 1-2, pp. 3841. Tokyo.
Okladnikov, A. P. 1959 Dalekoe Proshloe Primor'ia (The Distant Past of the Maritime Territory). Vladivostok.
Okladnikov, A. P. 1963 Drevnee Poselenie na Poluostrove Peschanom u Vladivostoka (An Ancient Settlement on Peschanyi Peninsula near Vladivostok). Materialy i hsledovaniia po Arkheologii SSSR, No. 112. Moscow and Leningrad.
Sato, Tatsuo 1952 Sento Rorensu-to shutsudo no mori ni tsuite (Notes on the Harpoons Found on St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea). Kodaigaku, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 338–48. Osaka.
Suzuki, Hisashi 1959 Nihon ni okeru keishitsu jinruigaku no genjo (Present Status of Physical Anthropology in Japan). In “Nihon no minzoku bunka: Nihon no jinruigaku-teki kenkyu” (Peoples and Cultures of Japan: Anthropological Study of Japan), edited by Iwamura, Shinobu. Kodansha, Tokyo.
T. O., 1937 Hogei no zu chokoku no kokki (Bone Implements with Whaling Design). Mineruva, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 66. Tokyo.
Tsuboi, Siiogoro 1901 Hokkaido Rishiri kaizuka hakken no kaijuga-sei no ningyo (Figurine Made of Sea Mammal Ivory Found at Rishiri Shell Mound, Hokkaido). Tokyo Hnruigakukai Zasshi, Vol. 16, No. 178, pp. 125–8. Tokyo.
Yawata, Ichiro 1943 Kossei hariire (Bone Needle Case). Kodai Bunka, Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 251–9. Tokyo.
Yonemura, Kiyoe 1935 Hokkaido Abashiri-cho Moyoro kaizuka-chu no jinkotsu maiso ni tsuite (Notes on Burials Found in the Shell Mound of Moyoro, Hokkaido). Jinruigaku Zasshi, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 4756. Tokyo.
Yonemura, Kiyoe 1950 Moyoro kaizuka shiryo shu (The Moyoro Shell Mound). Abashiri Municipal Museum, Abashiri.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0002-7316
  • EISSN: 2325-5064
  • URL: /core/journals/american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed